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BESE-142: Lifelong Learning

BESE-142: Lifelong Learning

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023

If you are looking for BESE-142 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Lifelong Learning, you have come to the right place. BESE-142 solution on this page applies to 2023 session students studying in BAG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BESE-142/TMA/January 2023

Course Code: BESE-142

Assignment Name: Lifelong learning

Year: 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Assignment questions are given under three sections. All questions are compulsory.


Assignment A


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.


1. Explain the concept and significance of lifelong learning. 20


Concept of Lifelong Learning

Lifelong learning involves acquiring knowledge, talents, and values throughout one's life to improve living and working skills. It is voluntary, self-motivated, and ongoing for personal or professional objectives to promote self-sustainability, competitiveness, and employability. It promotes information, skills, and values for personal fulfilment, employment, social inclusion, and ongoing development by providing and using formal, non-formal, and informal learning opportunities throughout people's life.


In 1920s literature, the term "lifelong learning" was first used. Since the 1970s, UNESCO has shaped and promoted lifelong learning. The first official report, Fauré, et al., "Learning To Be: The World of Education Today and Tomorrow," recognised that education should be universal and lifelong. “Learning: The jewel within” by Delors, et al. called lifelong learning the “heartbeat of society”. Learning to know, do, be, and live together underpins lifelong learning. Lifelong learning integrates learning and living for people of all ages in all life-wide contexts and through a number of modalities to suit a wide range of learning requirements and demands. Lifelong learning education systems involve all sub-sectors and levels to provide learning opportunities for all.


Significance of Lifelong Learning

Lifelong learning is significant because to rising life expectancy, "old-age dependency" ratio, people's desire to improve life quality, and their desire to stay healthy. The right to education requires equal learning opportunities. Lifelong learning for all can reduce socioeconomic inequities and empower learners. Learning and education are for children, youth, adults, and the elderly from a life-course perspective. UNESCO's second Global Report on Adult Learning and Education emphasises the importance of investing in youth and adult education, both formal and non-formal, to build strong economies and societies. In its 2014-2021 Medium-Term Strategy, UNESCO emphasises humanistic, rights-based, and holistic education and lifelong learning.

Today's linked and fast-changing world makes lifelong learning more important. Lifelong learning is the conceptual framework and organising principle of all forms of education in the 21st century due to the exponential growth and changing nature of information in the digital age, the difficulty of foreseeing the skills-sets needed for knowledge-based economies, demographic shifts and increased mobility, and the growing concern for unsustainable consumption and production. To be a lifelong learner, one must learn to live and learn, which requires at least two skill sets: living skills and learning skills. Cognitive skills for understanding and utilising information, personal skills for self-management, and inter-personal skills for communicating and engaging with others are considered "life skills." Learning skills include time management, note-taking, reading, study skills, and test-taking. Today, everyone needs 21st-century skills to make lifelong learning more effective and relevant.


Pardede divides 21st-century skills into learning and innovation, literacy, and living skills. Learning and innovation skills, sometimes known as 4Cs, are mental processes needed to adapt and improve a modern work environment. Literacy, often known as IMT skills, involves understanding facts, publication sources, and technology. Life skills include personal and professional abilities. Thus, the future will be a "learning society" with "scientific humanism" culture. Lifelong learning will guide educational strategies in developed and emerging nations. To promote lifelong learning, business, industrial, and agricultural firms will have broad educational functions. Thus, lifelong learning has great potential but is worthless unless it is organised and implemented through national and international educational policy.


2. Discuss different types of leaning societies. 20

Ans) The different types of leaning societies as follows:


Industrial Societies: Industrial civilization is considered the next level in human progress. Culture and goals unite all societies. It also highlights society's interdependence. Industrialization classifies societies as pre-industrial, industrial, or post-industrial.


Tribal society comes first. Tribal communities have limited space and time for social, legal, and political relationships. Most tribal people hunt or herd. After growing crops, people had to settle down. Thus, farming transformed tribal society. Farming sparked plant and animal domestication. Pre-industrial people were hunters and gatherers, herders, and farmers. Science and technology began to transform industrial civilization by the mid-19th century. It altered manufacturing and industries. Industrialization transformed society during the Industrial Revolution.


Technology has accelerated economic growth. Later, a culture of innovation meant improving science and technology. The "information society" has emerged as societies increasingly use information technologies. Information society is thought to follow industrial society. Post-industrial civilizations have certain information society qualities. Recently, digital technology has dominated the information society. Information and services are its key objectives.


