top of page
BEVAE-181: Environmental Studies

BEVAE-181: Environmental Studies

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BEVAE-181 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Environmental Studies, you have come to the right place. BEVAE-181 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BAG, BSCG, BAVTM, BAECH, BAHIH, BAPSH, BAPAH, BAPCH, BASOH, BAEGH, BSCANH, BSCBCH, BAPFHMH, BBARIL, BAVMSME, BCOMG, BAHDH, BAFSM, ADIR, BAGS, BATS, BBA, BAJDM courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BEVAE-181 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BEVAE-181/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: BEVAE-181

Assignment Name: AECC on Environmental Studies

Year: 2023-24

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Maximum Marks: 100

Attempt all the questions.


Q1) Why ecological significance of forest is more important in present day context? Explain.

Ans) Forests are invaluable natural resources that provide a wide range of goods and services essential for both human well-being and the environment.

  • Economic Importance: Forests offer a diverse array of commodities such as timber, fuelwood, fodder, fibre, fruits, herbal drugs, cosmetics, and various raw materials used by industries. They contribute significantly to the economy by supporting livelihoods and generating revenue.

  • Biodiversity Conservation: Forests harbour a rich diversity of flora and fauna. They serve as vital habitats for numerous species, making them essential for biodiversity conservation. A single forest can host an impressive variety of life forms, and preserving these ecosystems is crucial for maintaining Earth's biological diversity.

  • Environmental Stewardship: Forests play a vital role in environmental processes. They aid in soil formation, regulate water flow, and assist in maintaining oxygen levels through the absorption of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Forests help stabilize global climate patterns by influencing hydrological and carbon cycles.

  • Carbon Sink: Forests act as a significant carbon sink, absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This helps mitigate the greenhouse effect and contributes to reducing global warming. When trees are cut and burned, they release stored carbon back into the atmosphere, impacting the climate.

  • Protection Against Natural Disasters: Forests provide natural protection against soil erosion, landslides, cyclones, and floods. Their root systems help stabilize soil, preventing erosion and reducing the risk of disasters. Forests also act as windbreaks, reducing wind damage.

  • Improved Air Quality: Forests enhance air quality by absorbing harmful pollutants and particulate matter from the atmosphere. They act as natural filters, purifying the air we breathe.

  • Water Resource Management: Forests play a crucial role in watershed protection, ensuring a constant supply of freshwater. They prevent soil erosion, reducing siltation of water bodies, including reservoirs.

  • Socio-Cultural Significance: Forests have deep-rooted cultural and social significance. They have been an integral part of human civilization and continue to hold aesthetic, recreational, and spiritual value. Many societies have traditions and beliefs associated with forests.

  • Recreation and Tourism: Forests provide opportunities for recreation and tourism, offering serene natural landscapes for activities like hiking, camping, birdwatching, and wildlife photography. They contribute to the well-being and leisure of people.

  • Medicinal and Herbal Resources: Forests are a source of various medicinal plants and herbs, serving as a pharmacy of natural remedies for various ailments.

  • Educational and Research Value: Forests are essential for scientific research, environmental education, and the study of ecosystems. They provide insights into ecological processes and natural history.

  • Cultural Heritage: Indigenous communities often have strong cultural ties to forests, incorporating them into their traditions, rituals, and way of life. Forests hold sacred and historical significance for many indigenous peoples.

Q2) Answer the following questions in about 125 words each.

a) Explain the characteristics of Western Ghats for inclusion as Biodiversity hotspots.

Ans) The Western Ghats, a mountain range along the western coast of India, possess key characteristics that make them a biodiversity hotspot:

  • High Species Diversity: The Western Ghats are home to a vast array of plant and animal species, many of which are endemic and found nowhere else in the world.

  • Unique Ecosystems: Diverse ecosystems include tropical rainforests, montane forests, grasslands, and wetlands, each supporting specialized flora and fauna.

  • Endemism: The region boasts a high level of endemism, with numerous species restricted to specific niches within the Ghats.

  • Threatened Species: Many species in the Western Ghats are threatened or endangered due to habitat loss and fragmentation.

  • Cultural Significance: Indigenous communities and their traditional knowledge further enrich the region's biodiversity.

b) Why is hydropower regarded as the best source of energy? Explain it in detail.

