If you are looking for BHIC-105 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject History of India –III (c. 750 – 1206), you have come to the right place. BHIC-105 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAHIH courses of IGNOU.
BHIC-105 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BHIC-105 / ASST / TMA / 2021-22
Course Code: BHIC-105
Assignment Name: History Of India-3
Year: 2021 -2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 Sessions)
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Note: There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in the Sections.
Assignment – I
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
Q1. Describe the historical sources that have been used reconstruct the history of the early medieval period. 20
Ans) The early medieval inscriptions carry useful information on subjects which have become central to the major debates concerning this period. Land grants, which became very prolific from the Gupta period onwards, are especially relevant for the reconstruction of the eonomy, society, status of craftsmen and crafts, crops, samantas, feudatories, kings, and queens etc. In fact the debates on state formation in early medieval India, Third Urbanization, feudalism, status of women etc are alive due to inscriptions and the information that they carry.
Purana texts are an important source for the reconstruction of history of the early medieval period. They provide genealogical information about the various dynasties that were ruling in this period. They were composed in the first millennium CE. Each Purana revolved around a deity. Each consisted of the panca-laksana or “the five facets”. These were the descriptions of the sarga (primary creation), prati-sarga (secondary creation), manvantara (the time cycles), vamsa (succession, in this instance, largely of deities and sages), and the vamsanucarita. There are eighteen Mahapuranas and many Upa Puranas which are subsidiary texts, often focusing on lesser deities. Associated with these were texts on sacred topography and places of pilgrimage, such as the Sthala-Puranas and the Mahatmyas. Still later, the caste Puranas — as for example those of the Mallas, the Srimalas, and the Dharmaranyas are historically important. Of the non-brahmanical sects, the Jainas produced their own Puranas, presenting a different perspective from the brahmanical.
Law Books In the early medieval period, a large number of important and influential Dharmasastra compilations, digests and commentaries came to be written. This points to the processes of formalisation of law and legal procedures which helped the state to regulate and arbitrate in the social life of its subjects.
Poems, Songs And Other Literary Sources
The devotional songs of Alvars and Nayanars and the hagiographies of the saints were important Tamil texts. A Sanskrit and Prakrit work called Lekhapaddhati gives useful historical information and contains models of various types of legal documents. They offer useful information on trade and traders.
The Ghurian conquest of north India towards the close of the twelfth century CE is an important event in Indian history. This is because an independent Sultanate, founded in its wake, opened India to foreign influences on the one hand and led to the unification of the country under a strong centre on the other. It also attracted emigrants from the neighbouring countries who represented different cultural traditions.
The archaeology of the early medieval period is still a less explored field. Most of the excavations and explorations have dealt with early historical sites. Whatever exploration and limited excavation done on this period have thrown up meagre remains and poor archaeological data. Coins are very few if not rare. Habitation remains in many sites have not been discovered. The layers belonging to the early medieval period either are sterile or show poor remains.
Despite poor remains and limited excavations, early medieval archaeology has given evidence which has been used to construct various theories such as those of urban decay, feudalism, Third Urbanization, emergence, and continuation of urban settlements like Siyadoni in Uttar Pradesh, trade routes, traders, guilds, trade with Southeast Asia etc. Thus, archaeological evidence in the form of house remains, floors, pits, bricks, brick bats, wells, temples, buildings, ovens etc, no matter how rich or poor the evidence may be, allow the historian/archaeologist to reconstruct the history of any period.
Q2. Who were the Rashtrakuts? Write a brief note on the formation and expansion of the Rashtrakut empire. 20
Ans) The word ‘Rashtrakuta’ means the chief of Rashtra (division or kingdom). It is possible that they were a class of provincial officers, as the designation appears in the inscriptions of many dynasties. Rashtrakutas were high officials, either provincial chiefs or administrators. Historian Nilakantha Shastri, based on the study of inscriptions, claims that the Rashtrakutas were of Kannada origin, and their plates indicate that Kannada was their mother tongue despite the extensive use of Sanskrit. Deccan was the original home of the Rashtrakutas, which generally means the whole region occupied by the Telugu speaking population as well as Maharashtra with certain parts of northern Karnataka.
The Rashtrakuta dynasty is known for a long line of brave warriors and able administrators, which helped them in the formation of a vast empire. They fought continuously with the Pratiharas, Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (in modern Andhra Pradesh), Cholas, Pallavas of Kanchi and the Pandyas of Madurai. The Pallavas were in decline and their successors — the Cholas — were emerging powerful.
Weaknesses of these kingdoms became helpful in victories and the establishment of Rashtrakuta polity. There was no power in northern India strong enough to interfere with the affairs of the Deccan which provided an opportunity for the emergence of Rashtrakutas. Thapar argues that the geographical position of the Rashtrakutas, i.e., in the middle of the Indian subcontinent led to their involvement in wars and alliances with both the northern and, more frequently, the southern kings. It resulted in the expansion of their empire in all directions. Historian Karashima argues that one of the crucial factors for the formation of Rashtrakuta power might have been an environment within their territory favourable to the growth of agriculture. Thapar also explores favourable economic factors and mentions that the Rashtrakutas had the advantage of controlling a large part of the western seaboard and, therefore, trade with West Asia, particularly with the Arabs, provided the wealth to back their political ambitions.