Information Societies: Fritz Machlup is the one who came up with the term "information society." He was the first economist to see knowledge as a valuable economic asset. You already know that the phrase "information society" is made up of two words: "information" and "society." In the world we live in now, information is the key word. Information is something we all use every day. Information is a group of easily understood facts that can be used and shared. The main point of this information is that raw facts have meaning. Society is a group of people who follow the same rules and customs.


Still, there is no one definition of the term "information societies" that everyone agrees on. It depends on the way societies work at their core. It is based on what people already know about the place in life where things change. Some may focus on activities, while others may focus on society, knowledge, and resources. At the moment, the term "Information Society" is used to describe social and economic systems with a lot of people working in jobs related to information and a wide spread of information technologies.


Knowledge Societies: "Knowledge society" emerged in the late 1990s. Information and knowledge societies are sometimes used interchangeably. In reality, the two differ little. In an information society, technology is everything. It emphasises gathering, analysing, and sharing information. However, in a knowledge society, economic agents do the work. Knowledge society is social and economic. A "knowledge society" relies on scientific and technical innovation for its economy and culture.


Knowledge societies use data-processing tools to compete economically. Knowledge society members produce and share knowledge for lifelong learning. It emphasises pluralism, development, social, cultural, economic, political, and institutional change. It includes everyone, especially non-digital users. Knowledge empowers everyone in this society to prioritise inclusion.  UNESCO's 2005 "knowledge society" concept accounts for social issues that develop when diverse groups use digital information. Some claim a knowledge society creates new ideas, technology, processes, and products for economic progress. Knowledge society empowers everyone to improve society. It aims to improve society's skills. A fairer resource distribution supports sustainable development, gender equality, and the rights of weaker nations and civilizations.


Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.


3. Explain the Theory of Praxis with special reference to lifelong learning. 12

Ans) Since Freire's 1970 English translation of Pedagogy of the Oppressed, praxis has been used in lifelong learning and adult education literature. Praxis was Freire's "reflection and action" to change the world. Praxis becomes crucial in the dialectical link between thinking and action during emancipation. This divides theory-for-its-own-sake from pure action or activism. In Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Paulo Freire defined praxis as "reflection and action upon the reality in order to transform it." Praxis is reflective, active, creative, contextual, and social.

Aristotle divided knowledge into three categories: theoretical, practical, and productive. Praxis is one of four ways educators approach curricular theory and practise, based on these three disciplines:

  1. Syllabuses communicate knowledge.

  2. The product approach expects pupils to meet goals.

  3. Process-driven learning emphasises self-learning.

  4. Praxis extends the process approach by preparing, acting, and assessing the curriculum.


Lifelong learning maintains body and mind. Cognitive activity may improve brain cells and mental sharpness, especially in seniors. Lifelong learning includes discovering your passions, extending your horizons, and being an active participant in your personal and professional life.


India cannot employ 1.3 billion people. Per-capita agricultural land is declining. Only lifelong learning can involve many unemployed youth in national development. Knowledge-based, technology-driven economies are rapidly transforming India's learning landscape. To stay competitive, employment skills have changed due to the 6.8% expansion of the Indian economy in 2018-19, the rapid development of ICT, and globalisation. Other wealthy nations want India's large pool of trained labour. The 2020 National Education Policy emphasises training more Indian workers for global markets.


4. Discuss different aspects of global interventions for lifelong learning. 12

Ans) The different aspects of global interventions for lifelong learning are:


Humanistic Perspective of Lifelong Learning: A humanistic perspective of lifelong learning emphasizes the importance of personal and social development, as well as the acquisition of knowledge and skills. This approach recognizes that individuals have different learning styles, goals, and motivations and that learning should be tailored to meet their unique needs. By adopting a humanistic perspective, lifelong learning programs can help individuals develop their full potential, build self-esteem, and increase their sense of purpose and meaning in life.


Lifelong Learning for Active Citizenship: Lifelong learning promotes Global interventions for lifelong learning focus on the humanistic vision, active citizenship, and sustainable development goals (SDGs). participation in society. Lifelong learning can help citizens become more educated and engaged by giving them the skills and knowledge they need. This can help create a more democratic and inclusive society where everyone has the tools to participate in politics.


Role of Lifelong Learning in Achieving the SDGs: The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide a framework for global efforts to create a more sustainable and equitable world. Lifelong learning is a key component of many of the SDGs, including those related to education, employment, and sustainable economic growth. By providing individuals with the skills they need to participate fully in the economy and by supporting the development of a skilled and educated workforce, lifelong learning can play a critical role in achieving the SDGs and building a more sustainable and equitable future.


