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BEGC-102: European Classical Literature

BEGC-102: European Classical Literature

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: BEGC-102/Assignment January & July 2021

Course Code: BEGC-102

Assignment Name: European Classical Literature

Year: 2021

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Max. Marks: 100

Answer all questions.


Section A


Q1. Write short notes in about 200 words each: (2x5=10)


(i) Mimesis

Ans) In art and literature, mimesis is the imitation of life. The Greek geniuses Aristotle and Plato defined mimesis as the re-presentation of nature. Representation is not the same as representation. The term "representation" refers to the act of copying. If you paint a flower to look like a genuine flower, for example, it is a duplicate of what you perceive as a flower. A flower, on the other hand, embodies the concept of beauty. The goal of re-presentation is to portray the idea of beauty that lies behind the natural phenomena of the flower. As a result, we can deduce that sight does not always imply perception. We become closer to 'Reality,' or what we can call 'hyper reality,' through what we perceive."


"Mimesis not only re-creates existent items or aspects of nature, but also beautifies, enhances, and universalizes them," Michelle Peutz adds. As a result, Mimesis is defined as the representation of Reality in art and literature. It's both a representation of nature (or a phenomenon, or the world as we experience it) and an artistic expression of the essence that lies behind it.' Tragedy introduces us to a hero who we recognise as a remarkable individual, and we are devastated by his fall or death, but tragedy does not end there. It elevates him to a higher cognitive and spiritual plane through his pain, instilling in the viewer a sense of awe and reverence.


What causes this exaltation? In the play Oedipus Rex, the hero, King Oedipus, is reduced from a king to a sinner who is responsible for his people's suffering as a result of the plague's arrival. Despite the fact that his earlier actions were not malicious, he recognises that his unintended guilt is the cause of the disease and blinds himself before fleeing his city as an exile. He rises in stature as a result of the suffering he inflicts on himself as a result of his admission of his guilt. He exits the stage like a behemoth, a Man among Men of Unparalleled Importance and Reputation. The terrible event comes to a graceful conclusion.


(ii) Fescennine Verse

Ans) The town of Etruria was credited with the Fescennine Verses. These were "improvised comic disparagement" sketches. Laughter was mixed with a social context or to "avert evil spirits who may otherwise plague crops, or male sexual performance" at joyful events such as weddings in the popular rural set-up. There was also the "exotic Salii ('Leaping Priests') dance" and the frightening aristocratic burial ceremonies, in which ancestors' masks (imagines) were paraded around on sticks while the family's glorious triumphs were narrated. The lyrics then mixed widespread ideas about spirits with satire or mockery of social conditions. The concept of performing these words at weddings and funerals, which is common in Greek and Roman play, is intriguing. The two, in a sense, cover a broad spectrum, demonstrating that drama was an important aspect of every social setting.


There was also mime, which was popular in the local imagination, in addition to these two types. The Latin mime was likewise a bit hazy and had no set form, possibly a clumsy mix of mime, gesture, and song. Even these forms, according to George Duckworth, were likely affected by Greek traditions, since mime existed in Sicily and southern Italy. In fact, the Greek Phylax is thought to have affected the Fabula Atellana. The impact of the Fabula Atellana and the Fescennine Verses on the development of Roman comedy may therefore be seen. When combined with Greek "New Comedy," we get an intriguing blend of the comedic method in Rome, particularly in the hands of Plautus and Terence. We'll look at the beginnings of Roman Drama now that we've looked at the backdrop to Roman Comedy in some detail.


Q2. Reference to the Context in about 200 words each: (2x5=10)


(i) “… as he yelled out, ‘Look at me mother!’ Agave stared at him, uttered a wild shriek, violently shaking her neck and tossing her hair; then twisted his head right off. Displaying it high in her blood- drenched fingers, she shouted, ‘Joy, my companions! Victory is ours!’

