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BESC-131: Education: Concept, Nature and Perspectives

BESC-131: Education: Concept, Nature and Perspectives

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: BESC-131/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BESC-131

Assignment Name: Education: Concept, Nature and Perspectives

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Marks: 100


There are three Assignments. All questions are compulsory.


Assignment A


Answer the following in about 500 words each.


Q1) Explain the scope of education from the viewpoint of different learning environments such as informal, formal and non-formal education. 20

Ans) The scope of education from the viewpoint of different learning environments are as follows:


Informal Education

As the name implies, informal education takes place in any type of informal learning environment. There is no formality associated with this type of education. This is the most basic form of education, as well as the most broad-based in terms of nature and scope. As previously stated, the family or home of a child is the first social environment for informal education. Through his interactions with family members such as his mother, father, brothers, sisters, and others, he learns a variety of life skills, attitudes, social manners, and knowledge of his immediate environment. As a result, the family serves as a springboard for the child's future education. Previously, the family would also teach the children skills that would enable them to earn a living. Children are still indoctrinated into the family profession in rural areas and tribal societies. However, with the advent of industrialisation and the emergence of alternative modes of living, the family's role has diminished significantly, as most family professions fail to provide a decent living for the children.


A child gains a great deal of knowledge or skills outside of the family from a variety of informal educational institutions. Peer groups, the neighbourhood, the village community, market places, and so on are all places where children can be found. All of these unofficial organisations aid in the socialisation of children. Finally, we can say that informal education takes place in a large and diverse social space. In a limited and organised social environment, it is impossible to define its operation. Despite the fact that its operation is not aimed at achieving any explicit educational goals, there are educational goals implicit in the entire process of informal education. It is the simplest and most popular form of education.


Formal Education

Formal education arose as a result of informal education's inadequacy in transmitting the ever-growing body of knowledge to future members of society. As a result, the primary goal of formal education is to transmit the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs that a society has preserved and propagated. Education must be formalised and coordinated by an agency such as the State in order for societal knowledge to be transmitted, while keeping the broad societal goals in mind. As a result, it is the State's responsibility to carry out this function through its designated agencies, such as schools, colleges, and universities. Although formal education has become an indisputable component of a human being's 'education,' it also suffers from inadequacies in meeting the rising demand for education. As a result of the shortcomings of formal education, non-formal education arose to meet the ever-increasing demand for education.


Non-Formal Education

The origins of non-formal education can be found in the 1960s and 1970s. There was concern about unsuitable curricula during this time, as well as a realisation that educational growth and economic growth were not always in lockstep, and that jobs did not emerge directly as a result of educational inputs. It was difficult for many countries to fund the expansion of formal education. The aforementioned development demonstrated that formal education systems were unable to keep up with the socioeconomic changes that were occurring around them. Second, in its landmark report of the International Education Commission, 'Learning to Be,' published in 1972, UNESCO promoted the concept of lifelong learning and the learning society. Third, the concept of ‘reschooling,' coined by the great American educator Ivan Illich, highlighted the inadequacy of the formal education system, such as the school, in meeting human learning needs. All of these developments contributed to the global spread of non-formal education systems. Despite the fact that these were western developments, many socialist countries such as Russia, Cuba, Tanzania, Somalia, and Nicaragua used successful mass literacy campaigns that could be classified as non-formal education.


Non-formal education, like formal education, is an organised activity that takes place outside of the formal educational structure, as defined above. It also aspires to meet pre-determined educational goals. Non-formal education, on the other hand, always caters to the learning needs of a specific target group, unlike formal education. There are a variety of non-formal initiatives and programmes that can be found in a country. Adult education programmes, basic education programmes, literacy programmes, health awareness programmes, programmes for school dropouts, agricultural extension programmes, and other non-formal education programmes are all examples of non-formal education in India.


Q2) Discuss educational philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi with special reference to aims of education, curriculum, pedagogy and role of teachers. 20

Ans) Mahatma Gandhi's educational philosophy is a harmonious blend of idealism, naturalism, and pragmatism. Gandhi's approach to education is unique. His concept of vocational education was so novel that it is still promoted by the Indian government today.


Aims of Education


Objectives of Education: The ultimate goal of new education is not only a balanced and harmonious individual, but also a balanced and harmonious society – a just social order in which there is no artificial divide between haves and have-nots, and everyone is guaranteed a living wage and the right to freedom.


