If you are looking for BAPI-004 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Production Technology of Fruit Crops, you have come to the right place. BAPI-004 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in DHORT courses of IGNOU.
BAPI-004 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BAPI-004-ASST/TMA/2021-22
Course Code: BAPI-004
Assignment Name: Production Technology of Fruit Crops
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Instruction: All question carry equal marks and are compulsory.
Q1) Discuss symptoms of major diseases of Apple and also describe their control.
Ans) Many fruits, including apples, are severely harmed by diseases. However, they are more common on apple trees. Scab, powdery mildew, premature leaf fall, canker, and root rot are among the most common diseases.
The following are Symptoms of Major Diseases of Apple and their Control:
Venturia inaequalis is to blame. In the spring, light brown or olive-green spots appear on one or both sides of young leaves, quickly turning musty black. Lesions range in colour from velvety brown to olive green, and as they grow older, they become more distant, causing leaves to curl. Small lesions appear on the fruits, which gradually grow larger, causing mishaps and fruit cracking.
Control: Spray dodine (0.1%) or mancozeb (0.3%) at silver to green tip, mancozeb (0.3%) + carbendazim (0.05%) at pink bud, benomyl/carbendazim (0.05%) at petal fall, zineb (0.3%) or dodine (0.075%) at pea size fruit, mancozeb + carbendazim in June–July, and urea 5% spray after fruit harvest.
The fungus Podosphaera leucotricha causes this disease, which survives as mycelium on dormant buds. White mildew growth can be seen on the young leaves, which have a silvery white surface and twigs.
Control: Pruning the affected twigs is a good way to keep it under control. Spray wettable sulphur (40-600 g), contaf (100 g), Baycor (00 g) in 200 litres of water during dormancy, bud swell, two weeks later, and petal fall.
Marsonina cornaria is to blame for this. This disease can be found on both leaves and fruit. On the upper surface of the leaves, dark brown patches appear, and the surrounding area turns yellow. The yellowing progresses towards the end of the petioles, resulting in pre-mature leaf defoliation.
Control: Spray dodine (150 g) in 200 litres of water at the fruit setting stage, then mancozeb or zineb (600 g) at the walnut stage, then carbendazim (100 g) 20 days later.
Many fungi have been implicated in the canker complex. Symptoms appear on the trunk and branches, resulting in wounds that develop more quickly lengthwise. These are usually elliptical in shape, and the wound can grow to be a metre long. Underneath the rough exterior, the bark becomes hard, dry, and tough.
Control: The tree's badly canked portion is cut and burned. Scarify the cankered portions and paint with Chaubattia paint to make them healthy again. After fruit harvest and at the bud swell stage, spray copper oxychloride (600 g) or captan (400 g) in 200 litres of water.
White Root Rot
Dematophora necatrix fungi are to blame. Sparse foliage, slow growth, bronzing, and yellowing of leaves are all symptoms of the disease. Such trees eventually die. During the rainy season, the root turns brown and is covered with white cottony mycelial of fungi.
Control: Improve an orchard's drainage. Remove infected roots after leaf fall and apply Chaubattia paste (Red lead, copper carbonate, and linseed oil) to the cut ends and healthy portion of the roots. During April, June, July, and September, drench infected trees with Carbendazine (200 g) and Mancozeb (600 g) at least four times.
Q2) Discuss the common propagation methods of the Mango.
Ans) Except for a few poly-embryonic mango varieties, almost all mango varieties are mono-embryonic. Seedling trees have a wide range of characteristics, so vegetative / propagation is essential. The sexual method of propagation is only used to create new mango hybrids.
The Common Methods of Propagation of the Mango are described below:
It is still the most widely used commercial vegetative Asexual / propagation method. The scion remains attached to the parent tree until the union is complete, and the stock plant is raised in pots and placed on raised platforms, bringing the scion shoots into contact. The rootstock and scion should have the same diameter. From matching portions of both the stock and scion, a slice of bark and a thin piece of wood about 4 cm long are removed. They are then brought together, ensuring that at least one of their cambium layers makes contact. After that, a polythene strip is used to secure the grafts. To hasten the union, both stock and scion plants are watered on a regular basis. The union takes about 2 to 3 months to complete. The scion is then severed from the mother plant with a sharp cut. It is completed in the months of July and August.