Ans) The lines above are taken from Ovid's narrative "Bacchus," which can be found here. This passage contains Ovid's account of the history of the gods and mortals. What happens during the birth of Bacchus, a child named after the god Bacchus. Bacchus was never considered to be a god in the traditional sense. After attempting to capture and kill Bacchus (in the preceding paragraph), Pentheus is killed by his own Aunts on a hill, who mistakenly believe he is a boar and slaughter him violently. Various human emotions such as rage, envy, and revenge are sacrificed to the Gods in this storey. A third reason for Pentheus' death is that it is ironic in three ways. First and foremost, his threat to assassinate Acoetes backfires when he is assassinated for impiety in the process. To begin with, the followers of Bacchus misinterpret Pentheus as a wild animal, which is ironic given the fact that Pentheus is neither wild nor a transformed animal, as are many of the characters in the poem. Following his mother and aunt's sacrifice, Pentheus eventually rises to prominence as an important figure in a Bacchus worship rite, despite his initial refusal to worship the god of wine. Following Bacchus' death, Thebes is elevated to the status of Bacchus' adoration centre.

(ii) “…what’s more, it is the proper thing – if you say, You, … forced the blameless girl when you had drunk too much”.

Ans) These are lines from the movie Pot of Gold. In the meantime, Lyconides tells his mother, Eunomia, about his affair with Phaedria. Eunomia, for her part, is honourable and assures him that she would persuade her brother, Megadorus, to end the affair so that he can marry Phaedria. She does not defend her son's actions as a mother, but rather reminds him of them. The narrative develops as Phaedria nears the conclusion of her pregnancy and is on the verge of giving birth. The play's signature duality, the pot of riches and Phaedria's pregnancy, is ultimately brought to a close near the end.


As the young man begs the miser's forgiveness, the wordplay between Lyconides and Euclio continues. While Euclio laments the loss of gold, Zyconides apologises to Phaedria for wrongdoing her. It's amusing that Euclio, as a father, is solely concerned with his riches and is clueless of his daughter's genuine plight. Phaedria's rape is a manifestation of the family's theft—"Both are a breach of his proprietary rights." Finally, Euclio learns of his daughter's illness and agrees to the marriage. The dialogue ironically highlights Euclio's utter lack of concern for his daughter's well-being. He is fixated on the pot of gold and is unable of seeing the situation for what it is.



Section B


Answer the following in about 300 words each: 4 X 7.5 = 30


Q1. Examine Achilles as a warrior hero.

Ans) Despite his extraordinary power and strong ties with the gods, modern readers may find Achilles to be less than heroic. He possesses all of the characteristics of a great warrior, and he is the Achaean army's most powerful man, but his deep-seated character defects consistently obstruct his ability to behave with nobility and honesty. He has no control over his pride or the wrath that arises when it is shattered. Because he has been slighted by his captain, Agamemnon, this trait has poisoned him to the point where he abandons his compatriots and even prays for the Trojans to slay them. Achilles is largely motivated by a desire for glory. Part of him wishes for a long and easy existence, but he understands that his fate forces him to choose between the two. In the end, he is willing to give up all else in order for his name to be remembered.


Achilles, like most Homeric characters, does not grow or change greatly over the epic. Despite the fact that Patroclus' death drives him to seek reconciliation with Agamemnon, his fury is instead directed toward Hector. Achilles does not become more deliberate or self-reflective as a result of the event. He is still consumed by bloodlust, fury, and pride. He ruthlessly mauls his opponents, bravely confronts the river Xanthus, desecrates Hector's body, and viciously sacrifices twelve Trojan troops at Patroclus' funeral. King Priam, appealing for the return of Hector's desecrated corpse, appeals to Achilles' memories of his father, Peleus, in the epic's last book, but he does not relent in his violence. However, it is uncertain whether a father's devastated pleadings have truly transformed Achilles, or whether this scenario only confirms Achilles' grief capacity and familiarity with anguish, which were already demonstrated in his great mourning of Patroclus.


Q2. Analyse the unity of time in Oedipus Rex?

Ans) Aristotle devised three unities, or criteria, for creating the ideal tragedy. The first unity is "the unity of time," which specifies that the action of the storey should not last more than one day. The second principle is "unity of location," which specifies that only one setting should be used. The final principle was "unity of action," which claimed that there should only be one plot action with a beginning, middle, and end, as well as cause and effect chained occurrences. It doesn't have any side storylines or subplots that aren't closely related to the main plot.


Oedipus Rex contains the three unities. The action of the storey takes place in front of the palace of Thebes, within a day's time limit, and involves the quest for the identity of King Laius' murderer. There is no sub-plots, and a chorus is utilised to offer pre-knowledge that the audience should be aware of in order to grasp the play correctly. It is not the fact that he murdered his father or married his mother that is terrible; it is the fact that he is now aware of the atrocities he committed.