Education through Craft: This scheme is unique in that education will be provided through village crafts. Gandhi developed his ideas on education in response to the need for a machine-free society. The introduction of productive handicrafts into the school curriculum was at the heart of his proposal. The goal was not just to make handicrafts a mandatory school subject, but to make learning a craft the focal point of the entire educational programme. Spinning, weaving, leatherwork, pottery, metalwork, basket-making, and bookbinding had previously been the exclusive domain of specific caste groups in the traditional social hierarchy.


Curriculum: In Gandhi's scheme, the curriculum is activity-based and craft-based. “Craft occupies the position of the sun in the vast solar system of human life,” as M.S Patel put it, “satisfying our material needs in perfect harmony with the higher values of life.”


The subject in the curriculum includes in the following:

  1. Agriculture, spinning, weaving, and other basic crafts

  2. Mother-tongue.

  3. Mathematics is useful in the arts and in everyday life.

  4. Social studies include topics such as community social and economic life, community culture, and craft history, among others.

  5. Nature study, zoology, physiology, hygiene, physical culture, anatomy, and so on are all examples of general science.

  6. Drawing and music are two of my favourite things.


Up to the fifth grade, Gandhiji advocated for uniform education for boys and girls, followed by diversified education, with general science being replaced by domestic science for girls and craft for both. He placed a premium on the development of good handwriting. Another characteristic of the scheme is the correlation technique. Instead of role memory, this will encourage self-activity. Gandhiji proposed a life-centered and activity-centered curriculum in which knowledge and skills are taught through self-sustaining productive crafts.


Pedagogy of Teaching


Gandhiji's educational goals were not the same as those in use at the time. Subject-centered education was the norm in the past. Gandhiji despised that educational method and emphasised the importance of using crafts and vocations as a means of education. He wished that some local craft be used as a medium of education for children so that they can develop their bodies, minds, and souls in a balanced manner while also meeting the goals and needs of their future lives. Gandhiji's teaching method was thus distinct from the current one.


He emphasized the importance of the following principles in his method of teaching:

  1. Training of the senses and body parts should be provided in order to achieve mental development.

  2. The teaching of writing should be preceded by the teaching of reading.

  3. Art training should be given before teaching alphabets.

  4. More opportunities for learning by doing should be provided.

  5. Learning through experience should be encouraged.

  6. In terms of teaching methods and learning experiences, correlation should be established.

  7. The medium of instruction will be the mother tongue.

  8. As the foundation of all education, productive craft.

  9. Activities that are both creative and productive are used to teach.

  10. Activities that are both creative and productive are used to teach.

  11. Self-experience, service and participation, and learning by doing.

  12. Methods include lecture, questioning, and discussion.

  13. To personal study, oral instruction is given.

  14. The vocational training should be woven into all syllabi.


Role of Teacher


He envisioned the teacher as a role model, a reflection of society, and a collection of virtues. He preferred that teachers teach by example rather than by precept. He was against the use of corporal punishment. How could a nonviolence apologist advocate something so heinous? A good teacher must be well-educated, skilled, and a man of knowledge, faith, action, and devotion. The statues of their students are carved by their teachers. A teacher should be a person of great character, a symbol of values, well-disciplined, have a distinct personality, be cultured, and have a positive mentality. His calmness and magnanimity should stand out and shine. He should be courteous, religious, and knowledgeable. In matters of knowledge and seduction, he should be a psychologist, philosopher, historian, and technologist. For imparting knowledge to the students – the valuable pearls – he should be a guide, mentor, and guru.



Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.


Q3) Discuss the factors that affect social change with suitable examples. 10

Ans) Social change is a multi-faceted and complex concept. Social change is influenced by both endogenous (internal to the society) and exogenous (external to the society) factors. The following are the major factors that influence and contribute to social change:


Psychological Factors: Social change is influenced by psychological factors. Humans are change-lovers by nature. Humans are always on the lookout for new experiences and learning new things in all aspects of their lives. As a result of this nature and habit, the majority of human society's traditions, customs, and so on are subject to constant change.


Values and Beliefs: Max Webber's book, "Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism," clearly demonstrates the importance of values in social change. Webber proposed that doctrines or ideas could influence the direction of social change in some historical situations. He attempted to demonstrate that Asiatic Protestantism's religious values were central to the rise of modern capitalism. The society's beliefs and values influence change in a variety of ways, and they frequently slow down societal change.


