If you are looking for BANE-145 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Applied Anthropology, you have come to the right place. BANE-145 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG courses of IGNOU.
BANE-145 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BANE-145/ASST /TMA /2021-2022
Course Code: BANE-145
Assignment Name: Applied Anthropology
Year: 2021-2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 sessions)
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
There are three Assignments. All questions are compulsory.
Assignment – A
Answer the following in about 500 words each. 20 X 2= 40
Qa. Define and discuss the concept of applied anthropology.
Ans) Applied anthropology is the branch of anthropology that is concerned with serving the practical needs of a society or organisation. Applied anthropology can be defined as anthropology that is applied to solve a problem in a particular situation. It is anthropology that is being used.
Concept Of Applied Anthropology
In the preface to his essay 'Practical Anthropology,' Malinowski, the founding father of modern anthropology, said that all disciplines emerge from their applications, and anthropology is no exception. He was a great proponent of using anthropological knowledge to better comprehend the predicament of indigenous peoples and the colonial government's governance of them. It was dubbed "practical anthropology" by him. Practical anthropology is a branch of anthropology that bridges the gap between theory and application. Applied anthropology has been defined by anthropologists as having an impact on social relationships, behaviour, or cultural systems.
The Society of Applied Anthropology, founded in 1941 by Margaret Mead, Elliot Smith, and others, described applied anthropology as "the application of anthropological viewpoints through interdisciplinary scientific exploration of human connections with the purpose of solving practical problems."
The definition emphasises applied anthropology as a science and points out the following:
a) Location: They located applied anthropology as a part of interdisciplinary team where anthropologists work in tandem with specialists from other disciplines.
b) Focus: Applied anthropology for them is concerned with understanding and analysis of human relationships and how it can help in solving a social problem.
Charles Winnik defined applied anthropology as a sort of 'anthropological knowledge' in one of the early dictionaries of anthropology, which was published in 1895. As he defined it: "The application of anthropological knowledge to suit the requirements of a particular group for whom the anthropologist is responsible." This may entail providing advice, administering services, or issuing directions." The term "applied anthropology" is defined by George Foster, author of one of the first textbooks on the subject in 1969, as "the professional activities of anthropologists concerned principally with changes in human behaviour to solve a social, economic, or technological problem." According to Foster, applied anthropology is more concerned with finding solutions to issues than it is with delving into anthropological theories.
He has been criticised for restricting the scope of applied anthropology to the study of 'changing situations' solely, which has been one of the objections of his definition. Applied anthropology, according to Van Willigen, one of the most well-known applied anthropologists, can be described in terms of its impact on cultural systems. According to him, applied anthropology is "a collection of connected, research-based, instrumental procedures that promote change or stability in specific cultural systems through the provision of data, the initiation of direct action, and/or the formulation of policy." This process can take many different shapes, depending on the problem, the function of the anthropologist, the motivating values, and the amount to which action is involved."
Qb. Discuss the approaches and sub-approaches of applied anthropology.
Ans) The contrast between anthropology of and anthropology for the application of anthropological knowledge is frequently made. The word anthropology of refers to a more critical anthropologically conceptual understanding of an issue, whereas the term anthropology for refers to the application of an anthropological perspective to a problem. Pure anthropology is more concerned with the anthropology of aspects of an issue, whereas applied anthropology is more concerned with the anthropology of aspects. When we talk about anthropology of health, we're talking about how non-physical aspects of health, such as social, cultural, emotional, and spiritual, play a significant part in determining health across cultures. While the term anthropology for health refers to using anthropological knowledge to address a health-related problem in a specific context, for example, if there is a high dropout rate from an immunisation programme in a tribal area, anthropologists' services may be required to increase people's compliance.