Ans Hydropower is often considered the best source of energy for several reasons:

  • Renewable and Sustainable: It relies on the natural water cycle, making it a perpetual and sustainable energy source.

  • Low Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Hydropower produces minimal greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to climate change mitigation.

  • Reliable and Consistent: Unlike some renewables, it provides a consistent and reliable energy supply, as water flow can be controlled.

  • Energy Storage: Hydropower reservoirs can store excess energy for later use, addressing intermittency issues.

  • Multiple Benefits: It offers benefits like flood control, irrigation, and recreation alongside energy generation.

  • Long Lifespan: Hydropower plants have a long operational life, providing energy for decades.

  • Efficiency: Hydropower has a high energy conversion efficiency, reducing waste.

c) The importance of Biomass has been increasing day by day in our surroundings among renewable resources. Explain it with suitable examples.

Ans) Biomass is gaining significance as a renewable resource due to its versatility:

  • Bioenergy: Organic materials like crop residues, wood, and waste are converted into biofuels, such as biodiesel and biogas, providing a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels.

  • Bioproducts: Biomass serves as a feedstock for producing bioplastics, biochemicals, and bio composites, reducing dependency on petrochemical-based products.

  • Waste Management: Biomass utilization aids in efficient organic waste management, reducing landfill use and associated environmental issues.

  • Agricultural Residues: Crop residues are used for biomass energy, offering additional income sources for farmers.

  • Forestry: Wood from sustainably managed forests is used for energy and various wood-based products.

e) What is Disposal of waste? Why is segregation of waste needed?

Ans) Disposal of waste refers to the proper management and elimination of waste materials to prevent environmental pollution and health hazards. It involves the safe handling, collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal of waste.

  • Recycling: Segregation separates waste into categories like organic, recyclable, and hazardous, making recycling more efficient.

  • Health and Safety: Proper segregation reduces health risks for waste handlers and prevents accidents caused by mixing hazardous materials.

  • Environmental Protection: Segregation minimizes pollution by ensuring that hazardous waste is treated and disposed of safely.

  • Resource Conservation: It promotes the recovery of valuable resources from waste materials, reducing the strain on natural resources.

  • Waste Reduction: Segregation encourages responsible consumption and waste reduction practices, contributing to sustainability.

Q3) Explain the human-environment relationship by taking examples of biotic and abiotic components?

Ans) The human-environment relationship encompasses interactions between humans and the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components of the environment. Examples illustrate this relationship:

Biotic Components

  • Deforestation: Human activities like logging disrupt forest ecosystems, leading to loss of biodiversity and habitat destruction.

  • Overfishing: Overexploitation of fish stocks affects marine ecosystems, depleting fish populations and disrupting food chains.

  • Urbanization: Urban development encroaches on natural habitats, displacing wildlife and altering local ecosystems.

Abiotic Components

  • Air Pollution: Industrial emissions and vehicle exhaust release pollutants into the atmosphere, causing smog, respiratory issues, and climate change.

  • Water Pollution: Discharge of pollutants into water bodies contaminates water sources, impacting aquatic life and human health.

  • Climate Change: Human-induced greenhouse gas emissions contribute to global warming, altering weather patterns and sea levels.

Q4)“As humans civilisation progressed, man started altering the environment in the pursuit of creating an economic, social and cultural environment of his own choice. This slowly resulted in the depletion of natural resources and degradation of environment.” Explain it in context of national legislations of water acts?

Ans) The progression of human civilization has undeniably led to significant alterations in the environment as societies seek to establish economic, social, and cultural conditions that align with their preferences and aspirations. This transformation is especially evident when considering the context of national legislations related to water acts. These acts play a crucial role in regulating and managing a finite and essential resource like water. However, in the pursuit of these human-driven goals, there has often been a lamentable side effect: the depletion of natural resources and the degradation of the environment.

The goal of most national water acts is to find a middle ground between meeting the need of humans and protecting the natural environment. They want to establish a legal framework that will allow for the fair allocation of water resources and the appropriate use of those resources. In spite of this, the record of history demonstrates that, in actuality, these laws, enacted with the best of intentions, have not always been successful in achieving their environmental protection objectives.

