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BEVAE-181: Environmental Studies

BEVAE-181: Environmental Studies

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BEVAE-181 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Environmental Studies, you have come to the right place. BEVAE-181 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG, BSCG, BAVTM, BAECH, BAHIH, BAPSH, BAPAH, BAPCH, BASOH, BAEGH, BSCANH, BSCBCH, BAPFHMH, BBARIL, BAVMSME, BCOMG, BAHDH, BAFSM, ADIR, BAGS courses of IGNOU.

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BEVAE-181 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BEVAE-181 / TMA / 2021 – 2022

Course Code: BEVAE-181

Assignment Name: AECC on Environment Studies

Year: 2021 – 2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Note: Attempt all questions. The marks for each question are indicated against it.




Q1. “Sustainable development is an ideal goal towards which all human societies need to be

moving” Justify the statement in about 250 words. (8)

Ans) Towards all human cultures' long-term development, Overexploitation of natural resources jeopardises a society's capacity to provide its people's basic requirements in the future. While technological advancements may alleviate some immediate issues, they also create new ones. For example, the globe is experiencing a massive global climate shift. As a result, the ecosystem is in grave danger, and people must act quickly. This rising problem has a solution in sustainable development. It's simply described as development that satisfies the demands of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The goal of sustainability is to take activities that will benefit both the environment and humans. Towards all human cultures' long-term development, It necessitates a shift in the substance of growth to make it less material- and energy-intensive, as well as more fair in its impact. As a result, we will come to the conclusion that sustainable development is a goal that all human civilizations must strive for in order to live a better life.


When the first historic period arrived, it unleashed a massive upheaval around the globe, not just in Europe. New inventions, discoveries, and industries brought riches and new ways of life to all human cultures, and this revolution is still going on in the second and third industrial revolutions.


However, with the restoration of wealth and ease, new challenges have arisen, and businesses that were formerly believed to be beneficial to growth are no longer so. Deforestation, pollution, pollution, acid rain, heating, and other gifts have been given to our communities as a result of sustainable development.


Sustainable development is described as development that satisfies the needs of current generations without jeopardising the needs of future generations or youngsters to maintain the human-ecosystem balance.


Q2. Differentiate between the following terms by giving suitable examples in about 125 words each:  (4x2=8)

(a) Genetic and species diversity

Ans) Genetic Diversity

It is essentially the diversity of species represented by each person of a species at the genetic level. There are no two members of the same species that are precisely alike. For example, in the human species, each individual exhibits a great deal of variation when compared to other individuals. People from various places exhibit a wide range of characteristics.


Species Diversity

It's the amount of biodiversity found in a certain community. It refers to the number of species and their dispersion. The number of species found in a given area varies greatly depending on the environment. For example, civilizations near water bodies often have more species than those in places distant from water bodies.


(b) Direct and indirect use value of biodiversity


Direct values

  1. Plants are an immediate incentive to sustainability since they are the main advantage of supplying food that can legally be harvested and spent.

  2. In terms of the fact that for a considerable period of time, forest has produced wood that is used as fuel that is used for gas, fire, heating, as well as other mechanical processes.

  3. Considering the fact that traditional medicinal practises use plants, drugs and medications are an immediate incentive to biodiversity.

  4. In view of the fact that fuel is an immediate incentive for biodiversity for a substantial period of time


Indirect values

  1. In view of the fact that multiple plants and animals are seen as holy and sacred and are cherished and respected in some rigid nations, cultural and traditional beliefs are an aberrant incentive for biodiversity.

  2. Ethical principles are a backhanded encouragement to its biodiversity as it associates with biodiversity conservation where the moral dilemma of ‘all living things must be protected’ is enhanced.

  3. Aesthetic values are an abnormal motivation for biodiversity as distinctive scenes at undisturbed spots are excellent to watch and provide options for leisure exercises that advance the eco-travel industry that further develops zoological nurseries, national parks, structuring.


3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each. (5x4=20)


(a) What is biodiversity hotspot? Why is India considered as a mega biodiversity hotspot?

Ans) Hot spots are regions that are extraordinarily diverse in terms of species, have a high level of endemism, and are constantly threatened.