In his film Do the Right Thing, Spike Lee also adheres to the three unities. Beginning with Mookie counting his money and ending the next morning with Mooking receiving his salary from Sal, the storey spans around 24 hours. The action takes place on a single block in Bedford, New York, and includes a street scene, apartment buildings, and a pizzeria. I'd even go so far as to suggest that the stumbling block is a stage. [These locations, which symbolise work, home, and the public sphere, are used to represent the contexts in which racial conflict happens.] There is one strong action that revolves around a hot day when racial tensions are as high as the temperature. Several cause-and-effect chain situations that progressively build up during the film demonstrate this.


Q3. What are the implications of the marriage proposal in Pot of Gold?

Ans) Megadorus is the uncle of Phaedria, Euclio's daughter, who was "ravished" or raped. Eunomia's concern stems from her realisation that her point of view is unimportant. And, in the grand scheme of things, women's expression, which is often reduced to frivolous conversation, is a significant intervention. We deduce that women's connection with silence is necessary for the continuation of power structures. This also reflects women's strong desire to participate in social conversations. He openly declares his desire for Fuclio's daughter. Megadorus' marriage to Euclio's daughter is a recent deal that will be implemented soon. He ultimately announces his desire to marry Euclio's daughter, his next-door neighbour.


Megadorus' act of magnanimity does not convince Euclio, and he assumes he is seeking the gold. Eunomia's opinions on women illustrate how women were generally regarded as fickle and insignificant. Eunomia's suggestion, in which he would receive a large dowry but marry a woman his age, makes more sense.


Megadorus and Eunmoia's arrival is highlighted by his aversion to marriage and his sister's insistence that he do so. The audience understands that Megadorus is part of Familiaris' plot to marry the young boy to Euclio's daughter and provide the child with a loving father. And when Megadorus makes the formal marriage proposal for his daughter to Euclio, the miser is taken aback. The drama continues with the introduction of two new characters: Megadorus and his sister, Eunomia. David Konstan emphasises how Megadorus' urge to marry is founded on "irrational emotion" rather than "customary duty," referring to Megadorus' meditations on matrimony as a glimpse into "popular Roman psychology." The cycle of suspicion begins in the play when Euclio is taken aback by Megadorus' magnificent marriage proposal.


Q4. Discuss the relationship between Horace and his father as described in Satire 1:4.

Ans) Horace's father plays a significant part in the poem; whereas following Lucilius is a question of genre, obeying his father's instructions was a matter of character development. One of the most important sequences in Satire /.4 is Horace's depiction of his upbringing, which establishes the poet's ethical qualifications and justifies his function as professional critic. It also parodically develops Horace's ethical identity by synthesising numerous literary and philosophical inspirations. Scholars have frequently demonstrated the importance of Roman comedy in Horace's serio-comic representation of his father's upbringing, particularly Terence's Ade/phoe.


Horace honours his father by stating that he is the source of his moral purity. When referring to his father, Horace sets himself apart from Lucilius, his literary forefather, who is sloppy and verbose while nevertheless managing to articulate the principles of Horatian satire. Horace, on the other hand, cannot ignore Lucilius' satirical manner in which he constantly criticises individuals by naming them.

Nonetheless, the major disparities between Horace and Lucilius are well-known, particularly in terms of their respective approaches to style and ethics. The poet's transition from public critique to more intimate problems and stock characters reminiscent of New Comedy communicates these changes, implying that Horatian satire will deal with moral inadequacy in a light-hearted but more nuanced and personal manner.


The empirical technique and dependence on sense experience, which requires exposure to the ordinary realities of life on the streets of Rome, emphasise Horace's father's concern for pragmatism. In addition to the economic and sexual vices mentioned in Satire 1.4, Horace's empirical training would have provided him with an acute cognitive awareness of the vices, challenges, and temptations associated with living in contemporary Rome, such as political corruption, sexual promiscuity, and insatiable greed. However, according to Horace's account, it was his father's linguistic signals that enabled him to recognise and eventually articulate these truths. As a result, his father is the source of both his moral integrity and the moral lexicon he deploys in his satiric representations.


Section C


Answer the following questions in about 650 words each: 4 X 12.5 = 50


Q1. Who do you think is the real hero of the Iliad?

