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BEGG-173: Academic Writing & Composition

BEGG-173: Academic Writing & Composition

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

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Assignment Code: BEGG-173/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: BEGG-173

Assignment Name: Academic Writing and Composition

Year: 2023-24

Verification Status: Verified by Professor



I Write short notes of about 100 words each on the following:


Q1) What are the components of the ‘pre-writing stage’ of the process approach to writing?

Ans) A number of components are included in the pre-writing stage, which is an essential component of the approach to the writing process:

a)     Planning: Generating ideas, selecting a topic, and brainstorming to outline thoughts.

b)     Research: Gathering information, facts, or data related to the chosen topic.

c)     Organizing: Structuring ideas and information coherently, creating an outline or framework.

d)     Setting Objectives: Defining the purpose and goals of the writing piece.

e)     Audience Analysis: Understanding the target audience to tailor the content accordingly.


These components help lay a strong foundation for effective writing by organizing thoughts and planning the structure of the piece.


Q2) What is the function of a ‘topic sentence’ in a paragraph?

Ans) Within the context of a paragraph, a topic sentence functions as the introductory statement, summarising the primary idea or theme of the paragraph.

It functions to:

a)     Introduce the Central Idea: An overview of the key point or theme that will be discussed in the paragraph is provided below.

b)     Provide Structure: It acts as a guide for the reader, offering a preview of what follows in the paragraph.

c)     Unity and Coherence: It ensures that the paragraph stays focused on a single idea, enhancing clarity and readability.

d)     Transition: It often links back to the preceding paragraph or thesis, creating continuity within the text.


Q3) Why are citations important in academic writing?

Ans) Citations are used extensively in academic writing for a number of reasons, including the following:

a)     Credit and Integrity: They acknowledge the sources of information, giving due credit to original authors and upholding academic honesty.

b)     Validation: Citations support the writer's arguments by providing evidence, adding credibility and authority to their work.

c)     Further Reading: They make it possible for readers to investigate and validate the content that is cited, which encourages more in-depth comprehension and study.

d)     Avoiding Plagiarism: Citations that are used correctly avoid the misuse of the work of another person, which helps to ensure that academic discourse is unique.


Q4) Explain the features of expository writing.

Ans) The purpose of expository writing is to provide information, explain, or describe a subject in a manner that is both clear and succinct.

Its features include:

a)     Clarity: Focuses on presenting facts, ideas, or explanations in a straightforward manner.

b)     Structure: Follows a logical and organized structure with a clear introduction, body, and conclusion.

c)     Objective Tone: Maintains an impartial and unbiased approach, avoiding personal opinions or emotions.

d)     Informational: Provides factual details, examples, and evidence to support the topic.

e)     Transitions: Employs transitional phrases to smoothly connect ideas and paragraphs.

f)      Precision: Emphasizes precise language and definitions to enhance understanding.


Q5) What aspects should be kept in mind while writing a business proposal?

Ans) Consider the following things when you are creating a proposal for a business:

a)     Clarity and Conciseness: Please provide a comprehensive explanation of the initiative, including its objectives and the benefits it offers.

b)     Understanding the Audience: Tailor the proposal to the needs and expectations of the audience.

c)     Compelling Content: Present a strong value proposition and benefits.

d)     Realistic Goals: Set achievable objectives and provide a clear plan to meet them.

e)     Professional Presentation: Use proper formatting, grammar, and visuals.

f)      Detailed Budget: Include a comprehensive and transparent budget breakdown.

g)     Call to Action: Encourage next steps or actions from the recipient.


Section B


II. Answer the following in around 200 words each:


Q1) What do you understand by the term ‘plagiarism’? How can you avoid plagiarism in your academic writing?

Ans) Plagiarism is defined as the conduct of using the thoughts, words, or work of another individual without giving them the appropriate acknowledgment or citation, and then passing them off as one's own. It constitutes a violation of academic integrity and constitutes an academic crime.

