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BESC-133: Curriculum, Teaching-Learning and Assessment

BESC-133: Curriculum, Teaching-Learning and Assessment

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BESC-132/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BESC-132

Assignment Name: Structure and Management of Education

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Marks: 100


There are three Assignments. All questions are compulsory.


Assignment A


Answer the following in about 500 words each.


Q1. What do you understand by three language formula? Discuss the challenges being faced in its implementation in India. 20

Ans) Because India is a multilingual society, a uniform medium of instruction was deemed impractical. The importance of mother tongue in expanding educational opportunities was recognised. “It shall be the endeavour of the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups, and the President may issue such directions to any State as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provisions of such” says Article 354 of the Indian Constitution. The language policy, which emerged as a political consensus during India's formative years, is an example of democratic processes in action. After a quarter-century of debate and deliberation by educational advisory bodies and politicians representing national and regional interests from political and academic perspectives, the three-language formula emerged as a policy or strategy.


In the 1940s, the Central Advisory Board on Education (CABE), India's oldest statutory body on education, began discussing languages in school education, and it remained a major topic of discussion until 1960. CABE identified five major issues that needed to be addressed:

  1. The number of languages that will be taught at different levels of schooling.

  2. Second and third languages are introduced.

  3. English's place in the world and its function.

  4. Hindi's place in the world and its function.

  5. Sanskrit and other minor languages are taught in schools.


Three Language Formula

The Education Commission took a comprehensive look at the study of languages in schools and made concrete recommendations. The Commission recommended a modified or graduated three-language formula, considering the diversity of the Indian context:

  1. The mother tongue or the local dialect.

  2. So long as it exists, the official language of the union or the associate official language of the union.

  3. A modern Indian or foreign language that is not covered by (1) or (2) and is not used as a medium of instruction.


The Commission's observations on the status and role of English are significant in terms of language planning and policy planners' perceptions of the language. Regional languages are already being taught in primary and secondary schools, according to the NPE. At the secondary level, state governments should adopt and vigorously implement the three-language formula, which includes the study of a modern Indian language, preferably one of the southern languages, in addition to Hindi and English in Hindi-speaking states and Hindi, the regional language, and English in non-Hindi-speaking states. The use of mother tongue/local language/regional language as a medium of instruction at the school level has also been advocated by the National Education Policy.


The three-language formula will continue to be implemented while keeping in mind the Constitutional provisions, aspirations of the people, regions, and the Union, and the need to promote multilingualism as well as national unity, according to point no. 4.13 of NEP-2020. The three-language formula, on the other hand, will have more flexibility, and no language will be imposed on any State. So long as at least two of the three languages are native to India, the three languages learned by children will be determined by states, regions, and, of course, the students themselves.


Q2. Why do we require a regulatory body for pre-primary and elementary education in India?

Critically reflect on the roles and functions of SCERT of your State to ensure quality pre-primary and elementary education. 20

Ans) Education is under the control of the Centre and the states/UTs in India because it is part of the concurrent list of our constitution. Both have responsibilities that have been assigned to them. NCERT serves as a regulatory body for school education at the national level, while SCERT serves as a coordination body for school-related activities at the state level. SCERTs were first established on January 5, 1979. The state's State Council of Educational Research and Training has a Program Advisory Committee, which is chaired by the state's Education Minister. For programmes such as In-Service Education, Educational Research, Policy Perspectives and Innovations, Educational Technology, Population Education, Universal Elementary Education, and Nonformal Education, SCERT has Special Advisory Committees and departments. Its main responsibilities include the planning, management, research, training, and evaluation of all academic programmes from kindergarten to higher education.


Role and Functions of SCERT

  1. For the implementation of its various projects in school education, it collaborates with NCERT, UNICEF, MHRD, UNESCO, the World Bank, and other agencies.

  2. Creating a Work Plan for the Year, Coordinating with the SCERT's various divisions, as well as all relevant national and state-level agencies.

  3. Controlling and supervising are two things that come to mind when it comes to controlling and supervising.

  4. Curriculum and textbooks for government schools in the state are being developed in light of the National Curriculum Frameworks.

  5. Innovating for pedagogical excellence and organising a capacity-building programme for in-service teachers in the state/UT.

  6. In collaboration with the Department of School Education, SSA, RMSA, DIETs, and others, a coordinating agency for in-service teacher training in the state.