Ideological Factors: Because of ideas and ideological factors, social change occurs in society. Changes in social structure and relationships can be influenced by political, social, and religious ideologies. The doctrines of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, and other religions also have an impact on social change.


Culture: Culture has an impact on not only our social relationships, but also on the direction and nature of technological change. Every society has a distinct culture. Individual and group customs and traditions, beliefs and values, norms and standards of living all have an impact on social change. Because change isn't something that happens overnight, it's the ever-present cultural norms and standards that influence societal change.


War: War affects the population, the economy, the gender ratio, living standards, and other factors that lead to social change. Many wars throughout history have resulted in societal changes.


New Opinions and Thoughts: The emergence of new ideas and opinions is another factor in social change. Contributions of social reformers, sociologists, educators, statesmen, technologists, and innovators in the field of science and technology, among others, have proven to be instrumental in bringing about social changes at various times around the world.


Acceptance by High Status Individuals: Any change in society would be more easily accepted if those in positions of power accepted it.


Demographic Factor: The population has a significant impact on social change. The possibility of social change is also affected by population growth or decline. As a result of these factors, the country's society is undergoing rapid structural change. Any population change has an immediate impact on the economy, institutions, and associations. Marriage, family, and the status of women in a society are all affected by the male-female ratio in a society.


Education: All of the above are undeniably important components of social change. However, education has always played a critical role in bringing about social change. According to sociologists, education is responsible for all societal changes, including advancements in science and technology, art and music, values and ethics, language and literature, and so on. Education, without a doubt, is the most important factor in social change. We'll get into more detail about education and social change in the next section.


Q4) Describe the functions of school as an agency for the socialization of the child. 10

Ans) The school is both an educational institution and a miniature version of society. It includes teachers, students, parents, and the government, among other stakeholders. The schools each have their own culture and social environment. The School's socialisation function is also crucial. When a child enters school, the process of socialisation that takes place in the home continues. The school engages in a variety of activities at various levels in order to ensure the child's overall personality development. As a result, school is critical in laying the foundation for a child's personality development in terms of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, moral, and spiritual growth.


Functions of School as an Agency for the Socialisation of the Child


Imparts Life Skills Education: In today's society, students are expected to learn life skills such as self-awareness, effective communication, creative thinking, critical thinking, problem-solving ability, stress management, emotional management, and so on. Life skills, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), are the abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable people to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. The World Health Organization has recommended ten life skills. Self-awareness, empathy, critical thinking, creative thinking, decision-making, problem-solving, effective communication, interpersonal relationships, stress management, and emotion management are all examples of these skills.


Promotes Functional Literacy: Basic academic skills such as reading, writing, and arithmetic are developed in students at school. Literacy is defined as having a working knowledge of the three Rs. School not only promotes general literacy, but it also helps students become functionally literate. Functional literacy refers to the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values that enable a person to face life's challenges and live comfortably in society.


Fosters Creativity: School provides an environment in which children's creative minds can flourish. It encourages kids to think outside the box and come up with new ideas. It encourages young children to think creatively. There are activities in school, such as projects, that require students to demonstrate their creativity. Scientific exhibitions give kids a chance to show off their inventiveness by showcasing cutting-edge scientific discoveries. School provides students with opportunities to learn new things and share what they've learned. As a result, school serves as a breeding ground for new ideas, innovative thinking, scientific observation, and inquiry, among other things.


Teaches Learners to Live Together: The task of education, according to the Delors Commission, is to teach both the diversity of the human race and an awareness of the similarities and interdependence of all humans at the same time. As a result, schools must begin teaching these two concepts as early as the preschool years. School actually allows students to learn about the cultures of their peers. Students are taught to respect the viewpoints of other ethnic or religious groups, as well as to accept the feelings and beliefs of their peers. Children's religious harmony is promoted at school. The kids learn to get along with people from different groups. It aids in the development of a receptive mind.


Q5) Describe the characteristics of experimental method as a method of educational psychology. 10

Ans) Educational psychology is a sub-discipline of general psychology that focuses on educational issues. As a result, it makes use of psychological research findings and principles to improve the teaching-learning process. The main goal of educational psychology is to develop necessary skills and competencies in prospective teachers so that they can understand, control, and predict learner behaviour at various levels of education. To do so, a variety of methods are used to collect data on the learners' behavioural issues. In general, educational psychology employs methods that are similar to those used in general psychology, such as introspection, observation, experimentation, case study, and clinical methods.