The distribution of water rights is one of the primary ways in which these pieces of law have played a significant role in the depletion of resources and the deterioration of the environment. In many instances, water allocation has been structured to favour industrial and agricultural interests, which has resulted in an excessive extraction of water and an ineffective use of its resources. This misuse can lead to the depletion of aquifers as well as the drying up of rivers and wetlands, both of which have major repercussions for the environment, including the loss of habitat and a reduction in the quality of the water.

Furthermore, the construction of dams and other water infrastructure, often authorized by these water acts, has caused significant disruptions to aquatic ecosystems. Dams can alter river flow, disrupt fish migration, and flood large areas of land, leading to the displacement of communities and destruction of natural habitats.

Moreover, lax enforcement of water acts has allowed pollution of water bodies to persist. Industrial discharges, agricultural runoff, and inadequate wastewater treatment have all contributed to water pollution, harming both ecosystems and human health.

Q5)“Biosphere reserves are internationally recognised areas established to promote and demonstrate a balanced relationship between Humans and the Biosphere.” Elaborate this statement in the context of conservation of nature?

Ans) The statement "Biosphere reserves are internationally recognized areas established to promote and demonstrate a balanced relationship between humans and the biosphere" encapsulates the fundamental purpose and significance of biosphere reserves in the context of nature conservation. Biosphere reserves are unique and critical components of global conservation efforts, striving to harmonize human development with ecological sustainability.

International Recognition and Protection: Biosphere reserves are designated and recognized by UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). This international recognition highlights their importance in the global conservation agenda. They serve as model areas for the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable development, and the reconciliation of human activities with nature.

Balancing Human Activities and Conservation: Biosphere reserves are specifically designed to showcase how humans can coexist with and benefit from the natural environment while preserving it for future generations. These areas act as living laboratories where innovative approaches to sustainable development, resource management, and nature conservation are tested and demonstrated.

Core, Buffer, and Transition Zones: Biosphere reserves are divided into three distinct zones: the core, buffer, and transition zones. The core zone is dedicated to the strict protection of ecosystems and biodiversity. The buffer zone surrounds the core and allows for limited human activities that are consistent with conservation objectives. The transition zone is where sustainable human activities and development are encouraged, demonstrating how communities can thrive while respecting ecological limits.

Biodiversity Conservation: Biosphere reserves are known for their rich biodiversity. They protect and conserve a wide range of ecosystems, from forests and wetlands to marine and coastal areas. By doing so, they safeguard numerous species, many of which are endangered or vulnerable, and help maintain the balance of ecosystems.

Promoting Sustainable Practices: These reserves serve as platforms for testing and promoting sustainable land use practices. They provide opportunities for research, education, and the exchange of knowledge related to sustainable agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and other livelihoods. Local communities often play a central role in implementing these practices.

Education and Awareness: Biosphere reserves are hubs for environmental education and awareness. They engage with local communities, schools, and visitors to foster an understanding of the interdependence between humans and nature. Through educational programs and outreach, they promote a sense of responsibility for the environment.

Global Collaboration: Biosphere reserves encourage international collaboration and knowledge sharing. They contribute to the development of best practices in conservation and sustainable development, which can be replicated in other regions facing similar challenges.

Adaptive Management: These reserves utilize adaptive management approaches, which means that they continuously adjust their strategies based on scientific research and community feedback. This flexibility allows them to respond to changing environmental and social conditions effectively.


Answer the following questions in about 150 words each.

Q1)Explain the following terms in about 60 words each:

a) Seed Bank

Ans) A facility or organisation that collects, stores, and maintains seeds from a wide variety of plant species is known as a seed bank. Its fundamental objective is to preserve genetic variety and make sure that seeds will always be available for use in agriculture, research, and other forms of environmental protection in the future. Seed banks offer protection against the loss of crops, as well as against the effects of climate change and the extinction of plant species.

b) Incineration

Ans) The incineration of waste products, whether they be solid, liquid, or gaseous, takes place at very high temperatures and is a form of waste management known as "incineration." It lessens the amount of waste that is produced while transforming it into ash, gases, and thermal energy. Incineration is a method that can be utilised for the disposal of hazardous waste, medical waste, and even municipal solid garbage on occasion.