  7. Conducting a State-wide Educational Survey on Learning Outcomes

  8. Assessment and action research

  9. Providing financial support for research projects in schools.

  10. Principals/Heads/Teachers/Teacher Educators, as well as other education, are trained.

  11. BRCs and CRCs are examples of administrators.

  12. Supervising the operations of elementary teacher-education colleges and schools.

  13. Ensure that School Leadership trainings are monitored and evaluated on a regular basis.

  14. Assist in the successful mainstreaming of children with special needs.

  15. All national and state-level schools are led and coordinated.

  16. Creating a wide range of teaching materials, digital learning resources, and technological tools.

  17. Coordination of various capacity-building programmes organised by national and regional agencies.

  18. Creating a database of teachers and educator-teachers.

  19. To provide academic support to teachers, a training package and teaching learning materials are being developed.

  20. Organizing seminars, workshops, and exhibits for teachers and students of various levels.

  21. Conducting action research, policy research, and other evaluative studies on educational issues.

  22. Serving as a clearinghouse for government and private institutions offering Diploma in Elementary Education programmes.

  23. All districts' District Institutes of Education and Training are coordinated and monitored.

  24. Organizing personal contact programmes for correspondence courses for teachers, teacher-educators, and inspecting officers' professional development.

  25. Implementing and evaluating the Government of India's adult and non-formal education programmes.



Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.


Q3. Discuss the role and functions of National Medical Commission (NMC) in India. 10

Ans) The National Medical Commission (NMC) was established by Parliament through the National Medical Commission Act, 2019, which took effect on September 25, 2020.

Roles and Functions of National Medical Commission

  1. Establish policies and regulations to ensure that medical education remains of high quality and meets high standards.

  2. Set policies for regulating medical institutions, medical research, and medical professionals, as well as the regulations that are required in this regard.

  3. Assess healthcare requirements, including human resources for health and healthcare infrastructure, and create a road map for meeting them.

  4. Take whatever steps are necessary to ensure that state medical councils follow the guidelines and regulations established under this act in order for it to function effectively.

  5. Establish policies and codes to ensure that professional ethics are followed in the medical profession and to encourage ethical behaviour by medical practitioners while providing care.

  6. Establish guidelines for calculating fees and other charges for the fifty percent. Seats in private medical institutions and universities that are deemed to be universities and are subject to the provisions of this act.


Q4. Why do we need privatization of higher education in India? Discuss the benefits and concerns associated with privatization of higher education. 10

Ans) India's higher education system is the world's third largest, serving the educational needs of millions of young people. Higher education is concerned about privatisation, the introduction of professional courses, foreign universities, fake universities, and other issues. The following are some of the hot topics in higher education:


Access and Equity: Every progressive society ensures that all members of society have access to higher education. Higher education in India has a 30% enrolment rate, which is lower than in other countries such as the United States and China. You are aware that Indian society is diverse in terms of social, economic, and cultural settings, which is why access and equity, particularly for SC, ST, and female students, is a major challenge for the Indian higher education system. In this regard, the government must take steps to reduce disparities and provide affirmative action to various social groups.


Quality Higher Education: Teaching, research, and direct contact with the community for knowledge extension are the functions of higher education. Higher education is expanding all over the world, but the quality is a serious concern. Higher education institutions' educational quality is frequently questioned. Quality infrastructure, qualified teachers, and other support services will take time. Apart from these, plagiarism is a serious issue in academic and research papers. As a result, the research environment should be improved by initiating collaborative and need-based research, and the government should increase research funding. Internal and external agencies should conduct academic and administrative audits on a regular basis to improve quality.


ICT and Education: With the advancement of technology, new communication technologies for the teaching-learning process have been developed. Education has become more accessible as a result of technological advancements, which have improved the effectiveness of teaching and made learning more accessible. Various universities and educational organisations around the world have created various web-based courses. Many educational institutions now have access to the internet, computers, laptops, tablets, and other gadgets, but many others do not.


Open and Distance Learning: ODL is a supplement to traditional education for those who are unable to attend classes in person, but there are some drawbacks. To streamline the ODL system, it is necessary to update the curriculum on a regular basis, implement ICT-based instruction, and implement new assessment and evaluation strategies.


Teacher Education: Teacher education is professional development for teachers and keeps them up to date. It is suggested that the educational revolution begin with teacher education. Objectives, curriculum, programme duration, and evaluation strategies, among other things, are perennial topics of debate among stakeholders and policymakers. Regularity, malpractices in evaluation, a lack of optimal school exposure and practical activities, a mismatch between demand and supply, privatisation, and commercialization are among the major concerns of teacher training institutions.


Vocational Education: One of the goals of education is to enable students to earn a living after graduation, to become productive members of society, and to contribute to national development. Vocational education is critical for a country like India, which benefits from a large demographic dividend. As a result, more vocational education courses and institutions with high-quality workforce and infrastructure should be established, while the status of existing institutions should be improved.