To avoid plagiarism:

a)     Cite Sources Properly: You are required to provide a citation for the source whenever you use the work or ideas of another individual, regardless of whether you are quoting, paraphrasing, or summarising.

b)     Use Quotation Marks: For direct quotations, quote marks should be used, and the source should be cited.

c)     Paraphrase Correctly: If rephrasing, ensure it is not merely replacing words but expressing the idea in your own words, followed by proper citation.

d)     Understand Referencing Styles: Learn and follow the referencing style (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) required by your institution.

e)     Credit All Sources: Acknowledge all sources used, including books, websites, articles, and even personal communications.

f)      Keep Notes: While researching, maintain detailed notes of sources to ensure accurate citations.

g)     Use Plagiarism Checkers: Utilize online tools or software that can verify the originality of your work before submission.


By respecting intellectual property, correctly attributing sources, and developing your ideas with honesty, you can avoid plagiarism in your academic writing.


Q2) Which are the disciplines that come under the stream of natural and applied sciences? Describe the general features of academic writing in these disciplines.

Ans) The natural and applied sciences encompass a wide range of disciplines, some of which are listed here, but this list is not exhaustive:

a)     Biology: Investigating living organisms and the relationships between them.

b)     Chemistry: Examining the qualities of matter and the reactions it undergoes.

c)     Physics: A comprehension of energy, matter, and the interplay between the two.

d)     Environmental Science: The study of the environment and the ecosystems that exist.

e)     Engineering: By applying scientific principles to the process of designing and constructing structures or systems.


Academic writing in these disciplines often shares several common features:

a)     Objective and Clear Language: When communicating information, it is important to use language that is clear, exact, and formal.

b)     Empirical Evidence: It is important to provide empirical evidence, experiments, or observations to back up claims and arguments.

c)     Structured Format: Maintain adherence to particular structures, which often consist of an abstract, an introduction, methods, results, discussion, and a conclusion.

d)     Citation of Sources: Place a strong emphasis on acknowledging reputable sources and providing detailed references.

e)     Technical Detail: Include technical details, formulas, and diagrams where needed for clarification.

f)      Avoidance of Personal Pronouns: Academic writing often avoids the use of first-person pronouns (I, we) to maintain objectivity.


III. Answer the following question in about 250 words.


Q1) Discuss the techniques understood to be the foundational elements of critical thinking skills.

Ans) Using critical thinking, which encompasses a number of techniques that strengthen analytical and evaluative abilities, it is feasible to successfully acquire, analyse, and synthesise knowledge. This is because critical thinking involves a few different tactics.

Some of the fundamental components are as follows:

a)     Analysis: Separating complicated information into its constituent elements in order to better understand its components and the connections between them. This involves determining the arguments, facts, and assumptions that are being made.

b)     Evaluation: Investigating the credibility, dependability, and validity of the information being considered. This involves discerning biases, recognizing logical fallacies, and appraising evidence.

c)     Inference: Drawing logical conclusions based on available evidence and reasoning. It requires making connections between various bits of information in order to arrive at a conclusion (or meaning).

d)     Interpretation: Understanding and explaining the significance or implications of information. This includes translating information into meaningful insights or conclusions.

e)     Explanation: Clearly and logically presenting one's thoughts or ideas to others. This involves articulating reasoning behind decisions or conclusions.

f)      Problem-Solving: Applying critical thinking skills to solve complex problems by identifying, analysing, and evaluating potential solutions.

g)     Reflection: Engaging in metacognition by reflecting on one's own thinking process, assumptions, biases, and perspectives.

h)     Creativity: Encouraging innovative thinking by exploring multiple perspectives, challenging existing ideas, and proposing alternative solutions or viewpoints.

i)       Active Listening and Observation: Engaging in attentive listening and keen observation to gather comprehensive information and understand different viewpoints.

j)       Curiosity and Open-Mindedness: Encouraging a curious attitude and being open to diverse ideas, perspectives, and feedback.