Sub- Approaches of Applied Anthropology
The many approaches in applied anthropology are heavily influenced by the work of applied anthropologists. It's important to recall that the phrase "applied anthropology" encompasses not only social anthropology but also applied archaeology and applied biological anthropology. Applied physical or biological anthropology has a lengthy history of applied research in forensic science, medical institutions, hospitals, and clothing, footwear, and automotive design, among other fields. Applied archaeology is a relatively new field that focuses on the preservation of tribal cultural heritages and regionally significant monuments.
The word applied anthropology encompasses a wide range of activities, and practitioners frequently use multiple terms to refer to their areas of expertise. Professional practising anthropologists utilise additional adjectives as prefixes to identify themselves, such as action, practising, engaged, advocacy, and public. They can all be classified as forms of applied anthropology that emerged at different times in the field's growth. Within academic anthropology, there are fields such as ecological anthropology, development anthropology, forensic anthropology, physiological anthropology, urban anthropology, medical anthropology, and molecular anthropology, all of which have strong practical features.
Anthropologists in India are working on a wide range of topics, including indigenous knowledge, policy studies, agriculture, rural and tribal development, public health, programme evaluation, planning, implementation, disaster, forensic, human-animal conflicts, mental health, and urban problems, among many others. The list is extensive, and anthropologists are expanding into new fields of application with each passing year. In all of these fields, anthropology's knowledge, methods, and abilities are used to tackle practical challenges of daily life.
As the name implies, applied anthropology is anthropology that is used to address a social problem or better understand a social issue. Its main purpose is to solve problems. Because applied anthropology is used in a variety of social circumstances, its methodologies are heavily influenced by the domain of its applications.
We can categorise them as follows:
Action approach /Activist Approach
Participator Developmental Approach/ Practicing Anthropology
Policy Research /Advisory/Consultation approach
Business/Corporate / Market approach.
Assignment – B
Answer the following in about 250 words each. (Write Short Notes) 10X3=30
Qa. Malinowski as an applied anthropologist.
Ans) Like all of us, Bronislaw Malinowski was a product of his era. Between 1912 and 1942, his professional career was divided by two wars. To benefit future generations of applied anthropologists, Malinowski's work should be reassessed. However, Malinowski began working on practical anthropology, which he called applied anthropology, in the 1920s. A decade later, the Society for Applied Anthropology was founded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
After the middle of the 1920s Malinowski’s career transitioned to reflect a greater concern
with social issues, the problems of natives overrun by colonial powers, and the practical use of
anthropology. This change in focus commenced, perhaps, with his writing on the forces of law in
the primitive community in 1925. The following year he wrote a letter to an editor on
anthropology and administration (1926a) and an article on social hygiene (1926b). In 1927 came
an article on “Useful and Useless Anthropology” (1927b) and finally in 1929 the better-known
article on “Practical Anthropology” (1929a). Malinowski’s writing on practical issues continued
in this vein on administration (1930a), race and labour (1930b), native education (1936), changing cultures (1938a), the scientific basis of applied anthropology (1940a), European rule (1940b),
war (1941), and the pan-African problem (published posthumously in 1943). Posthumous
book, The Dynamics of Culture Change, included essays on application and social problems
(1945). The book continued themes previously noted such as the necessity for the anthropologist
to act as interpreter and advocate for the native, the need to study the “changing native,” the
potential advantage in viewing different administrative policies as controlled experiments, and
the use of holism and functionalism in the study of modern problems in Africa.
Qb. Anthropology’s engagement with development
Ans) An examination of the changing relationship between anthropology and development over time can help us understand concerns about engagement and identify some of the ethical issues that arise in applied work.
Anthropologists have provided important contextual knowledge, assessed the social impacts of development schemes, and advocated for indigenous rights, all of which are examples of how anthropological expertise can be applied to development work. These techniques' limitations are also discussed. The ethical, political, and moral issues that arise when anthropology is used to study development are at the heart of this review.
