If you are looking for BANC-110 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Research Methods, you have come to the right place. BANC-110 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BSCANH courses of IGNOU.
BANC-110 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BANC-110/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: BANC-110
Assignment Name: Research Methods
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Total Marks: 100
There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in all the Sections.
Assignment – I
Answer the following in about 500 words each. 20X2= 40
a. Discuss scientific method and its salient features.
Ans) The scientific method includes a variety of explanations, or the different approaches taken to reach an explanation or judgement about any phenomenon. The deductive approach is the most admired and respected of all scientific approaches. It only uses logical analysis and is most useful when applied to mathematics and related fields. It is typically connected to some level of contextual reference and observation in the social sciences. But at least one universal truth must be a premise of the deductive explanation.
For instance, the universal presumption that everything on earth will fall to the ground supports the deductive reasoning of the law of gravitational pull; if objects were flying away or even if only one object did so, one would need to find a sufficient reason for it to do so and a reason that is still explainable within the law of gravitation. If no justification can be found, the fundamental assumption must be rejected and ceases to be universal. The necessity of abandoning some fundamental presumptions that were assumed to be true is always a possibility.
The law that was established on the basis of that idea must also be repealed. For instance, racism was a deductive theory based on the idea that there are superior and inferior human beings. However, Darwin's theory demonstrated that Homo Sapiens is one species with all members being identical, so the Race theory was rejected as a scientific theory even though it may still exist in some forms in society. Aristotle is credited with the invention of deductive reasoning; he saw it as a definitional component of scientific justification. Science's ultimate goal, the formulation of general laws, depends on the deductive method. The creation of laws, such as Newton's Laws of Motion, allows for the explanation of numerous, even seemingly unrelated phenomena with a single generalisation.
Organization and classification of phenomena in a way that improves our understanding of what is happening is the ultimate goal of the scientific method. Newton's laws can therefore explain a large number of events, and more importantly, there is an explanation for those that cannot be explained. Theoretical connections between two or more phenomena are made definitively by theories developed using scientific methods, such as the Theory of Evolution, which describes the descent of species with modification. The theory basically states that species undergo very slight modifications in their offspring, or that a progeny is never exactly like its parent, and that these tiny changes add up over a very long time—on the order of thousands of years—to produce a modified form of the species. Any theory must take into account the fact that it can never be directly proven. A theory is unobservable or invisible because of its broad scope. Nobody can see evolution, for instance. However, examples of evolution in action as well as how broadly it applies can serve as evidence for its reality.
b. Is anthropology a science? Discuss.
Ans) There has been much discussion about this issue because some academics believe that since anthropology studies human behaviour, it cannot be regarded as a science. Human behaviour cannot be understood within a constrictive framework because they are conscious, wilful beings. Predictability and generalisation are two traits of a scientific law. Although some hypothetical structural laws have been proposed for human societies, it is always possible for people to alter their behaviour or for institutions that are already in place to change in response to historical developments.
The laws of society therefore apply to sentient, living things with free will, whereas the laws of mechanics only apply to immobile bodies. Despite the fact that all social interactions must abide by a set of rules and that societies have their own norms, there is always a chance that an individual will disagree. Some academics and viewpoints, such as Levi-Strauss', contend that human behaviour has regularities at a deeper level than what is immediately apparent, and that because of this, ethnographic differences can conceal regularities that the analyst can uncover. This perspective supports the positivist theory of science, which holds that seemingly incongruous events may actually be confirming an underlying idea that defies common sense and laypeople. It also supports the idea that science is totally impartial and transcends all cultural and personal prejudice.
However, in the post-colonial era, the field of science was criticised on the basis of these very premises, specifically that science as it developed in the West was not as purely objective as it was claimed to be but was instead both Eurocentric and Androcentric; that is, the white male was taken as the standard for rational and logical thinking, and non-whites, women, and even people from the fringes of the European countries were seen at various levels of primitiveness, ignorance, and intellectualism. Feminist academics made a significant contribution in this direction. Sandra Harding notes that androcentrism can be found in even fields as diverse as physics and logic, mathematics, abstract thought, standards of objectivity, and good methodology due to the presumption that these traits or abilities can only be possessed by specific types of people, namely white and male individuals.
Even the western scientific community is beginning to accept the critique of scientific objectivity and the fallacies of western science, such as racism and environmental destruction. The National Academy of Sciences of the United States now promotes that the definition of scientific method should be expanded to include the arbitrary judgments that scientists make when determining the validity of the data and when conducting analysis, according to Harding (1993:6). This expansion should go beyond the conventional and well-known parameters of random selection, double blind trials, and properly implemented controls.
Political and economic factors are very important when making decisions about which problems to prioritise or choose for study, as well as when to stop a particular line of research. For instance, US president Ronald Reagan refused to continue funding research to help HIV and AIDS patients, and US president George W. Bush Jr. stopped funding stem cell research. The process by which information is shared or made publicly available is also referred to as a method.
Assignment – II
Answer the following in about 250 words each. (Write Short Notes) 10X2=20
a. Research during Colonial and Post-Colonial Periods.
Ans) Evolutionism and diffusionism, two important schools of thought, developed in the early years of this era. Both of these were built on the gathering of secondary information from travelogues, missionary reports, and anything else that could be used to build elaborate theories about the diversity of humankind. The scholars used the comparative method, which is used in natural sciences, to create typologies, classify, and work toward one overarching generalising theory that would explain everything because they were convinced, they were creating a science. Research involved comparing vast amounts of secondary data in order to categorise and try to explain.