The importance of the experiments and the observed outcomes is emphasised in the experimental method. This method puts the phenomenon or material to the test. For the scientific study of human behaviour, this technique was developed in psychology. This method aids in the comprehension, control, and prediction of behaviour. The experimental method is well-thought-out and is based on careful observation of the phenomenon. The experimental design is used in this method to give the researcher important guidelines for conducting research in a systematic manner. For his or her experiment, the experimenter requires a laboratory, a classroom, or any other location in the community. This method is used to compare the behaviour of the controlled and experimental groups.


Characteristics of Experimental Method


  1. It allows us to study behaviour in a controlled environment.

  2. It has a scientific bent to it.

  3. The method used in the experiment can be easily replicated.

  4. It is based on the randomization process.

  5. The conclusions or results reached using this method are reliable and generalizable.



Assignment C


Answer the following questions in about 125 words each.


Q6) Discuss role of family as an agency for the development of education of the child. 5

Ans) The child's development and education are actively supported by the family. There are family members who are emotionally attached to the child and actively participate in his or her development.

Role of Family as an Agency for the Development of Education of the Child


Physical Development: The child spends his or her early years with his or her family. During childhood, the primary focus should be on the child's physical development. The family should monitor the child's diet and ensure that he or she is properly nourished. Furthermore, it should involve the child in age-appropriate games and activities for his or her physical development.


Social Development: When a child receives love and affection from his or her family, the first act of socialisation occurs. The family is the first social institution in which a child is socialised. The child's social development is influenced by the family's love, affection, recognition, security, approval, freedom, and other factors. The parents teach their children how to act in a morally upright manner. He or she also observes his or her parents' daily activities, which have an impact on his or her social behaviour. The way the family conducts itself has an impact on the child's future role and performance.


Emotional Development: The emotional development of the child is influenced by the parents' behaviour. Needless to say, the child forms an emotional bond with his or her parents first. The feelings of 'acceptance,' 'love and belonging,' and 'togetherness' come from the family, which helps the child develop emotional maturity.


Mental Development: Mental development of a child, like physical growth, occurs in the family. The child learns various signs and symbols, as well as speeches and imitates others in the family, from the time he or she is born. Informally, the child is educated by the family through various actions, plays, and stories.


Moral and Religious Development: The parents are the child's first role models. Children are usually observant of their parents' values and behaviours. Children develop a value system as a result of their parents' actions. Their parents teach them to distinguish between right and wrong. Parents keep an eye on their children's immoral behaviour from the beginning. The moral and spiritual activities that are practised in the family help to develop the children's value system.


Q7) Explain the concept of Metaphysics and its relation with education. 5

Ans) Metaphysics entails the investigation of the nature of ultimate reality as well as speculation on the nature of existence. It poses the question of what is truly genuine. How one perceives relationships to the universe and society is determined by one's belief about the nature of reality.


The subjects or areas of study, experiences, and skills in the curriculum reflect the society's conception of reality, which supports educational institutions. Many school subjects, such as history, geography, and chemistry, teach students about different aspects of reality. If a student concludes that the universe as a whole has no purpose in high school science, it follows that his or her life must mean only what he or she personally determines it should mean. Again, in Geography, concepts like earth measurement, altitude, weather and environment in different regions, different land forms and appropriateness of crops in those land forms, and so on, are the discipline's knowledge base; however, when we say the existence and reality of that geographical substance and its utilitarian qualities for human society, we're talking about Metaphysics. As a result, various disciplines have a knowledge base that also addresses the reality of that knowledge, implying Metaphysics. When it comes to addressing knowledge aspects, the metaphysical views of contents in a field of study are properly addressed in the design of school textbooks, curriculum, and teaching methods.


Q8) Concept and aims of education as per John Dewey. 5

Ans) John Dewey defined education as "education is life itself, not a preparation for life." Education is for the child, not the other way around, i.e., education is not for the child. A child isn't a Tabula Rasa (blank slate) on which anyone can write anything. A child is born with certain innate abilities and powers that can be developed in the right way. Education helps a child grow up to be able to find values and truth in every activity and experiment they do at all levels, and to face future challenges with confidence.