Public Private Partnership (PPP) Model: PPP is a model for education investment and planning in which the government and private sector collaborate. It is necessary for a developing country like India to improve its education system in terms of quality, investments, infrastructure, and gross enrolment ratio, but the government finds it difficult to invest large sums of money in education. As a result, if the government and the private sector collaborate to improve the educational system, the government's burden will be reduced.


Autonomy and Accountability of Higher Education: Autonomy in university and higher education refers to the freedom to make policies and decisions in academic and professional areas. Although it is claimed that higher education should not be heavily influenced by external forces and governments, it has been discovered that external forces do, in fact, interfere with university/institutional concerns such as course and curriculum, teaching methods, and evaluation patterns.


Q5. What are the benefits of managing assessment and evaluation in online mode? Give example of at least five different tools and their utility in online assessment of learners. 10

Ans) The benefits of managing assessment and evaluation in online mode are as follows:

  1. Through a variety of devices, including traditional desktop computers or laptops, as well as portable communication devices like smart phones and iPad.

  2. It can involve complex simulations or games, and it can use a variety of formats, including text documents or portable document formats, multimedia formats such as sound, video, or images.

  3. Students can work in groups or individually.

  4. In either a synchronous or ad hoc manner.


Different Tools and their Utility in Online Assessment of Learners


Content Authoring Tools: They also include features for creating, administering, and grading quizzes and other types of questions for assessment as the learner progresses through the e-content. Open-source authoring tools such as eXelearning, xerte, adapt, and Learner Activity Management System (LAMS) can create a variety of assessment types such as cloze, multi select, multiple-choice, true-false, fill-in-the-blanks, matching, drag-and-drop, and more.


LMS based Assessment Tools: Moodle and other learning management systems (LMS) have the ability to create, manage, and administer question banks and items. Essays, matching, embedded answers (cloze test / gap fill), multiple-choice, short answer, numerical, true/false, drag and drop, jigsaw, ordering, multi select, and other types of tests are available.


Assessment Tools: There are assessment creation tools that can be used to create assessments that the teacher can use creatively.


The Hot Potatoes Suite: It's freeware that comes with six applications that let you make interactive multiple-choice, short-answer, jumbled sentence, crossword, matching/ordering, and gap-fill exercises for the web.


Rogô: The University of Nottingham has created a comprehensive assessment management system. It can be used to make and distribute online tests. This online system facilitates the entire process, from the creation of questions and papers to the analysis of examination results and the generation of reports. Multiple-choice questions (MCQs), multiple response questions (MRQs), extended matching, flash interface, fill-in-the-blank, image hotspots, labelling, likert scales, ranking, script concordance test (SCT), text boxes, and true-false questions are examples of question types. It can be used for formative and summative assessments, surveys, and a variety of other assessments.



Assignment C


Answer the following questions in about 125 words each.


Q6. Discuss various types of higher education institutions in India. 5

Ans) Universities and colleges are two types of higher education institutions in India. They can be divided into the following categories:

Central Universities: An Act of Parliament establishes a Central University. In India, there are 45 Central Universities at the moment.


State Public Universities: These universities are created by a State Legislative Act. There are currently 318 State universities in the United States.


Open Universities: Institutions that fall into this category provide open and distance education in any branch or branches of knowledge. Only one central open university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, and 14 state open universities exist at the moment.


Deemed Universities: Deemed Universities are high-performing higher education institutions. They are given university status and are able to award their own degrees. There are 33 Deemed University-Government, 10 Deemed University-Government Aided, and 80 Deemed University-Private, according to AISHE.


Institutes of National Importance: There are currently 101 Institutes of National Importance, which have been granted the status of "National Importance" by an Act of Parliament.


Public Universities: A society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 and or any other corresponding law, for the time being, in force in a state or a public trust or a company registered under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 through a State/Central act is responsible for the management of private universities.


Institute Under State Legislature Act: These are institutions that have been established or incorporated as a result of legislation passed by the state legislature. They are classified as higher education institutions. There are currently five such institutes.


Q7. Explain some important characteristic features of open and distance learning. 5

Ans) The important characteristic features of open and distance learning are as follows:


ODL as any Time Opportunity in Life: ODL provides the opportunity to learn whenever and wherever the learner is willing and ready to learn, regardless of age. As a result, students can enrol at any age and complete their studies.


ODL as an Alternative to Formal Higher Education: In India, ODL has established itself as a cost-effective alternative to higher education. Many learners who cannot afford formal higher education use the ODL Mode to complete their tertiary education.


Lifelong and Continuous Learning for Working Professionals and Others: Without leaving their workplace, teachers, development workers, and others who are working but need to update their knowledge and skills have a good opportunity for professional development.