India is a mega biodiversity hotspot because four of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots are located in India and its neighbouring countries. Indian biodiversity has a lot of endemics. About a third of the flora identified in the country is unique to the country. 5150 of the 49,219 plant species are indigenous, and they are divided into 141 genera and 47 families, accounting for around 30% of the world's flora. India has 26 recognised endemism centres, which are home to about a third of the country's blooming plants that have been identified and documented to far. The Palaeetic and Indo-Malayan kingdoms are divided into three biomes: tropical humid forests, tropical deciduous forests, and warm deserts/semi-deserts. India is divided into 10 biogeographic areas. One of the 12 centres of genesis for cultivated plants is India.


(b) Describe the life forms of aquatic ecosystem found in different zones with suitable

examples and diagrams.

Ans) The following are some of the aquatic ecosystem's life forms:


i) Neuston: These are free-floating creatures that live at the air-water interface, such as floating plants and other animals. Water striders, for example, spend most of their life on top of the air-water barrier, whereas beetles and back-swimmers, for example, spend most of their time just beneath the air-water boundary and get most of their food from within the water.


ii) Periphyton: These are organisms that adhere to the stems and leaves of rooted plants or things that emerge above the mud's surface. Sessile algae and the creatures that live with them are usually included in this category.


iii) Plankton: Plankton is a group of microscopic plants, predominantly algae (phytoplanktons), and animals, primarily crustaceans and protozoans (zooplanktons), that can be found in all aquatic habitats, with the exception of fast-moving water. Planktons have little locomotory power, hence their dispersal is mostly governed by currents in aquatic habitats. Most phytoplanktons and zooplanktons, on the other hand, can migrate in some way.


iv) Nekton: This group includes animals that can swim. Because they must overcome water currents, the nektons are relatively massive and powerful. The animals range in size from tiny swimming insects (as small as 2 mm) to the world's largest animal, the blue whale.

(c) Differentiate between the surface and ground water. Describe the factors responsible for degradation of water.

Ans) The water that is available on land in the form of rivers, oceans, seas, lakes, and ponds is known as surface water. Groundwater is a type of subsurface water that seeps into the soil and is stored in massive underground aquifers. Digging wells and using motors are two ways to get to this water.


Due to heavy agriculture, urbanisation, industrialization, and deforestation, most of our water sources, such as rivers, lakes, oceans, estuaries, and ground water bodies, are severely polluted. Siltation of rivers and lakes as a result of soil erosion diminishes their capacity to hold water, resulting in devastating floods year after year. We are currently confronted with the contradictory scenario of a lack of safe drinking water in locations with above-average rainfall and regions with plentiful water bodies.


Discharging sewage and industrial effluents into bodies of water not only pollutes the water, but also encourages the growth of aquatic plants and algal blooms in the bodies of water, eventually leading them to vanish. This could also lead to the degradation and extinction of aquatic organisms, such as fish.


(d) Write a short note on nitrogen cycle with the help of a diagram.

Ans) Before plants can absorb nitrogen, it must first be ‘fixed,' or transformed to ammonia, nitrites, or nitrates. On Earth, nitrogen is fixed in three ways: I by free-living bacteria and bluegreen algae (e.g. Anabaena, Spirulina), as well as symbiotic bacteria (e.g. Rhizobium); (ii) by humans using industrial processes (fertiliser factories); and (iii) to a limited extent by atmospheric phenomena such as thunder and lighting.


Nitrogen is bound up in many ‘compartments' or ‘pools' in the atmosphere, soil and water, and living creatures at any given time. Periodic thunderstorms convert gaseous nitrogen in the atmosphere to ammonia and nitrates, which eventually reach the earth's surface via precipitation and are then absorbed by plants in the soil. Certain microbes that can fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium ions (NH4 +) are more significant. These include free-living nitrifying bacteria (e.g., aerobic Azotobacter and anaerobic Clostridium) and symbiotic nitrifying bacteria (e.g., Rhizobium) that live in connection with root nodules in leguminous plants (eg. Anabaena, Spirulina). Ammonium ions can be taken up directly as a source of nitrogen by some plants, or they can be oxidised to nitrites or nitrates by two types of bacteria: Nitrosomonas bacterium, which promotes ammonia to nitrite transformation. The bacteria Nitrobacter then converts nitrite to nitrate.