Ans) Characters who, in the face of danger and difficulty, demonstrate courage and the will to self-sacrifice, or heroism for the greater good of humanity, are referred to as heroes. Achilles, King of the Myrmidons, and Hector, Prince of Troy, struck me as the most dramatically opposed figures in Homer's epic "Iliad." I discovered that Hector was braver than Achilles. Hector was the braver of the two, and he was the better guy in every way. Hector, in my perspective, is the epic's true hero.


While both Achilles and Hector are leaders of their people, Hector appears to be more mature in his leadership. His troops respect him because he respects them in return. Hector is a doer, and he leads by example. Because they see their captain fighting, his men are inspired to fight. Hector is more composed, whereas Achilles acts like a two-year-old who goes into a frenzy at the drop of a hat at times. Achilles only appears to be respected and worshipped because of the fear he instils. People are scared of his outbursts and hence allow him to do anything he wants.


Killing appears to be linked to being close to a god. Only when Hector triumphs over the corpse of a dead Greek soldier is he described to as "godlike." I thought it was fascinating that the gods aided both Achilles and Hector in their battles. I would expect that because Hector was a good man, the gods would support him more, but Hector is only given victory by Zeus for a brief period, but Achilles always appears to enjoy divine intervention. This appears to be unjust, given that Hector is the more "god-fearing" of the two. Achilles appears to only pray to the gods when he is in distress.


Achilles and Hector have enormous obligations as commanders of their armies. Achilles is the war's determining force. Hector is known as "Troy's lone defence," and every Trojan relies on him. Both men's moral character and maturity level are revealed by how they handle their obligations. Achilles' hesitation to fight until the very end is primarily due to his feud with Agamemnon. One underlying explanation could be that he is aware that he will die. Hector, too, is aware that death is a possibility, but his sense of duty and loyalty will not allow him to remain at home. Hector's selflessness is demonstrated by the fact that he is fighting for his brother in a war that his brother started!


When Hector goes home to meet his family, it is one of the most moving scenes in the novel. We see another side of the brave Trojan warrior in the middle of all the bloodshed. He grins and smiles, speaks to his wife affectionately, and admires their young kid. This "softer" side of Hector may have been shown by Homer in order to make Achilles more palatable to his Greek audience. After all, no "genuine man" or "true hero" would leave the battlefield only to see his loved ones! Hector, on the other hand, comes across as the more heroic, well-rounded, and honourable of the two men when read in modern times.


When one realises the culture from which Hector comes, his bravery is even more admirable. Troy was a peaceful civilisation with inhabitants who were not naturally warlike. Hector is unwavering in his opinions and decisions. Achilles, who comes from a more violent society, lacks Hector's "people skills" and reasoning. He acts on the spur of the moment, and violence is in his blood. He is contradictory and inconsistent.


To summarise, Hector was the sole figure whose death had a genuine impact on me. The name Hector signifies "holder," according to the introduction. Hector was responsible for Troy's well-being, which is why he deserved to be named the Iliad's true hero.


Q2. Would you agree that ‘Oedipus Rex is the story of a noble man in pursuit of the truth that ultimately destroys him’?

Ans) Oedipus Rex tells the storey of a nobleman's quest for knowledge, which ultimately leads to his demise. His magnificence is reflected in the fact that the gods foretold his demise: the gods are uninterested in insignificant persons. Oedipus had set out to find whether he is indeed the son of Polybus and Merope, the king and queen who raised him, before the play begins. He hears that he would kill his father and marry his mother through the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, the most potent interpreter of the gods' voice and will. His reaction is eerily human: he has seen his moira, his destiny, and he refuses to accept it. His reaction is to do whatever he can to prevent killing Polybus and marrying Merope, including fleeing his kingdom as swiftly as possible.


The Greek audience would have known that Oedipus was a descendent of Kadmos, Thebes' founder, who sowed the Spartoi's dragon teeth (the sown men). Legend had it that Thebes' kingship would be contested, with sibling rivalry akin to that of the Spartoi, who fought and killed each other. This violent legacy not only follows Oedipus, but it also pervades the entire trilogy. Antigone, for example, tells us that Antigone's brothers Polyneices and Eteocles murdered one other in the shadow of the city walls. As a result, most of the people in the original plays, including Oedipus' true father, Laios, and his daughter Antigone, are doomed by the tragedy Oedipus tries to avert.