Layering, cuttings, and budding can all be used to propagate mango. However, these methods are not widely used to propagate mango at the moment.
Veneer Grafting and Side Grafting
Scion-sticks are separated from the mother plant using this method. In veneer grafting, the vertical flap of the rootstock bark is completely removed, but in side grafting, this flap is kept and tied over the scion. The scion is sliced away one side in a slanting manner during veneer grafting. The operation lasts approximately 5 to 6 cm. In side grafting, the lowermost portion is sliced on both sides into a wedge shape, then properly fitted and tied with a polythene strip. When scion shoots are defoliated at least 10 days before veneer grafting, grafts have a very high success rate and continue to grow.
Stone Grafting and Epicotyl Grafting
It is an effective, cost-effective, and quick method of mango propagation. On a commercial scale, the method is being used. Mango stones are grown in light planting material in polythene bags or pots. Seedlings that are 10-12 days old are grafted by beheading them 5 cm above the stone and inserting a splice or wedge-shaped defoliated scion into the vertical split. The graft is properly secured with a polythene strip. The graft is kept in a semi-shade environment. They are watered on a regular basis. Grafts that are one year old are ready to be planted. Under sub-tropical climatic conditions, this technique works well from August to September. It is completed prior to the onset of the heavy monsoon in a humid tropical climate.
Preparation of Scion and Rootstock
The mother trees from which the scion will be taken should be healthy and vigorous, with a history of good bearing. The scion should be carefully prepared before the actual grafting. The last mature flush's healthy shoots with plump terminal buds are chosen for this. Before being separated from the mother tree for grafting, these shoots are defoliated for 7 to 10 days. The stones are removed from fully ripe fruits in order to raise rootstocks. Mango seeds are sown quickly because they lose their viability after a short period of time. They're planted in flat beds with compost or manure from the farm. Grafting is done on one-year-old seedlings.
Q3) Discuss the Cultural Practices for the successful Cashew Cultivation.
Ans) The following cultural practises are required for a successful Cashew Cultivation:
Clean weeding is done within a 2-meter radius of the trunk, and slash weeding the interspaces is necessary until the trees' canopies spread out. During the months of June and July, weeding can be done chemically with Glyphosate at a rate of 6 to 7 ml/l.
Mulching the tree basins conserves soil moisture while also preventing soil erosion. Mulching with organic matter or residues inhibits weed growth, reduces surface evaporation, and regulates soil temperature during the summer. Making trenches of 30 cm width and 60 cm depth in sloppy areas can help with soil and water conservation. In between rows along the contour, a convenient length can be taken. This will not only help to conserve soil and moisture, but it will also help to improve cashew growth.
Training and Pruning
The goal of training and pruning is to improve the cashew plant's framework so that cultural practises are simple. During the first year of planting, the sprouts that emerge from the root stock portion of the cashew graft should be removed frequently. Water shoots, lower branches, crisscross branches, and dry branches have all been found to help improve flowering and yield.
Cashew is primarily grown in rain-fed conditions in India. Protective irrigation at 200 l/plant at fortnightly intervals from January to March improves fruit set and retention, resulting in increased nut yield.
The cashew industry paid little attention to intercropping. Pineapple, annual vegetables, tapioca, pulses, turmeric, ginger, and other inter crops can be grown as inter crops during the early years, depending on soil, climatic conditions, and local situations. Pineapple can be grown in trenches across the slope between two rows of cashew. In each trench, plant a paired row of pineapple suckers at a distance of 60 cm between rows and 40 cm between two suckers within the row. Between two rows of cashews, trenches can be opened at a distance of 1 m.
Cashew pests include the tea mosquito bug, stem borer, thrips, leaf minor, and leaf blossom Webber. In cashew, the tea mosquito and stem borer cause the most economic damage.
Q4: Discuss the common propagation methods of the Ber.
Ans) Ber is propagated by seeds, which are known as sexual methods of propagation, and by vegetative means, which are known as asexual methods. Budding is the most common method of vegetative propagation for the Ber.
Due to the stony nature of the endocarp, seed germination usually takes a long time. Breaking the stone releases the seeds from the seed kernel. The endocarp of each stone can have up to three seeds embedded in it. In about a week, these seeds germinate. The seed stones can also be sown as such, but they take longer to germinate. Germination increases one or two months after seed extraction, and one-year-old seeds germinate better than freshly extracted seeds.