Anthropology has been wary of dealing with the concept of 'progress' from its inception in the late 1800s. This apprehension arises in part from the idea that civilizations can be organised hierarchically following a line of evolutionary progress. However, no man (or culture) is an island, and anthropologists have been obliged to think about the intricate processes by which groups are integrated into larger political and economic systems. The idea that anthropologists should do practical research has a long and tumultuous history as well. For some people, engagement entails a tacit acceptance of certain change regimes. Other anthropologists have advocated for the application of their knowledge. As development grew into a global project in the second half of the twentieth century, so did the opportunities for applied work.
When it comes to development, anthropologists have earned a reputation as social development experts who can ensure that external efforts are culturally suitable. Following their acceptance of these positions, anthropologists were in a good position to focus on the development industry's institutions, projects, and programmes. Anthropologists have been outspoken in their criticisms of the bureaucratic practises and cultural assumptions that are used to reshape the world, whether they are writing from within or outside the development industry.
Qc. Ethical discourse of anthropology in market
Ans) Ethics in business is a major topic both in the social sciences and in business itself. Anthropologists, long attendant to the intersection of ethics and practice, are particularly well suited to offer vital insights on the subject.
This timely collection considers a range of ethical issues in business through the examination of anthropologically informed theory and case examples. The meaning of ethical values, practices, and education are explored, as well as practical ways of implementing them, while the specific ethical challenges of industries such as advertising, market research, and design are considered. Contributions from anthropologists in business and academia promise a broad range of perspectives and add to the growing discussion on the ways anthropologists’ study, work, teach, and engage in a variety of industry settings.
In short, these statements outline the tensions between anthropology, ethics, and capital:
1. Anthropology is understood as a discipline that aims to uncover and represent particularities,
contexts and subjectivities as they are, in a scientific and value freeway.
2. Corporate culture and business is understood to have other goals, namely appropriating these
particularities, contexts and subjects in order to support stakeholders; ultimately through capital
3. Ethics are generally something, which ‘guides’ anthropologists in the choices, they have to make within this presumed conflictual relationship and which helps them protect their research subjects or material against the evil of business.
Assignment – C
Answer the following questions in about 150 words each. 5X6=30
Qa. Molecular genetics
Ans) DNA molecule architecture and expression are studied in the field of molecular genetics, which is a branch of biology that looks at how variations in DNA molecule architecture and expression manifest themselves as variation among species. Genomic screens, also known as "investigative methods," are used regularly by molecular geneticists to determine the structure and/or function of genes in an organism's genome. A fusion of several sub-fields in biology has resulted in the study of classical Mendelian inheritance as well as cellular biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology, to name a few. Scientists seek for mutations in genes or engineer alterations in genes to establish a relationship between a gene sequence and a particular phenotype. When it comes to associating mutations to genetic disorders, molecular genetics is a powerful tool that could help scientists discover medicines and cures for a wide range of inherited ailments.
Qb. Garments designing
Ans) Anthropometry studies both static and dynamic body postures. Anthropometric data is used in many fields. One of those fields is garment design. Anthropometric data is required to design comfortable and well-fitting clothes. Designers typically employ traditional anthropometric data gathered by hand. Changes in lifestyle have had a major impact on body size and shape. Variations in body size and shape are critical in ergonomic design and increasing clothing comfort and fit.
Garment fit is often used as an assessment method of the quality of garment by the consumers. Size charts in the industry which are standard of body measurement based on anthropometric data are used throughout the process of attire design and production. Taking accurate anthropometric data and designing garments with the right fit is very much related. Ill fitted garment is the result of the lack of updated anthropometric data which has become a major issue. Validation and updating of anthropometric measurements through surveys or systems are done in many developed countries for every 15 to 20 years.
Qc. Modern period of forensic anthropology
Ans) The American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) Physical Anthropology Section was founded in 1972, marking the start of the contemporary era of forensic anthropology. Ellis R. Kerley and Clyde Collins Snow developed this department to expand AAFS's practises. After five years, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology was established to certify the competence of forensic anthropologists across the US and Canada.