5. Explain, with suitable examples, the concept of ‘Communities of Practice’. 12

Ans) Theoretical, developmental, cultural, and global perspectives shape communities. Communities of Practice (CoP) are theoretically practice-community. Wenger, McDermott, and Snyder define CoP as "groups of people who share a concern, a set of issues, or a passion about a topic, and who increase their knowledge and skill". Helping the poor, practising religion, etc., is social practise. CoP members learn socially. Informal groupings develop social habits.


Actively participating in social community practises and constructing identities that fit in. CoPs create sense and identity. Participation interprets diverse facts and knowledge. They share company-wide work methods. CoPs accelerate work-related information sharing. Workplace informality promotes learning. Connecting expands learning. Social dialogic learning. Development is unrelated. Daloz suggests "constructive engagement with otherness". Participation builds empathy and social responsibility. Engagement fosters independence and interdependence.


Multiculturalism encourages community, responsibility, and fulfilment. Community goals make learning meaningful. In the International Commission of Education study "Learning: the Treasure Within," communal life is based on learning to live together. Interdependence, recycling, partnership, flexibility, and variety guide the shrinking global community. Interdependence means community prosperity depends on individual success. Reusing waste helps. Recycling programmes fund parks, libraries, etc. Partnership fosters communication and engagement. Stability requires acknowledging different opinions and altering responses. Problem-solving requires variety. Diverse communities bring individuals together. Effective CoPs increase them.


CoPs that unite professionals include the American Medical Association and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Virtual communities like forums and social media groups allow people to connect and learn online. Cross-functional teams, like product development or project teams, bring together people from different departments or fields to work on a project.


6. What are the critical issues and concerns in lifelong learning? Discuss. 12

Ans) Lifelong learning is crucial for personal and professional growth and survival in a changing society. The critical issues and concerns in lifelong learning are:

  1. Access and Equity: One of the hardest things about lifelong learning is making sure that everyone, no matter their background, age, or location, has the same chances to learn. People who face social, cultural, or geographical barriers may find it hard to access opportunities for lifelong learning. This can make it harder for them to reach their full potential and participate fully in society.

  2. Quality and Relevance: Another important part of lifelong learning is making sure that the opportunities to learn are of high quality and meet the needs of the learners. People may not want to learn throughout their lives if they don't think the content is relevant to them or if the learning isn't very good.

  3. Funding and Sustainability: Lifelong learning also faces a big challenge in making sure that programmes and initiatives are well-funded and can last for a long time. Cost can be a barrier to lifelong learning for both individuals and organisations, especially in times of budget cuts and economic uncertainty.

  4. Technology and Digital Divide: Technology and digital tools are becoming more and more important for learning throughout life. However, there is a risk that technology will create a digital divide, leaving some people and communities behind. It is important to make sure that everyone has the technology and skills they need to take full advantage of digital learning opportunities.

  5. Assessment and Recognition: Lastly, it's important to make sure that lifelong learning is assessed and recognised in the right way. People may not want to learn for the rest of their lives if they don't think their efforts will be noticed or if they don't see any real benefits from learning.


Assignment C


Answer the following questions in about 125 words each.


7. How do you categorise the participants of lifelong learning? 6

Ans) The participants of lifelong learning are categorised as:

  1. Teachers and Students in all Systems of Education: This group includes people who are in elementary school, middle school, high school, or college, as well as their teachers and other instructors who help them learn.

  2. Adults and Adult Educators in all Contexts: People who learn outside of school, such as through adult education programmes, training at work, or community-based learning initiatives, are part of this group.

  3. Individuals, Communities and Societies in all Places: This category comprises people, groups, and communities that study local and global issues like social justice and environmental sustainability.

  4. Self-Oriented Learners Involved in Lifelong Learning: People who want to learn and learn on their own, either because of personal interests, hobbies, or career development, fall into this category.


8. What are the distinguishing features of a lifelong learning approach? 6

Ans) Lifelong learning accommodates learning preferences. It integrates formal, non-formal, and informal learning. It provides outstanding learning materials, courses, and venues to underprivileged pre-schoolers and adults.

The distinguishing features of a lifelong learning approach are:

  1. Overall Systemic View of Learning: Lifelong learning considers supply and demand. Facilitates blended learning. It helps underprivileged groups like pre-schoolers and adults learn for life.

  2. The Centrality of the Learner: Lifelong learning strategies focus on the student and their needs. It means we should prioritise learning demand over supply.

  3. Motivation to Learn: It emphasises wanting to learn and self-paced, self-directed learning. This requires major teaching reform.

  4. Balanced View of Multiple Education policy: fosters economic, social, cultural, personal, and citizenship growth. Policy must consider all aims and priorities may change.

  5. Beyond a Single Ministry: Many people coordinate lifelong learning policies. Huge operations. All approaches are sector-specific and do not function together. It desires harmony.

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