c) Biological Oxygen Demand

Ans) The Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a parameter that is used to assess the amount of dissolved oxygen that is used up by microorganisms in the process of decomposing organic matter that is present in water. Because high BOD levels indicate increased organic pollution and lower oxygen availability for aquatic life, it is an extremely important indication of both the degree to which water is polluted and the overall health of aquatic ecosystems.

d) Public Health

Ans) A interdisciplinary field that focuses on preserving and enhancing the physical and mental health of communities and people, public health has as its primary goals the prevention and treatment of disease. It includes the encouragement of healthy behaviours, the prevention of disease, the provision of easy access to medical care, and the tracking of evolving health trends. Health inequalities, epidemics, and environmental variables all have an impact on the work that experts in public health do, which is to address these issues.

Q2) Answer the following questions in about 150 words each.

a) What is lentic and lotic ecosystem? Explain these two with suitable examples.

Ans) Lentic and lotic ecosystems are terms used to describe two primary types of freshwater environments:

  • Lentic Ecosystem (Still-water): Lentic habitats are defined as bodies of water that are either still or move very slowly, such as wetlands, ponds, and lakes. These kinds of ecosystems typically have water conditions that are reasonably consistent, which makes it possible for a wide variety of aquatic plants to flourish and for a wide variety of fish and other animals to live there. One example is a placid lake that is home to fish and lily pads, and another is a verdant and lush marsh that is inhabited by ducks.

  • Lotic Ecosystem (Flowing water): On the other side, lotic ecosystems are those that are found in bodies of water that have a rapid flow, such as rivers and streams. They have dynamic water movement, variable oxygen levels, and are home to organisms that have adapted to quick currents, such as trout in a mountain stream or algae in a rushing river. They also have interesting geological features.

b) What is ecological succession? Explain the types of succession with suitable diagrams.

Ans) Ecological succession is a fundamental ecological process that involves the gradual and predictable change in the composition and structure of an ecosystem over time. It occurs in response to disturbances, whether natural events like wildfires or human activities like deforestation. Ecological succession reflects the dynamic nature of ecosystems and how they adapt and evolve over time.

There are two main types of ecological succession:

Primary Succession

  • Definition: Primary succession occurs in an area that has never been colonized by living organisms or where all existing life forms have been completely removed. It typically begins with the colonization of barren, lifeless substrates like bare rock or volcanic lava flows.

  • Process: Primary succession starts with pioneer species, which are usually simple organisms like lichens and mosses that can tolerate harsh conditions. These pioneer species begin to break down the rock surface and create soil through their growth and decomposition. As soil development progresses, more complex plants like grasses and shrubs can establish themselves, leading to further soil improvement. Over time, trees may dominate the ecosystem, and the ecosystem becomes increasingly complex and stable.

  • Examples: Primary succession occurs in volcanic islands, glacial retreats, and areas affected by severe erosion. For instance, after a volcanic eruption, the first organisms to colonize the barren lava are often lichens and mosses, paving the way for the development of more complex plant communities.

Secondary Succession

  • Definition: Secondary succession occurs in areas where an existing ecosystem has been disturbed, but the soil and some life forms remain intact. Unlike primary succession, secondary succession begins with the remnants of a previously established community.

  • Process: Secondary succession starts with the establishment of pioneer species, often annual plants and grasses, which can quickly colonize open spaces. These pioneer species are typically hardy and can thrive in disturbed environments. Over time, as these plants grow, compete for resources, and enrich the soil with organic matter, they pave the way for more complex plant species to return. Eventually, the ecosystem may reach a state similar to its pre-disturbance condition.

  • Examples: Secondary succession is commonly observed in areas following disturbances like forest fires, clear-cut logging, or agricultural abandonment. After a forest fire, for instance, the first plants to appear are often fire-adapted species like fireweed. These plants prepare the soil for the return of trees and other forest species, gradually restoring the forest ecosystem.

c) Explain the biocentrism and ecocentrism in context of human’s attitude towards nature?