Section C


IV. Write a well structured composition on the topic:

Conservation of national monuments: our role as citizens. (Your essay should have a clear introduction, body and conclusion).

Ans) Conservation of national monuments stands as a shared responsibility for citizens to safeguard and preserve these historical treasures for future generations. Our role in this endeavour is pivotal, as custodians of our heritage.



National monuments embody the rich tapestry of our history, culture, and identity. These sites serve as living testaments to our past achievements, struggles, and cultural legacies. However, with time and neglect, many of these treasures face threats from urbanization, environmental degradation, and human activities.



Firstly, citizens must recognize the value of these monuments. These sites are not mere structures but repositories of collective memory. By understanding their historical significance, citizens can develop a sense of pride and ownership, fostering a deeper connection to these treasures.


Secondly, active participation in preservation efforts is crucial. This involves raising awareness about the importance of conservation, advocating for stricter regulations, and participating in cleanup and restoration activities. Additionally, supporting organizations and initiatives dedicated to monument conservation aids in their maintenance and protection.


Moreover, responsible tourism plays a significant role. Visitors must respect these sites by following guidelines, avoiding littering, and refraining from vandalism. Being mindful of our actions while visiting these places ensures their longevity.


Education and engagement are also vital components. Educating younger generations about the significance of these monuments installs a sense of responsibility and pride in their cultural heritage. Community engagement through workshops, seminars, and cultural events raises awareness and fosters a sense of collective responsibility.


Furthermore, citizen activism and advocacy are potent tools. Being vocal about the conservation of national monuments, advocating for better policies, and holding authorities accountable are ways to ensure that these sites receive the attention and protection they deserve.



In conclusion, the conservation of national monuments is not solely the responsibility of governing bodies or conservationists but requires active participation from every citizen. By valuing, preserving, and promoting our cultural heritage, we can ensure that these historical treasures stand the test of time. As custodians of our past, our actions today will determine the legacy we leave for the generations to come.


V) The Student Council of your college has conducted a meeting to organize a campaign to encourage planting of more trees in the neighbourhood. Write a brief report of the meeting.

Ans) Date: [Insert Date]

Location: [Insert Location]


Objective of the Meeting:

The meeting was convened by the Student Council to strategize and organize a campaign aimed at fostering tree planting within our neighbourhood.



The meeting was attended by members of the Student Council, faculty advisors, and interested students from various departments.


Key Discussion Points:


Campaign Framework:

The Council proposed a comprehensive campaign structure, emphasizing the need for a multi-phased approach. This included awareness drives, collaborative initiatives with local environmental groups, and direct engagement with the community.


Awareness Programs:

It was suggested to commence the campaign with an awareness drive, encompassing informative sessions, poster displays, and social media campaigns. Workshops on the benefits of tree planting and environmental sustainability were considered to engage the student body and local residents.


Collaboration and Sponsorship:

Engaging local environmental organizations and seeking sponsorships from businesses aligned with environmental causes were discussed. This collaboration aims to leverage expertise and resources to maximize the campaign's impact.


Tree Planting Event:

A large-scale tree planting event was proposed as a central activity of the campaign. The location, logistics, and procurement of saplings were deliberated. Suggestions were made to involve volunteers from the community and local schools to ensure active participation.


Follow-up and Sustainability:

The Council highlighted the importance of post-event activities, including tree maintenance and follow-up campaigns. Initiatives to involve the community in tree care and nurturing were proposed to ensure the sustainability of the planted trees.


Action Points:

Initiating an awareness campaign across campus and in the local community.

Establishing partnerships with environmental organizations.

Planning and execution of the tree planting event.

Post-event engagement and maintenance strategies.



The meeting concluded with a unanimous agreement on the campaign's outline and strategies. The Student Council is committed to spearheading the initiative, inviting participation from all interested parties to contribute to the neighbourhood’s greener and more sustainable future.