Sophocles builds the drama around the concept of Irony, or the contrast between what appears to be real and what is true. The audience savours the ironic moments from the beginning of the play until the end, knowing the consequence of the action. To escape fulfilling the prophecy, Oedipus flees his homeland, only to plunge headlong into the fate foreseen by the Oracle. He unknowingly returns to his birthplace, Thebes, and to his parents, killing Laios, his genuine father, at a fork in the road and marrying Lokaste, his true mother, to become king of Thebes. Teiresias, the blind seer, advises Oedipus against seeking the truth, but Oedipus, in typical human fashion, ignores Teiresias' warnings. Oedipus physically blinds Teiresias as the whole truth becomes obvious to him. Oedipus must now go inward for the truth without the distractions of surface experiences.


In Athenian Greece, there was a common idea that the ruler's moral health had a direct impact on the polis's security. Indeed, the Athenians saw their state as fragile, as if it were a human individual whose physical and moral health could alter at any time. The polis frequently appears in tragedies because the Greeks were concerned about the well-being of their state. The Sophoclean Oedipus trilogy is commonly referred to as the Theban plays, a name that reminds us that Oedipus' storey can be understood as either an individual or a state.


Oedipus Rex explores the conflict between the individual and the state, as well as their interdependence. The agricultural and ritual foundations of the Dionysian festivals, in which Greek theatre arose, highlight the significance the Greeks placed on the individual's reliance on the state that feeds him, as well as on right methods of accomplishing things. Planting and harvesting, worshipping the gods, or living as part of a political body are all examples of this. The play's underlying conflict is political. In Oedipus's interaction with the seer Teiresias, the political relationship of human beings to the gods, the arbiters of their fate, is portrayed. If Oedipus had his way, he would completely disregard Teiresias. Even as king, Oedipus cannot govern over everything. Despite his wisdom, his limited knowledge is emblematic of everyone's shortcomings.


Q3. In what way does Pot of Gold provide a view of ancient Roman society? Discuss.

Ans) Ancient Rome had a fascinating socio-cultural past and an even more fascinating social structure that would surprise many of us today. Life in ancient Rome revolved and evolved around the city of Rome and its seven famous hills - Aventine Hill, Caelian Hill, Capitoline Hill, Esquiline Hill, Palatine Hill, Quirinal Hill, and the Viminal Hill, as we know it from historical books, data, classical literary texts, sociological, anthropological, and political sources. Theatres, gymnasiums, bars, baths, and even brothels abound throughout Rome. Roman architecture produced a diverse range of structures, from country cottages to villas to magnificent mansions, and most crucially, the majority of the Roman population resided in the city. The majority of towns and cities had temples, as well as a well-planned water supply system that brought water to the urban areas. Wine and oil were among the imports to Rome, indicating that the people were relatively prosperous. The landed gentry lived in the city, where all important and luxurious issues took place, entrusting the management and upkeep of their vast estates to farm managers and slaves. Slaves existed in ancient Rome.


Due to the fact that the Greek civilization was the oldest of the two, there is a lot of Greek/ Hellenistic influence in ancient Rome. During the era of Emperor Augustus, who ruled Imperial Rome from 27 BC to AD 14, sophisticated Greek slaves, notably the household slaves, served as instructors to young Roman males and even girls. In fact, the Hellenistic world had such an influence on Roman writers that they favoured stylized Greek writing to the stilted and stiff Latin writing style. The influence of the Hellenistic period was not limited to building and writing; it also extended to cookery, and much of Roman cuisine was in reality Greek cuisine.


The worship of numerous deities was tolerated in ancient Roman civilization, with the only condition being that other cultures, traditions, religious beliefs, and organisations did not cause trouble for the Romans, which was a reasonable condition. There were, however, intermittent attacks on Christians in particular, but most of the origins of Christian persecution, according to historian Edward Gibbons, who published The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire, came from the Christian Church itself. This is intriguing because it informs us of two critical points: a) Rome was not Christian, and b) it's occasionally useful to consider the source of a storey, whether it's in a newspaper article or a history class. It is critical that we investigate sources.