Ans) Biocentrism and ecocentrism are contrasting philosophical perspectives that reflect human attitudes towards nature:

  • Biocentrism: Biocentrism is a philosophy that emphasises the inherent value and rights of all living beings by placing the utmost importance on the value of individual organisms or species. It argues that every living thing, regardless of how useful it is to humans, possesses value in and of itself. From this point of view, the primary motivation for preserving and protecting natural resources is to ensure the continued existence of individual forms of life.

  • Ecocentrism: The perspective of ecocentrism is more comprehensive; it gives precedence to the health and wellbeing of entire ecosystems or the planet as a whole. It acknowledges that the interdependence of all living and non-living components within ecosystems is a necessary component for the maintenance of ecological stability. The concept of ecocentrism places an emphasis on the significance of maintaining the harmony and completeness of entire ecosystems.

d) Define natural calamities and its types with suitable examples.

Ans) Natural calamities, also known as natural disasters, are sudden and catastrophic events caused by natural processes or forces. They result in significant damage to the environment, property, and often, human lives.

  • Earthquakes: Sudden shaking or movement of the Earth's crust, often leading to destruction. For example, the 2010 earthquake in Haiti.

  • Floods: Overflow of water onto normally dry land, often due to heavy rainfall or the melting of snow. An example is the annual flooding of the Nile River.

  • Hurricanes/Cyclones/Typhoons: Powerful tropical storms with strong winds and heavy rains. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 is a well-known example.

  • Tornadoes: Violently rotating columns of air extending from thunderstorms to the ground. The Tornado Alley in the U.S. frequently experiences tornadoes.

  • Volcanic Eruptions: Release of molten rock, ash, and gases from volcanoes. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 buried Pompeii and Herculaneum.

  • Droughts: Prolonged periods of abnormally low rainfall, leading to water shortages and crop failures. The Dust Bowl in the 1930s is a historical example.

  • Wildfires: Uncontrolled fires in forests or grasslands, often exacerbated by dry conditions and strong winds. The Australian bushfires in 2019-2020 were devastating.

Q3) Explain the causes of ozone depletion? How do ultraviolet rays affect human health, animals, plants, micro-organisms, water and air quality.


Causes of Ozone Depletion

  • Ozone-Depleting Substances: Ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are chemicals that are produced by humans and include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, and carbon tetrachloride. These chemicals are responsible for the release of chlorine and bromine atoms into the stratosphere. These atoms are responsible for the destruction of ozone molecules.

  • Natural Processes: Ozone-depleting substances are released into the atmosphere when volcanoes erupt and when certain natural emissions occur.

Effects of Ultraviolet (UV) Rays

  • Human Health: In humans, having too much exposure to ultraviolet light can increase the risk of developing skin cancer, cataracts, and a compromised immune system.

  • Animals: Radiation from the sun is harmful to aquatic species, as well as insects and amphibians. It poses a threat to the populations of fish and plankton, hence upsetting the aquatic food chains.

  • Plants: As a result of UV radiation' ability to hinder photosynthesis, crop yields and plant development are adversely affected.

  • Micro-Organisms: Microorganisms exposed to UV light can have their DNA damaged, which can have negative effects on ecosystems.

  • Water Quality: UV rays have the ability to sanitise water, making it suitable for human consumption while having a negative impact on aquatic ecosystems.

  • Air Quality: An increase in the amount of UV radiation contributes to the production of smog as well as to air pollution.

Q4)“Education for environmental awareness is essential for the younger generation as well as for the older generation.” Explain the statement with suitable examples.

Ans) Education for environmental awareness is indeed crucial for individuals of all generations, including the younger and older generations, as it plays a pivotal role in addressing environmental challenges and fostering a sustainable future. Here, we will explore this statement with suitable examples:

Younger Generation

Example 1 - School Curriculum: Integrating environmental education into the school curriculum is vital for the younger generation. It equips them with the knowledge and understanding of environmental issues, their causes, and potential solutions. For instance, countries like Sweden have made environmental education a mandatory part of their school curriculum, teaching students about climate change, biodiversity, and sustainable practices from an early age.

Example 2 - Youth-Led Movements: Young people, informed about environmental issues, have been at the forefront of global environmental movements. Greta Thunberg, a Swedish environmental activist, inspired millions of young people worldwide to participate in climate strikes and demand action from governments and corporations. Their awareness and activism have pushed for policy changes and greater environmental accountability.