[Insert Name]

[Position], Student Council


VI. i) How is persuasive writing different from argumentative writing?

Ans)Persuasive writing and argumentative writing share similarities in their goal of convincing the audience, yet they differ in their approaches and intended outcomes.

Persuasive Writing:

Purpose: Persuasive writing aims to sway the audience's opinion, belief, or action by appealing to emotions, beliefs, or values.

Emphasis: It emphasizes the emotional aspect, focusing on evoking feelings and beliefs rather than presenting substantial evidence.

Tone and Language: It often uses emotive language, vivid imagery, anecdotes, and rhetorical devices to create a compelling and persuasive appeal.

Structure: The structure is more flexible, allowing for creative freedom. It includes a clear thesis, followed by supporting arguments, but it prioritizes emotional impact over strict logical reasoning.

Examples: Advertisements, political speeches, opinion columns, and editorials are common examples of persuasive writing.


Argumentative Writing:

Purpose: Argumentative writing seeks to present a well-supported argument or claim supported by facts, evidence, and logical reasoning.

Emphasis: It emphasizes logical reasoning, evidence, and factual information over emotional appeals.

Tone and Language: It employs a more formal tone, relying on data, statistics, research findings, and expert opinions to support the argument.

Structure: It adheres to a structured format with a clear thesis statement, logical reasoning, factual evidence, counterarguments, and a conclusion.

Examples: Academic essays, debates, legal briefs, and research papers are typical examples of argumentative writing.


Key Differences:

Emotional vs. Logical Appeal: Persuasive writing focuses on emotional appeal, while argumentative writing relies on logical reasoning and evidence.

Tone and Language: Persuasive writing uses emotive language, whereas argumentative writing employs formal language and evidence-based reasoning.

Structure: Persuasive writing allows more flexibility in structure, while argumentative writing follows a rigid structure with clear sections for arguments, evidence, and counterarguments.


Both types of writing aim to influence the audience, but they differ in their approaches and the weight they place on emotional versus logical persuasion.


ii) Write a promotional paragraph encouraging people to buy a new water filter that your company has just introduced into the market.

Ans) Introducing the Next Wave in Clean Water! 🌟


Experience the revolution in clean, pure hydration with our newest innovation - the Aquaflo Pro water filter! We understand the importance of ensuring your family's health, and that starts with the water they drink. Our cutting-edge filtration system is not just a product; it's a solution, crafted meticulously to elevate your drinking water to unparalleled purity.


💧 Pure and Pristine Water Quality: The Aquaflo Pro employs state-of-the-art technology, utilizing multiple layers of advanced filtration to eliminate impurities, contaminants, and odors, delivering water as nature intended - crisp, clear, and free from harmful particles.


💡 Innovation Redefined: Unlike ordinary filters, our Aquaflo Pro doesn't just stop at basic purification; it's designed to enhance the taste and quality of every sip. Say goodbye to chlorine aftertaste or sediment residues; revel in the pure essence of hydration with every pour.


🌿 Eco-Friendly and Economical: Not only does the Aquaflo Pro promote sustainability by reducing single-use plastic waste, but it also boasts longevity and efficiency. With its durable build and long-lasting filters, you'll enjoy months of pure water without the hassle of frequent replacements.


🏠 For Every Household: Whether it is for your family home, your workspace, or your outdoor adventures, the Aquaflo Pro is versatile and adaptable, ensuring clean, refreshing water is always within reach, no matter where you are.


👨‍👩‍👧‍👦 Healthier Living Starts Here: Investing in your family's health has never been easier. Join countless satisfied customers who have made the switch to Aquaflo Pro and experience the joy of pure, crystal-clear hydration that fuels healthier, happier lives.


Make the smart choice for a healthier tomorrow - choose Aquaflo Pro. Elevate your hydration experience today!

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