Persecution was mentioned in non-Christian literature as well, albeit largely in passing. Deceased Emperors were sometimes venerated as demigods, since the successor of the deceased Emperor would honour the former in order to boost his own status. Christianity first began to expand to the Roman Empire in the first century AD, and by 380 AD, Christianity had become the Empire's official religion. Both architecture (the arch and the dome of Roman architecture are mostly inherited from the Greeks) and sculpture were heavily influenced by the Greeks. However, Rome affected the rest of the western world. The works of Virgil and Ovid, for example, are still studied, as is Latin's usage in religion, science, and law.


The family was the heart of the Roman social system, and it consisted of immediate family, blood relatives, and the patria potestas/power that the male head of the family wielded over his offspring and more distant male line descendants, regardless of age, as well as those adopted into the family. The family's male head was literally the Master of the Household, with his wife, children, sons' and nephews' wives, slaves, and freedmen. He could do whatever he wanted with them, including putting them to death. Slavery and slaves were, of course, an acknowledged element of the social order, and the slave market and trade were thriving. Slaves may be released by their owners in exchange for services given or by purchasing their freedom. According to some historians, slaves made up over a quarter of the Roman population.


Q4. Discuss the myth of Bacchus. Why do you think there was a clash in worshipping him?

Ans) Bacchus depicts the battle for power between the Gods and the common people/the divine and the human/the immortal and the mortal. Apart from a historical/ mythical context where Ovid introduces the founding of the city of Thebes and the mythology associated with it, what we find in Book ITT is mostly tales about how the Gods and humanity are always at odds, and how this leads to many tragic outcomes. The founding of 7hebes is an auspicious start to this book. Divine vengeance, on the other hand, quickly takes centre stage. Almost every main character is punished by the gods for committing a crime, whether they did so knowingly or unknowingly.


Actaeon is punished by Diana for stumbling upon her while she is naked. Sémele is punished by Juno for her liaison with Jupiter. Teiresias is likewise blinded as a result of his agreement with Jupiter. Pentheus is punished by Bacchus for failing to adore him. By emphasising the concept of vengeance, Ovid draws parallels with Virgil's Aeneid, which depicts Aeneas' journey to found a city and Juno's ensuing fury. Ovid outperforms Virgil, whose only antagonist was Juno. Three divine figures, according to Ovid, curse Cadmus' family and the founding of Thebes: Diana, Juno, and Bacchus. We notice that the Gods and Goddesses are depicted with more human and basic emotions such as rage, envy, and arrogance than with Godly thoughts. They are filled with zeal, and their excessive zeal causes them to mutate into something more human than divine. Every act of excess has repercussions.


On the one hand, we have Cadmus, who has been cast in the mould of the traditional epic hero — he is a great man who has had a series of extraordinary adventures, who has accomplished great feats, and who has now founded a city; on the other hand, we have his descendants / family members who are locked in a power struggle with the gods. So, in a way, Ovid appears to be challenging the epic convention, where on the one hand, the classical hero has accomplished everything and on the other, his family appears to be constantly engaged in a struggle with the gods, and these narratives appear to lend themselves well to other tragic endings.


Narcissus appears in the storey. Narcissus and Acho is a fascinating storey about a very attractive young man who is loved by both men and women, but who is so arrogant and full of himself that he is selfish, unkind, and mean, believing that none of his suitors are worthy of him, so he rejects them all until he is punished by the Gods when he falls in love with his own reflection, who, of course, does not love him back or respond to him, so he pines away and die In his situation, the mortals appear to be deserving of punishment for their cruelty and unkindness; for their very awful behaviour. Even Pentheus, who is set on showing Bacchus to be a false deity and disrespects him, falls into this category.


Another key reason why the Gods would be forced to punish mankind is if they committed acts of hubris or disrespect for the gods, as these two acts would blur the barriers between the mortal and immortal worlds. Narcissus is rejected by himself after rejecting all suitors. He becomes both the object and the subject of spurned love. The death of Pentheus is ironic for three reasons. First, his threat to kill Acoetes backfires when he is assassinated for impiety. Second, the followers of Bacchus mistake Pentheus for an animal, which is paradoxical given that Pentheus is neither an animal nor a transformed animal, as are many of the characters in the poem. Pentheus eventually becomes a key figure in a worship rite, despite his refusal to worship Bacchus, as he is sacrificed by his mother and aunt. Following his death, Thebes becomes the centre of Bacchus' adoration.

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