Q4. Why is there a need for participatory forest management? How does Forest Right Act,

2006 helps tribal and forest dwellers? Explain with suitable examples in about 200 words. (7)

Ans) All stakeholders with an interest in the fate of the forest should be involved in planning, management and benefit sharing. The balance of rights can be tilted strongly toward society in the form of publicly owned strictly protected areas. State ownership and management can be retained but with sustainable timber extraction allowed. As of now much of the world’s tropical forest are state owned but community participation in forest ownership and management needs to be encouraged. Land reform is essential in order to address the problem of deforestation. However an enduring shift in favour of the peasants is also needed for such reforms to endure. Moreover the rights of indigenous forest dwellers and others who depend on intact forests must be upheld. Therefore, the recognition of traditional laws of the indigenous peoples as indigenous rights will address the conflicts between customary and statutory laws and regulations related to forest ownership and natural resource use while ensuring conservation of forest resources. Keeping this in view various state Govenment in India has been implementating Joint Forest Management Programme after successful implementation in West Bengal and Haryana in 1970’s.


Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers who have been occupying such forests for generations but whose rights could not be recorded are recognised and vested with forest rights under the Forest Right Act of 2006, which provides a framework for recording such rights and the nature of evidence required for recognition. Thus ensuring forest livelihood and food security for the forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers. That long-standing insecurity of tenure and access rights of forest residents, particularly those displaced by state development efforts, must be addressed.


Q5. Critically evaluate non-polluting energy systems in India. Elucidate your answer with

suitable examples in about 200 words. (7)


Improved Chullahas:

In developing nations such as India, the rural poor's energy demands are primarily fulfilled by burning firewood. Traditional cooking methods are unhealthy for the cook since they produce a lot of smoke. In addition, the heat created during combustion is inefficiently utilised. Smokeless stoves (chulhas) have been developed by Indian energy specialists specifically for Indian conditions. These ‘Chulhas' are smokeless, allowing for a faster cooking time and fuel savings.


Energy from City Sewage:

Anaerobic digestion units are used in city sewage treatment plants to recover methane from human night soil, which is in the form of sludge. Sludge gas is the gas produced by the sludge, and it, like biogas, is primarily made up of methane. In Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Delhi, the Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources has backed the construction of sewage-based biogas facilities.


Solar Energy:

Biogas is a low-cost, high-efficiency fuel using renewable feedstock. Other renewable energy generation sources have lately been investigated. Solar energy is being used in a systematic effort to satisfy the needs of our rural poor. It is a decentralised energy system that may be used to suit a variety of Indian people's needs. Thermal conversion can take many forms, including solar cooking, water heating, water desalination, space heating, crop drying, and so on. Solar collectors for high-temperature applications are being developed at a low cost.


Wind Energy:

Wind energy is another green alternative energy source. Wind energy has the potential to be used in a systematic way. The greatest exploitable potential has been calculated to be approximately 3.2 xlo8 J/year. It may be transformed into mechanical and electrical energy, making it very helpful in distant locations. Wind energy can be used to power a turbine that produces electricity. This energy is currently being used to upwell ground water in four locations in Ajmer, Rajasthan.





Q6. Explain the following terms in about 60 words each: (2x4=8)


(a) Environmental Justice

Ans) Environmental justice refers to the conditions in which such a right can be freely exercised, whereby individual and group identities, needs, and dignities are preserved, fulfilled, and respected in a way that provide for self-actualisation and personal and community empowerment. “Environmental justice has been defined as the pursuit of equal justice and equal protection under the law for all environmental statutes and regulations without discrimination based on race, ethnicity and /or socioeconomic status.”


(b) Agenda 21

Ans) Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations System, Governments, and Major Groups in every area in which human impacts on the environment. Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and the Statement of principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests were adopted by more than 178 Governments at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992.


(c) Greenhouse Effect

Ans) The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth's surface. When the Sun's energy reaches the Earth's atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and some artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The absorbed energy warms the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth


(d) Climate change

Ans) Climate change is a long-term shift in global or regional climate patterns. Often climate change refers specifically to the rise in global temperatures from the mid-20th century to present.

Any significant long-term change in the expected patterns of average weather of a region or the whole earth over a significant period of time.


7. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each. (5x4=20)


(a) Explain any four impacts of improper waste disposal with suitable examples.