Example 3 - Green Initiatives: Many young entrepreneurs and innovators are driving environmental awareness through sustainable business initiatives. For instance, the younger generation has been actively involved in renewable energy startups, sustainable fashion brands, and eco-friendly technology developments.

Older Generation

Example 1 - Conservation Organizations: The older generation often plays a significant role in conservation efforts through their involvement in organizations like the Sierra Club or World Wildlife Fund. These organizations rely on the expertise and dedication of older individuals to protect endangered species and habitats.

Example 2 - Environmental Advocacy: Older generations bring valuable life experiences and historical context to environmental advocacy. They have seen firsthand how landscapes have changed over the decades and can advocate for policies that protect natural resources. In the United States, for instance, older activists have campaigned for the preservation of national parks and the Clean Air Act.

Example 3 - Mentorship and Knowledge Sharing: Older individuals can mentor and educate younger generations by sharing their wisdom and experiences. They can pass down traditional knowledge about sustainable practices in agriculture, forestry, and other industries. This intergenerational exchange of knowledge is critical for the continuity of sustainable practices.


Both generations benefit from mutual awareness and collaboration. Older generations can learn about new technologies and innovations from younger individuals. For example, seniors may adopt energy-efficient appliances or engage with social media platforms to stay informed about environmental issues.

Younger generations can draw on the wisdom of their elders to understand the historical context of environmental challenges. They can learn from the mistakes and successes of previous generations to inform their approach to sustainability.

Q5) “Water Harvesting is one of the effective measures to combat drought.” Explain this statement with suitable arguments.

Ans) Water harvesting is indeed one of the most effective measures to combat drought, particularly in regions prone to water scarcity. This practice involves the collection and storage of rainwater and runoff for various purposes, and it offers several compelling arguments for its effectiveness in mitigating the impacts of drought:

Drought Resilience

Increased Water Availability: Water harvesting systems such as rainwater tanks, ponds, and check dams store rainwater during wet periods, making it available during dry spells. This additional water source can provide a critical lifeline during droughts when natural water bodies and groundwater levels are depleted.

Sustainable Water Management

Reduced Pressure on Groundwater: Many regions heavily rely on groundwater during droughts, leading to over-extraction and depletion of aquifers. Water harvesting reduces this pressure by offering an alternative water source, allowing groundwater to recharge naturally over time.

Environmental Benefits

Ecosystem Restoration: In arid and semi-arid regions, water harvesting structures can help restore local ecosystems by creating or enhancing wetlands and providing water to vegetation. This can lead to improved biodiversity and habitat preservation.

Agricultural Advantages

Crop Irrigation: Water harvesting systems can supply water for agricultural irrigation, reducing crop failure rates during droughts. This is especially crucial for food security in vulnerable regions.

Community Empowerment

Local Water Security: Water harvesting puts the control of water resources in the hands of local communities. They become less reliant on centralized water supply systems and can better manage their water needs during droughts.

Economic Benefits

Increased Productivity: In agriculture, increased water availability from harvesting systems can lead to higher crop yields and increased income for farmers, even during periods of water scarcity.

Reduced Migration

Preventing Displacement: In many cases, drought forces people to migrate in search of water and livelihoods. Water harvesting helps communities remain in their ancestral lands by providing a sustainable water supply, reducing the need for displacement.

Climate Change Adaptation

Building Resilience: Droughts are expected to become more frequent and severe due to climate change. Water harvesting is a proactive measure that helps communities adapt to these changing conditions.

Economic Savings

Cost-Effective: Compared to large-scale infrastructure projects like dams, water harvesting is often more cost-effective. It requires fewer resources, making it accessible to a wider range of communities and regions.

Scalability and Flexibility

Suitable for Various Scales: Water harvesting can be implemented on various scales, from individual households to community-level projects. It can be tailored to local needs and conditions, making it adaptable to different regions.

Cultural and Traditional Practices

Preservation of Traditions: In some regions, water harvesting builds upon traditional knowledge and practices that have been passed down through generations. This reinforces cultural identity and sustains valuable heritage.

Global Examples

Success Stories: Several countries, such as India and Australia, have successfully implemented water harvesting programs at both the government and community levels, resulting in improved water security and resilience against drought.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page