Reaching the Unreached: In India, a large portion of the population remains outside of the higher education system, which is inaccessible for a variety of reasons. Women, people from socially and economically marginalised groups, defence personnel, jail inmates, and members of the LGBT community have all benefited from the open education system because they can study at their own pace, in their own place, and at their own time.


Flexible Learning Options: The programmes are designed to provide learners with flexibility and choice. They can choose from a variety of courses based on their needs and preferences, earn as many credits as they need, and then leave the programme. In a number of courses, there are entry and exit points.


Q8. Explain the role of vocational education for national development. 5

Ans) The role of vocational education in India in serving goals such as:

  1. Provide for the holistic development of young people and the enhancement of their employability by equipping them with a diverse set of skills.

  2. Assist in boosting the country's economic growth.

  3. In light of current economic and technological innovations, meet the demand of the manufacturing and service sectors.

  4. Reduce the number of educated youth who are unemployed or underemployed.

  5. Enhance the skills of artisans and craftsmen who work in traditional occupations.

  6. Encourage the country's natural, physical, and human resources to be used sustainably and productively for the economy's overall growth.

  7. Assist in improving the health and sanitation of rural and marginalised communities.

  8. By providing science and technology inputs, traditional employment-generating enterprises can be modernised.

  9. Develop the knowledge system, society, and workers in the field of knowledge.

  10. Provide opportunities for skill development that are relevant to the changing nature of the labour market.


Q9. Discuss the structure and functioning of Navodaya Vidyalaya? 5

Ans) The Navodaya Vidyalayas are fully residential and co-educational institutions in which children from urban areas are only admitted to 25% of the seats, with the remaining 75% reserved for children from rural areas. The identification and development of talented, bright, and gifted children from rural areas, who would otherwise be denied good educational opportunities, is envisaged as a new style of growth. One of the unique features of the Navodaya Vidyalaya Scheme is migration, in which 30 percent of class IX students from a Vidyalaya in a Hindi-speaking area spend one academic year in a Vidyalaya in a non-Hindi-speaking area and vice versa, in order to promote national integration through an understanding of the diversity, language, and culture of the country's people. Navodaya Vidyalayas are trailblazers in the field of education and in the fields in which they work. It offers free education up to the senior secondary school level. The central government covers the entire cost of education in these schools, including boarding, lodging, textbooks, uniforms, and so on. Up to the senior secondary level, Navodaya Vidyalayas provide education in Humanities, Commerce, Science, and Vocational subjects. In these schools, a three-language formula is used, with a focus on diagnostic and remedial instruction. It aims to provide talented children from rural areas with a high-quality modern education that includes values instillation, environmental awareness, recreational activities, and physical education.


Q10. Describe the recommendations of NEP 2020 regarding restructuring of school education in India. 5

Ans) The NEP 2020 proposes a slew of reforms to school education, with a focus on subject flexibility and eliminating silos between streams of learning, among other things. The NEP also aims to achieve a 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio from preschool to secondary school by 2030.


To begin with, the NEP converts the existing 10+2 school education structure to a 5+3+3+4 system, which covers children aged 3 to 18. When broken down into grades, this structure is as follows:

  1. Three years of anganwadi (preschool) and two years of primary school (grades 1-2) for children aged three to eight.

  2. The ‘preparatory stage,' which covers grades 3-5, spans the ages of 8 to 11 years.

  3. The ‘middle stage' refers to students in grades 6–8 who are between the ages of 11 and 14.

  4. The ‘secondary stage' is divided into two phases, with grades 9-10 in the first and grades 11-12 in the second and spans the ages of 14 to 18.


The NEP aims to reduce curriculum content to its bare essentials, focusing on key concepts and ideas so that children can engage in more critical thinking and analysis-based learning, among other things. The NEP also states that there will be no hard distinctions made between curricular, extracurricular, or co-curricular areas, or between the arts, humanities, and sciences, or between vocational and academic streams. Multilingualism and the learning of native languages are also goals of the policy. There will be changes to the assessment system as well. The policy aims to transform education while also improving the skills of those who facilitate it – teachers. The NEP also aims to raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education, which includes vocational education, from 26.3 percent in 2018 to 50 percent by 2035.


Q11. Explain the role of NCTE in ensuring quality of teacher education. 5

Ans) The NCTE's primary responsibility is to ensure the planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system across the country, as well as the regulation and proper maintenance of Norms and Standards in the teacher education system and matters related to it. The NCTE's mandate is broad and covers a wide range of teacher education programmes, including research and training of people to prepare them to teach at the pre-primary, primary, secondary, and senior secondary levels in schools, as well as non-formal education, part-time education, adult education, and distance education (correspondence) courses. Despite its successful educational operations, it is having difficulty maintaining teacher education standards and preventing an increase in the number of substandard teacher education institutions in the country.

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