If the necked seeds are treated with GA3 solution for 12 hours before sowing, germination can be improved. Soaking seed stones in concentrated sulfuric acid for 6 minutes can improve germination of freshly harvested seed stones. Seeds are planted in 1 x 5-meter nursery beds or polythene bags/pots. Sowing is done at a depth of 2 cm and at a spacing of 4-5 cm. Seed should be covered with well rotten powdered FYM after sowing. In March, the seeds are planted. New cultivars are usually bred using this method of propagation.
Different vegetative propagation methods were investigated in this section, with budding emerging as the most commercially viable option. Shied budding (T-budding) and patch budding were found to be the most promising of the various budding methods. The ring budding method is not widely used because the scion stick must be of equal diameter to the rootstock. This prevents it from being used on a large scale.
Budding should be done as close to the ground as possible to reduce the area available for sprout emergence from the rootstock portion. Budding times have varied from place to place, but in most climates, June to September appears to be a good time to plant. During the summer's active growth period, bud wood becomes available. Bud sticks that are well swollen and have recently matured buds are collected. Buds from the upper part of new shoots that are immature or underdeveloped are not suitable. Similarly, buds that are too mature or inactive should not be used. Buds harvested from flowering shoots have a very low success rate. Juvenile shoots should be harvested for bud. By severely pruning the mother tree, such shoots can be encouraged to grow.
Q5) Describe the disease management in Aonla.
Ans) Aonla is affected by a variety of diseases, including rust with anthracnose and various types of fruit rots. Because fruits are perishable by nature, even minor damage can attract pathogens during storage and transit.
It is a major Aonla disease, particularly in Rajasthan. Fruits are infected with the disease. Initially, there are a few black pustules that develop into a ring. The pustules coalesce and cover a larger portion of the fruit. After rupturing a papery covering, the black spores are exposed. Fruits have a soiled appearance and lose their market value. Pinkish brown pustules appear on the leaves, which can be grouped or scattered as isolated pustules. From July to August, three sprays of wettable sulphur at one-month intervals were found to be effective in controlling the disease.
Aonla plant wilting has recently been reported in Rajasthan. In Rajasthan, many plants exhibit bark cracking, bark splitting, defoliation, and wilting symptoms. The main cause of wilting was found to be frost injury, but there was also a Fusarium sp. association. During the frost season, young plants should be irrigated and covered.
Penicillium citirnum causes the disease, which is very common in Aonla growing areas. It causes brown patches on the fruit surface, as well as water-soaked areas, which turn bright yellow, purple, brown, and finally bluish green. The fruit's surface also exudes drops of yellowish liquid. The fruits have an unpleasant odour. Finally, the entire fruit takes on a bluish-green beaded or postulated appearance. Fruits that are handled carefully can be kept from rotting. Aonla fruits are susceptible to blue mould if the fruit surface is damaged during harvesting and storage. Sanitary storage conditions should be maintained, and Ozone gas treatment can be used to combat the pathogen. By dipping the fruit in a Bavistin or Topsin solution, the blue mould can be reduced.
Stooty mould commonly affects Aonla trees that have been infested by scale insects. On the surface of leaves, twigs, and flowers, it causes a velvety covering of black fungal growth. These only affect the surface of the leaves and do not penetrate them. It can be controlled by spraying 2% starch on it. If there is a lot of infection, mix Monocrotophos at 0.05 percent and Wettable sulphur at 0.2 percent in starch.
It can be found on the surface of the trunk of a fully grown Aonla tree. It appears as whitish, pinkish, superficial patches of various shapes on the tree's main trunk and branches. It can be treated with gunny bag rubbing and commercial Caustic soda spraying on the trunk and branches.
During the months of August and September, anthracnose symptoms can be seen on leaves and fruit. The disease manifests itself in the form of small, circular brown to grey spots on leaflets with a yellowish margin. The spot's central area is greyish raised, with dot-like fruiting bodies. Depressed lesions appear on fruits, which later turn dark in the centre. At high humidity, spore masses appear on fruiting bodies, which can vary in size and shape. As a result, the fruits shrivel up and rot. When the fruits are marble size, a spray of Copper oxychloride can be used to effectively control the diseases.
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