Aims of Education

An experience or an action, according to Dewey, leads to the development of an idea. That which is gained through direct experience is true knowledge. These ideas are referred to as education by Dewey.


As educational goals, he has listed the following:


Philosophy as a Product of Education: Dewey does not regard education as a dynamic aspect of philosophy; rather, he regards education as a by-product of philosophy. “Philosophy is the most general phase of education theory,” he says.


Education means Life: “Education is life itself, not a preparation for life,” according to Dewey. Education is a way of life, not a way of preparing for a future life. Only theoretical knowledge is useless; knowledge that can be applied in real life should be prioritised. As a result, behavioural and vocational skills are more crucial.


Education is a Miniature Society: Individual growth occurs in the context of society. While living in society, he/she acquires a variety of experiences. “Education is the social continuity of life,” according to John Dewey. He sees education as a tool for eradicating social evils. He sees it as a small form of society where civilization's best practises are available. “An individual is the soul of the body that is society,” Dewey says.


Education is the Process of Reconstruction of Experiences: Dewey didn't just mean political democracy when he said democratic society; he also meant democracy as a way of life. He believes that because people have different experiences, they have different actions. Individuals in a democracy are thus complementary to one another as well as adversaries. Only social and individual development takes place in such an environment. True knowledge is gained through experience for a child. Slowly, as his/her experiences grow, so does his/her knowledge. The child's behaviour changes as a result of his or her experiences, and as a result, he or she gains more experiences.


Q9) Differentiate between enculturation and acculturation. 5

Ans) The differences between enculturation and acculturation are as follows:

  1. Both enculturation and acculturation are socialisation processes that occur in a society.

  2. Whereas enculturation is a process that aids a person in imbibing the social values, norms, and customs of the culture in which he lives, acculturation is a two-way change process that occurs when two cultures collide.

  3. Both cultures experience changes as a result of acculturation, though the minority culture is most affected by changes in language, clothing, customs, and practises.

  4. Enculturation aids a person's survival and integration into the culture in which he finds himself.

  5. In some countries, there is no distinction between the two terms, and acculturation and enculturation are considered synonymous.


Q10) Discuss educational implications of social constructivism. 5

Ans) The educational implication of social constructivism are as follows:

  1. It allows for reciprocal teaching, in which students take on the role of teacher and the teacher assists them as a facilitator when they encounter difficulties.

  2. Summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting are four key skills that teachers and students work together to learn and practise. Over time, the teacher's role in the teaching-learning process diminishes.

  3. Scaffolding provided by teachers or peers assists the learner in organising or structuring the learning task so that he or she can complete it successfully.

  4. It allows students to engage in creative activities and organise their thoughts on their own.

  5. It aids the transition from a teacher-centered to a learner-centered approach to teaching.

  6. It allows for the acquisition of new knowledge as well as the expansion of existing knowledge by the learner.

  7. It allows for the investigation, clarification, and discussion of inconsistencies.

  8. It aids in the discovery of an individual's intellectual potential.

  9. In this method, the teacher keeps an eye on the students and guides them to the correct answer while encouraging critical thinking.

  10. It allows for situated learning, in which students are taught in a relevant or authentic context.

  11. It promotes collaboration and teamwork.


Q11) Explain the phases of creativity. 5

Ans) The phases of creativity are as follows:


First Insight: First and foremost, an idea that something needs to be done must be generated in one's mind. John Milton had the idea for an epic poem long before he wrote "Paradise Lost."


Preparation: The creator engages in extensive reading, discussion, questioning, collection, and exploration in order to come up with the concept. Before expressing his memories and emotions on canvas, a painter may sit for days on the hillside observing different shades of light and filling them up with his memories and emotions.


Incubation: Immersion in the subject matter is required for creative thinking to occur. The creator stops thinking when the mind has finished working consciously, causing all kinds of frustration. It's the period when ideas go underground, forming unexpected connections before coming to the surface. Inspiration can strike at any time, whether it's six months, six hours, or six minutes.


Illumination: Then, all of a sudden, a spark of thought emerges that enjoys the various ideas. After years of hard work, Newton saw an apple fall in his garden one day in 1685, which he turned into the ‘law of gravitation.'


Verification: It is the difficult process of refining, altering, correcting, and communicating the idea that arose from a sliver of inspiration. Newton spent a long time testing his theories.

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