The name 'Rashtrakuta' in Sanskrit means 'Country' (Rashtra) and 'Chieftain' (Kuta). This explains their lineage from the time of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka the Great (3rd century BCE) when they were primarily small clan heads in different parts of India. In some of the edicts of Ashoka (in Mansera, Girnar, Dhavali) the word Rathika appears, who may have been the ancestors of the Rashtrakutas. However, though many historians claim that the Rashtrakutas were the earlier Rathikas mentioned in those inscriptions, this theory is not backed up by enough archaeological evidence. Medieval Sanskrit literature reveals fragments of their lineage, which is thought to be from the Mauryan times as small clan heads.
Dantidurga died without a male heir and was succeeded by his uncle Krishna I (r. c. 756 - 773/774 CE). Krishna, I gave the final death nail to their erstwhile masters, the Badami Chalukyas, when he routed them in 757 CE to end that dynasty's rule. He expanded his kingdom by invading the Ganga territory and defeating them, by subjugating the Konkan territories and sending his own son to the Eastern Chalukya kingdom of Vengi and accepting their submission without a fight. Krishna I is also culturally very important in the history of India because he was the man behind the construction of the exquisite Kailasa Temple of Ellora (a UNESCO World Heritage site now).
After Amoghavarsha I came various rulers (like Krishna II, Indra III, Amoghavarsha II, Govinda IV, Amoghavarsha III, Krishna III, Khottiga Amoghavarsha, Karka II, and Indra IV) with mixed successes. One of the notable successes was that of King Indra III (r. 915-928 CE), who captured Kannauj in the early 10th century (c. 916 CE). Inscriptions in temples in Tamil Nadu and its surroundings reveal that King Krishna III (r. 939-967 CE) invaded the Chola territory and defeated the Chola army decisively in the 10th century CE.
Assignment – II
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
Q3. Outline the main features of chola local administration with special reference to Ur and Nadu. 10
Ans) The Chola kings followed a highly efficient system of’ administration. The Cholas had three major administrative divisions called Central Government, Provincial Government and Local Government. The efficient Chola administrative system has been well appreciated by many historians and rulers.
Chola Local Administration :
The most important feature of the Chola administration was the local administration at districts, towns, and villages level. Uttaramerur inscriptions speak much about the Chola administration. Village autonomy was the most unique feature of Chola administrative system.
There were two types of villages at the local in the Chola empire. One type of village consisted of people from different caste and the assembly which ran this type of village was called ‘Ur’. The second type of village was ‘agrahara’ types of villages which were settled by Brahmins in which most of the land was rent-free. These villages enjoyed a large measure of autonomy. The affairs of the village were managed by an executive committee to which educated person owning property were elected by drawing lots or by rotation. These members had to retire every three years. There were other committees for helping in the assessment and collection of land revenue for the maintenance of law and order, justice etc. One of the important Committee was the tank committee which looked after the distribution of water to the fields. The mahasabha could settle new lands and exercise ownership rights over them. It could also raise loans for the village and levy taxes. The self-government enjoyed by the Chola villages was a very fine system.
Nadu was one of the important administrative units of the Cholas. Nadus had representative assemblies. The heads of the nadus were called Nattars. The council of nadu was called nattavai. Representatives of the Nattavais and nattars promoted agriculture. They also took care of the protection of the people and tax collection.
Q4. Discuss the temple architecture and major temple styles of India. 10
Ans) Indian temples have symbolised the very ethos of lifestyle of people through the millennia. The panorama of Indian temple architecture may be seen across at extremely wide chronological and geographical horizon. From the simple beginnings at Sanchi in the fifth century of the Common Era to the great edifices at Kanchi, Jhanjawur and Madurai, is a story of more than a millennium.
Major Temple Styles
The ancient texts on Indian temple architecture broadly classify them into three orders. The terms Nagara, Dravida and Vesara indicate a tendency to highlight typological features of temples and their geographical distribution: These terms describe respectively temples that primarily employ square, octagonal, and apsidal ground plans which also regulate the vertical profile of the structure. Nagara and Dravida temples are generally identified with the northern and southern temple styles respectively. All northern India, from the foothills of the Himalayas to the central plateau of the Deccan is furnished with temples in the northern style.
A work entitled Aparajitapriccha confines the Nagari (Nagara) style to the Madhyadesha (roughly the Ganga-Yamuna plains) and further mentions Lati and Vairati (Gujarat and Rajasthan respectively) as separate styles. The local manuscripts of Odisha recognise four main types of Odisha style temples, viz., the Rehka, Bhadra, Khakhara and Gaudiya.
The Dravida or southern style, comparatively speaking, followed a more consistent development track and was confined to the most southerly portions of the subcontinent, specially between the Krishna River and Kanyakumari. The Kandariya Mahadeva temple in Khajuraho is another striking example where the various architectural elements combined into an integrated whole. Similarly, the Kerala temples display variety in their plan types. Square, circular, or apsidal-ended buildings are utilized. The earliest examples in Kerala go back to the twelfth century.