Ans) Improper disposal of hazardous waste causes adverse effects on human health and the environment. When dealing with hazardous wastes, standard waste disposal procedures such as insanitary open dumps, landfilling, discharge into waterways, and open-pit burning will need to be modified. With regard to hazardous waste disposal sites, at least five different routes of

human exposure are possible:

i) direct ingestion through drinking

ii) inhalation of contaminants that volatilise from heated water

iii) absorption through the skin during washing and bathing

iv) ingestion through consumption of goods derived from plants or animals

exposed to polluted groundwater, and

v) absorption through the skin when handling contaminated soil.



(b) What is Ozone Layer Depletion? Describe its effects.

Ans) Ozone layer depletion is the thinning of the ozone layer present in the upper atmosphere. This happens when the chlorine and bromine atoms in the atmosphere come in contact with ozone and destroy the ozone molecules. One chlorine can destroy 100,000 molecules of ozone. It is destroyed more quickly than it is created.


The humans will be directly exposed to the harmful ultraviolet radiations of the sun due to the depletion of the ozone layer. This might result in serious health issues among humans, such as skin diseases, cancer, sunburns, cataract, quick ageing and weak immune system. Direct exposure to ultraviolet radiations leads to skin and eye cancer in animals. Strong ultraviolet rays may lead to minimal growth, flowering and photosynthesis in plants. The forests also have to bear the harmful effects of the ultraviolet rays. Planktons are greatly affected by the exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays. These are higher in the aquatic food chain. If the planktons are destroyed, the organisms present in the food chain are also affected.


(c) Describe the role of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) as an institution for monitoring the pollution levels of environment.

Ans) The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) was established in September 1974 by the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974 and The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1981 spell out CPCB's key responsibilities:

i) To improve the quality of air and to prevent, control, or abate air pollution in various areas of the nation by preventing, controlling, or abating water pollution; and

ii) To improve the quality of air and to prevent, control, or abate air pollution in the country.


The CPCB advises the Central Government on all issues relating to the prevention and control of air, water, and nose pollution, as well as providing technical assistance to the Ministry in executing the Environmental (Protection) Act of 1986. Effluent and emission standards for numerous types of industries have been notified under this Act. During the years 2000-2001, regulations for coal mines, textile industry effluents, and primary water quality criteria for bathing water were developed and published in the Gazette.


(d) How do collective actions help in addressing environmental issues and concerns? Explain.

Ans) Although changing your behaviour and activities to more sustainable patterns is useful, working together for the same goal is more productive and rewarding. Individual power is multiplied by collective action. Meeting with folks who share your interests on a regular basis provides you with support and important knowledge. It's easy to become discouraged by the slow rate of improvement when working alone. Having a support group might help you stay motivated. There is, however, a diverse range of environmental and social action organisations. Some will be better suited to your specific hobbies, preferences, or beliefs than others.


Options used for collective action include:

  1. Student Environment Groups

2. Organising an Environmental Campaign


Q8. “Protected areas play a very important role in in-situ conservation of species.” Elucidate the statement with respect to present day context in about 200 words. (7)

Ans) The in-situ conservation technique focuses on keeping species in their natural habitats, which is seen to be the most effective way to preserve biological variety on the planet. It also allows natural evolutionary processes to continue for animals to continue to adapt to their environment. To ensure the accomplishment of conservation objectives, however, proper management approaches and restricted land use are required. As a result, Protected Areas serve a critical role in the in-situ conservation of species, particularly vulnerable species, by assuring habitat conservation.


When deciding on a location, the conserved area's design is critical, and it is defined by three key characteristics: size, form, and connectedness. The number of species contained in a preserved region increases as the size of the preserved area grows. Because the perimeter (edge) of the rounder form is smaller in relation to the area inside than other shapes, edge effects are reduced. Members of the same species can immigrate and interbreed thanks to connectivity between possible pieces. Corridors are another name for the links. Another crucial preservation feature is buffer zones.


Buffer zones are vital for both psychological and practical reasons, and residents of the area can benefit from the preserve through this zone. The buffer zone provides jobs and money while having no negative impact on the species in the core preserve by allowing mild recreational forestry, farming, and other activities.