The diffusionists were more inclined toward constrained creativity and greater contact, whereas evolutionists used the parallel emergence of ideas based on the premise of a psychic unity of humankind to explain similarities. Diffusionism was very well-liked in India, where it had an impact on a number of academics including Irawati Karve and B.S. Guha. Guha attempted to explain physical characteristics through diffusion, such as in his work on the "Negrito" problem in India, whereas Karve used the comparative method to create a regional typology of kinship in India. Field research was pioneered by Lewis Henry Morgan in the United States and A.C. Haddon in England. In order to learn about the kinship terminologies of the Native Americans near his home, Morgan started to study them. He later became known as the father of kinship studies and, by presenting his theory of ethnical periods, established his reputation as a renowned evolutionist.
b. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.
Qualitative research is used to gain an understanding of human behaviour, intentions, attitudes, experience, etc., based on the observation and the interpretation of the people. It is an unstructured and exploratory technique that deals with the highly complex phenomena which are not possible. This kind of research is usually done to understand the topic in-depth. It is carried out by taking the interview with the open-ended questions, observations which are described in words, and so on.
Qualitative data collection methods
Interviews: Asking open-ended questions verbally to respondents.
Focus groups: Discussion among a group of people about a topic to gather opinions that can be used for further research.
Ethnography: Participating in a community or organization for an extended period of time to closely observe culture and behaviour.
Literature review: Survey of published works by other authors.
Quantitative research method relies on the methods of natural sciences, that develops hard facts and numerical data. it establishes the cause and effect relationship between two variables using different statistical, computational, and statistical methods. As the results are accurately and precisely measured, this research method is also termed as “Empirical Research”. This type of research is generally used to establish the generalised facts about the particular topic. This type of research is usually done by using surveys, experiments, and so on.
Quantitative data collection methods
Surveys: List of closed or multiple choice questions that is distributed to a sample (online, in person, or over the phone).
Experiments: Situation in which variables are controlled and manipulated to establish cause-and-effect relationships.
Observations: Observing subjects in a natural environment where variables can’t be controlled.
Answer the following questions in about 75 words each. 2X5=10
a. Statement of a Problem
Ans) The framework for the current research problem is provided by a problem statement. It makes an attempt to respond to the query: main goal of a statement of the problem is to express a broad concern clearly and concisely. The issue should be amenable to careful, methodical investigation for a solution. Thus, the problem statement helps to categorise the intended purpose of the planned research in a clear way.
b. Fieldwork in the 21st Century
Ans) The methodology needed to take into account numerous sites in the twenty-first century, and ideas like landscapes evolved to complement or replace area or region. The term "multi-sited research" refers to this. Space was viewed as being living and dynamic rather than just a setting for events. Multi-sited ethnography, which could track people's movements through time and location, was the subject of research. The effects of global forces are also seen in local events, according to research on globalisation.
c. Interview Schedule
Ans) Before conducting an interview, the researcher creates an interview schedule. Both structured and unstructured schedules are possible. Although it resembles a manual, its purpose is to gather quantitative data. As a result, it includes a set format of questions that the researcher uses when conducting interviews, typically when conducting surveys. With the aid of an interview schedule, census data is also collected and is primarily structured. To help with the main interview, the interview guide includes a set of questions related to the research problem that are prepared at random and out of order.
Ans) A hypothesis is a wild guess. It is an opinion or forecast regarding the issue the researcher has raised. It is something that can be viewed as an explanation (in this case, a theory), and it is tentatively accepted until the phenomenon being studied is established as accurate or appropriate. Thus, in order to use a hypothesis, an existing theory must first be put to the test in the ongoing study. It is put to the test by collecting data in the field and drawing conclusions that range from general to precise.
e. Ethics in Fieldwork
Ans) Doing research in human communities touches on issues of fairness, power, control, inequality, privilege, and competing purposes. The process of capturing oral sources through fieldwork is an important but “messy” part of research, as it is people’s experiences, opinions, and perspectives which constitute the data. It can produce stresses for both the researcher and participants that have the potential to compromise the research relationship, the researcher’s and participants’ well-being and the research project itself. The personal and methodological challenges of fieldwork often arise from, and are addressed within, discourses about ethics.
Assignment – III
a. Find out the family type of at least five families in your neighbourhood including for how long they have resided in the locality and what are the changes observed in them. What will be your methodology and tell us the reasons for choosing this methodology? 20
Ans) Location: Mumbai, ABC Society.
The reason for choosing Survey as methodology for this research:
Surveys helped me gauge the representativeness of the individual views and experiences.
It provided hard numbers on people's opinions and behaviours that can be used to make important decisions.
Surveys are more private and less intimidating than face-to-face survey interviews or telephone communication.
It helped me collect unbiased survey data and develop sensible decisions based on analysed results. By analysing results, I can immediately address what is important, rather than waste time and valuable resources on areas of little or no concern.
Surveys resulted in providing a snapshot of the attitudes and behaviours – including thoughts, opinions, and comments – about my target survey population. This valuable feedback became my baseline to measure and establish a benchmark from which to compare results over time.
b. Draw the genealogy of your maternal family tracing till you maternal grandparents making yourself the ego. 5
Ans) The genealogy of my maternal family tracing till my maternal grandparents making myself the ego:
The circle inside the rectangle denotes ‘EGO’ linked to my maternal family.
The circle denotes the gender ‘FEMALE’ while triangle denotes the gender ‘MALE’.
The symbol of ‘equals to’ denotes ‘MARRIAGE’ between grandparents.
Below them, are their 3 children: 2 females and 1 male i.e., Maternal Aunt, Maternal Uncle and my Mother.
Below my mother, the circle inside rectangle denotes the FEMALE EGO of mine.
c. Make an interview guide to conduct research on menstrual health among adolescents. 5
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