William M. Bass influenced forensic anthropology. His graduate programme in physical anthropology at Kansas University produced forensic anthropologists Douglas Ubelaker, Walter Birkby, Linda Klepinger, and Richard Jantz. The Forensic Anthropology Data Bank at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology are two notable modern events (SWGANTH). To update new criteria for determining demographic and other features from the human skeleton, the Forensic Data Bank was established in 1986. The FBI and DOD CIL formed SWGANTH in 2008 to recommend “best practises” in the field. In order to help all forensic anthropologists, this scientific committee will identify existing standards, set new standards, and offer methodical guidance.
Qd. Multimedia as a research tool
Ans) Anthropological methodologies are used by practising anthropologists to perform study and action all around the world. These innovative, critical thinkers employ multimedia to establish the nature of the problem and the best way to do research. They can provide meaningful questions regarding construction, patterns, cases, principles, and functions using a variety of multimedia techniques. Computers, and through them, the internet, assist them in searching for information in the form of words, electronic, and graphic data sources, all of which are crucial for any investigation or study. The multimedia equipment also aids in the creation of fresh data through the use of procedures such as interviews, questionnaires, and surveys.
After then, the data can be analysed and explained in order to classify and derive trends. Practitioners can improve their research skills by using a multimedia system.
Some important features of Multimedia in Research
Multimedia content is delivered electronically or digitally.
It combines text, images and sounds in ways that make your research or project really interesting to almost everybody.
Multimedia can be used to tell stories that simplify the complexities of research which contributes to getting research into use.
Workshops, seminars & meetings Recording interviews and comments from participants to report ILRI’s research.
Through Blip films, videos and photo films showing importance and relevance of ILRI’s research.
Qe. Managing disasters with indigenous knowledge
Ans) The move from hazards to underlying vulnerabilities has given disaster managers a better grasp of the elements that weaken community and social system resilience. Many of these factors are eco-related. Poverty, deteriorated environment, knowledge vulnerabilities, and increased disaster risk are all linked. To enhance community capacity in a participatory, sustainable, and cost-effective manner, it would be beneficial to mix modern and indigenous knowledge in disaster preparedness and mitigation. The study's goal is to persuade policymakers to include indigenous knowledge in disaster management and sustainable development projects.
Indigenous knowledge is not extensively documented, let alone digitised, and is in risk of extinction when caretakers die. This knowledge must be preserved and integrated into modern disaster risk reduction efforts. Indigenous peoples must be included in talks about climate change and risk mitigation. Due to a lack of research, localities and the nation as a whole are vulnerable to natural calamities. There are numerous studies on the relevance of indigenous knowledge for natural resource management in Africa and Asia. Indigenous knowledge for catastrophe mitigation and preparedness is scarcely documented. Studies on catastrophe mitigation in general and indigenous knowledge in particular would be very helpful.
Qf. Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) technique
Ans) Rapid rural appraisal refers to a set of procedures that can be used as a first step in conducting farmer surveys. The method entails an informal, quick, exploratory study of a certain geographical area in order to gain a "knowledge" of local agricultural circumstances, issues, and peculiarities. They can provide basic information on whether or not it is feasible to start a survey study in a certain area, especially if the location is unknown.
This information was gathered with the help of the local community. As a result, the study methodologies have to be modified to fit the local circumstances. They had to cater to the communication demands of persons who couldn't read or write, as well as those who were unfamiliar with scientific or professional language.
To gather information for decision-makers in development organisations, several techniques were invented or enhanced, including mapping, diagramming, and ranking. The visualisation of questions and findings by using locally understandable symbols is one of the core ideas of the Rapid Appraisal Technique. The Rapid Appraisal Technique was developed primarily to save money by bypassing expensive and time-consuming research procedures.
Rapid Appraisal Technique is typically performed in a workshop setting by a small group of researchers or trained professionals in one to three days.
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