The majority of national parks are regions of land with outstanding natural beauty that have been set aside and maintained for the conservation of various plants and animals' habitats. People are free to enjoy the landscape and wildlife in national parks, but visitor control is frequently essential to avoid conflicts between pleasure and conservation.


Q9. ‘Polluted water is a threat to our health and survival of life forms” Explain it with respect to different agents of water pollutants in about 200 words. (7)

Ans)  Polluted water endangers human health as well as the survival of aquatic and other living forms. Non-flowing water sources, such as ponds, lakes, and underground water, become more localised and limited, making pollution more significant. Sewage, rubbish and debris, as well as industrial and agricultural wastes such as fertilisers and pesticides, are the most common human-made sources of water pollution.


Biological Agents: In terms of human health, pathogenic organisms such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoans are major water pollutants. Cholera, bacterial and amoebic dysentery, gastroenteritis, typhoid, polio, influenza, viral hepatitis, and worm infections are among the most common water-borne diseases. Malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and filariasis are all transmitted by insects with aquatic larvae. The start of the rainy season in our nation is usually followed by such diseases. Overcrowding, unplanned industrial and human settlements, and a lack of adequate municipal amenities are all contributing concerns. Human waste, animal waste, home sewage, and wastewater discharges from tanneries and slaughterhouses contaminate water.


Inorganic pollutants such as nitrates, phosphates, acids, salts, and hazardous heavy metals are examples of chemical pollutants. Oil, gasoline, insecticides, dyes, paints, plastics, cleaning solvents, and detergents are examples of organic chemical pollutants. As a result of the processing of uranium ore and wastes from research facilities, radioactive chemicals, which fall into the third category of chemical pollutants, are released into water bodies.


Physical Agents: Suspended solids, sedimentary solids, and temperature are all physical agents that influence water quality. By silting, obstructing waterways, filling dams, and turning the water muddy, these pollutants have a negative impact on water bodies. In such waters, aquatic species have difficulty breathing through their gills. Toxic chemicals such as heavy metals adsorb on suspended organic and mineral particles and travel through the food chain. When heat-laden water from factories enters a water body, it causes thermal pollution.


Q10. How do natural disasters as floods and cyclones adversely affect the lives and properties? Explain your answer with suitable examples in about 250 words. (8)

Ans) Natural disasters can have life-changing consequences for those who are fortunate enough to survive them. Natural disasters, on the other hand, can have an impact on a neighbourhood, a city, a state, or even an entire country. Even when human settlements are mostly unscathed, natural disasters can have massive environmental consequences. The intensity of the impact, as well as the level of readiness and resilience of the subject impacted, all play a role in how successfully the impact of a catastrophic event is absorbed.

The impact is often felt physically, psychologically, and emotionally at the individual level. Natural disasters result in property destruction, financial loss, and personal injury or disease. In less-developed countries, the loss of resources, security, and access to shelter can result in enormous population migrations.


Communities that are hit by a natural disaster must also deal with the aftermath of the calamity. Many local communities have suffered such severe economic losses that rehabilitation is difficult, if not impossible. In the aftermath of a calamity, some communities see an opportunity to rebuild greater and stronger communities than before. As a result of the impact of natural disasters on individual residents, communities must frequently identify population, demographic, and cultural shifts.


Hurricane Katrina wreaked havoc on New Orleans and the Mississippi Gulf Coast in 2005. More than 200,000 homes were damaged in New Orleans alone, and more than 70% of the population was forced to migrate, at least temporarily, outside of the greater New Orleans area. Furthermore, massive amounts of federal aid were required to help jumpstart recovery operations in the city and surrounding region. The city lost an estimated $105 to $150 billion in tax money, infrastructure, reclamation costs, and normal revenue. In addition to the economic losses in New Orleans, it is estimated that the hurricane and its impact on this vital international port city cost the US economy 2% of its overall gross domestic product within a year after the tragedy.


Different sorts of catastrophes can radically alter the natural environment, just as natural disasters can transform the landscape of our personal life as well as aspects of our communities. Cyclones that hit Myanmar in 2008, or wildfires that raged across California in 2009, are instances of how a single disaster event may significantly destroy or modify swaths of land that comprise entire ecosystems. On a bigger scale, forecasts of sea level rises that would entirely engulf some island states are adding to the debate over how to confront global climate change and its inevitable consequences.

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