Q5. Analysis the urbanization in the early medieval northIndia.10
Ans) It is almost entirely from north Indian inscriptions that one comes across a new type of marketplace from the eighth-ninth centuries. This is mandapika, literally meaning a covered area. The term in question can easily be equated with mandis of modern times in the Ganga-Yamuna doab, upper Ganga valley and western India. These mandis are larger than rural level haats, but smaller than markets in large urban areas. One of the earliest references to a mandi is seen in the Baijnath Prasasti (8th /9th century) in the Kangra region in Himachal Pradesh. At Kiragrama (modern Kangra) there was a mandapika where three merchants belonging to a family of merchants donated a cash of 6 drammas (silver coins) out of the daily collection in favour of a temple at Baijnath. The mandapika at Naddula (modern Nadol) demands our special attention. Inscriptions from Nadol show that Naddula was initially a village, in fact one village in a cluster of twelve villages (dvadasagramiya Naddulagrama). Naddula subsequently emerged as a mandapika where considerable trade took place mainly in grains and other agricultural products. Naddula then began to be called a nagara or city and ultimately became the political centre of the Cahamanas of Nadol. Naddula was obviously functioning as a nodal point where surplus agricultural products from surrounding villages were brought. This paved the way for the establishment of a mandapika at Naddula. These factors were instrumental in the remarkable transformation of Naddula from a village to an urban centre and finally to an apex political centre of local power in early medieval Rajasthan. That these mandapikas were well connected by trade routes and available transport systems is demonstrated by epigraphic records.
The vast plains of north India were well frequented by several overland routes of communication, some of them gaining prominence in the early medieval times. Thus Chia-tan (785-805) informs us about a route which ran from Kamarupa to Magadha by touching Pundravardhana (north Bengal) and Kajanigla (near the Rajmahal Hills).
Assignment – III
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.
Q6. Indian cultural in southeast Asia. 6
Ans) India’s civilisation and culture spread in many parts of the world through trade but struck firm roots in Southeast Asia including in dance forms. Yet India’s cultural conquests were peaceful and without forced conversions. There was no evidence of violence, colonisation and subjugation and there was no extensive migration from India to the countries of Southeast Asia. The Indians who went there did not go to rule nor had any interest in controlling from afar.
Southeast Asia was particularly attractive to Indian mercantile class and they named the faraway lands Swarnabhumi or land of gold, Tokola or land of cardamoms or Narikeldeep , land of coconuts
Q7. Agrarion Organization. 6
Ans) An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland. Another way to define an agrarian society is by seeing how much of a nation's total production is in agriculture. In an agrarian society, cultivating the land is the primary source of wealth. Such a society may acknowledge other means of livelihood and work habits but stresses the importance of agriculture and farming. Agrarian societies have existed in various parts of the world as far back as 10,000 years ago and continue to exist today. They have been the most common form of socio-economic organization for most of recorded human history.
Q8. Property rights of women. 6
Ans) Brahmanical law books recognized woman’s right to inherit property in the absence
of a male heir. Women’s right to property reduced the possibilities of its seizure
by state. The earlier rights of women in the form of stridhana expanded in the early medieval period. The early medieval commentaries and digests amplify the scope of stridhana. Mitakshara interprets it as property belonging to the women. Initially stridhana was largely limited to movable wealth. However, women did not have absolute ownership rights to dispose the property through sale, mortgage, or gift. Women were given only right to possess. Family had superior rights over immovable property.
Q9. Shankracharya and Advaita Philosophy. 6
Ans) According to Shankara nothing really exists but the Supreme Spirit known as Brahman. Brahman is pure Existence, Consciousness and Bliss (Sat-cit-aananda). He is Absolute, impersonal, changeless, eternal, and all-pervading. What is commonly called Nature (animate and inanimate) is but an illusion (Maya) and a dream caused by the ignorance (avidya) which surrounds the Supreme Spirit and hides it.
This has been summed up in the words ‘Brahma Sathya, Jagan Mithya’. Phenomena appear real for the same reason that things seen in a dream are real so long as the dream lasts. The aim of life is therefore to cast of the gross sheaths that surround the Spirit within us and to realize its identity with the Supreme Spirit.
Q10 Influence on Arabic Science. 6
Ans) Indian scientific knowledge had a deep impact on Muslim scientists. The scientific cooperation between India and the Arabs initiated a fruitful phase in science and learning. The Arabs were not only interested in Greek learning but also looked up to Hindu sciences for meeting their growing interest in knowledge acquisition. Caliph al-Mansur wanted the scientists to prepare a work based on this text which would serve as a foundation for computing the motions of the planets.
The Arabs learned astronomy from Brahmagupta (7th century CE) earlier than Alexandrian scientist Ptolemy. In mathematics too, Arabs learnt from Hindu systems. Arabic word for numbers is Hindsah, which means ‘from India’. Sulayman was a merchant who visited India in 851 CE. He was appreciative of the Hindus’ proficiency in medicine, astronomy, and philosophy. Hindu astronomers took from the Muslims several technical terms, the Muslim calculation of longitudes and latitudes, and various other items of calendar, Zij
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