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BHIC-133: History of India from c.1206 to 1707

BHIC-133: History of India from c.1206 to 1707

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: BHIC-133 / ASST / TMA / 2021-22

Course Code: BHIC-133

Assignment Name: History Of India from C. 1206-1707

Year: 2021 -2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Note: There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in the Sections.

Assignment – I

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1. Critically examine Mughal policy towards the Rajput states. 20

Ans) The following is a discussion of the various Mughal rulers and their policies toward the Rajput’s.


Akbar was the first Mughal emperor to have a strategy for dealing with the Rajput’s. The creation of his Rajput policy was influenced by several causes. Akbar was a monarchist. He aspired to conquer as much Indian territory as he could. As a result, it was necessary for him to subjugate the Rajput monarchs. The Rajput’s chivalry, fidelity, courage, combat skill, and other qualities impressed Akbar. Instead of making them his enemies, he opted to befriend them. Instead of relying on foreigners, he desired solid partners among the Indian people. As a result, the Rajput’s became an excellent choice for him. Akbar's liberal religious policy compelled him to be close with them. Akbar attempted to make friends with the Rajput’s while also wishing to subjugate them.

We find three following principles which he pursued regarding Rajput rulers:

  1. He conquered Rajput strongholds such as Chittor, Merta, Ranthambhor, Kalinjar, and others. The Rajput’s ability to resist him was weakened as a result of this.

  2. Rajput princes who freely accepted his power or got into matrimonial alliances with him retained control of their domains. They were awarded high positions in the state and their administration was unaffected. They were, nevertheless, required to pay the emperor annual tribute.

  3. Oppositional Rajput kings were targeted, and efforts were made to make them to recognise his rule. The best illustration was the case of Mewar.


In the same way as his father, Jahangir continued his father's policy. During his reign, he was tolerant of the Rajput’s, however the number of Rajput’s in higher positions fell. He also tried to compel Mewar to submit, which he had previously resisted. From the start of his rule, he dispatched a succession of Mughal armies to invade Mewar.

Shah Jahan:

Shah Jahan continued his father's and grandfather's policies. Despite the fact that the number of Rajput’s in higher positions was dwindling, he treated them all with respect and befriended them.

The Rajput’s, on the other hand, were faithful to him. While Raja Jaswant Singh of Marwar and Raja Jai Singh of Jaipur faithfully served him, Rana Jagat Singh and Rana Raj Singh of Mewar kept cordial relations with him.


Aurangzeb revoked Akbar's policy, which had been followed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan. He was a bigot, and the Rajputs were his greatest stumbling block in enforcing his anti-Hindu policies. As a result, Aurangzeb attempted to weaken the Rajputs and conquer their kingdoms.

Thus, Aurangzeb's Rajput strategy failed, and its failure contributed to Aurangzeb's collapse and the weakening of the Mughal empire. The Rajput kings achieved virtual independence and owed only formal fealty to the emperor throughout the reign of the later Mughal monarchs. As a result, every of the Mughal emperors pursued different strategies to reap benefits from the Mughals, but Aurangzeb's strategy flipped the script and became one of the main causes of Mughal downfall.

Q2. Discuss the main elements of the Sultanate architecture. 20

Ans) The arrival of the Turkish Sultans in India resulted in the formation of a civilization that blended indigenous and Islamic traditions. Art and architecture from this time period are the most effective and distinct manifestations of this syncretic culture. From the 13th century, a major increase in the quantity of masonry buildings became a distinct element of this 'new' architecture. The use of a new cementing compound in the construction of buildings during this time period appears to have given masonry structures a longer life and higher durability.

Arch and Dome

The employment of lime-mortar as the basic cementing medium and the advent of a new architectural form, the arch, in elevating masonry buildings made this possible. Furthermore, an expanded kind of arch known as a dome was used as a construction form to primarily give the ceiling to the brick structure. These innovative procedures improved the stability of masonry structures, allowing them to last longer. Lime-mortar was used as a binding material.

Building Material

It's a remarkable truth that there are very few examples of early Turkish buildings in India where the architects used newly mined material. The building material was usually beautifully carved capitals, columns, shafts, and lintels from pre-Turkish structures. Buildings in India were erected using originally mined or manufactured stone until towards the beginning of the 14th century, when the supply of such material had run out. This approach was carried over onto succeeding structures, and it became a defining aspect of Mughal construction.


The objective of decorative art in Islamic structures was to hide the structure beneath themes rather than exposing it. Because depictions of living creatures were frowned upon, most architectural and painting aspects of embellishment were limited to a) calligraphy, b) geometry, and c) foliation.

The Sultanate buildings had a rich and luxurious look as a result of their modification.

Calligraphy is a significant part of the ornamental art in this period's structures. The Quranic verses are written on structures in Kufi, an angular, solemn, and massive font. They can be found in a range of materials-tone, stucco, and painting-and in any part of the building-door frames, ceilings, wall panels, niches, and so forth.

In these structures, abstract geometric shapes are employed in a bewildering array of combinations. The motifs show that visual principles such as repetition, symmetry, and the production of continuous patterns have been incorporated. The circle, which can be evolved into a square, a triangle, or a polygon, has been suggested by Dalu Jones as the generating source of various geometric shapes. Multiplication and subdivision, rotation, and symmetrical groupings are then used to further construct these structures.

The arabesque is the most common type of foliation used in Sultanate architecture. It has a single continuous stem that splits at regular intervals, generating a succession of leafy secondary stems that can split or reintegrate with the primary stem. This pattern's repetition creates a stunningly balanced design with a three-dimensional feel.

Assignment – II

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q3. The conflict between the Afaqis and the Deccanis ultimately sealed the fate of the Bahamani kingdom. Comment. 10

Ans) The Afaqis were a group of people who had moved from Iran and Iraq. The actual conflict between the Dakhnis and the Afaqis began during Ghiyasuddin Tahamtan's reign, in 1397, when the Sultan elevated several Afaqis to higher positions. Dakhnis, on the other hand, inflamed discontent among the ancient nobles and the Turkish party led by Taghalchin.

Clashes between these two tribes may be observed during Ahmad's Gujarat expedition, when the Bahmani armies, led by Malik-ut-tujjar, were defeated due to the Dakhnis' refusal to cooperate. The Dakhnis believed that under Ahmad Ill's rule, the Afaqis wielded too much power, with Khwaja-i Jahan Turk, Malik-ut Tujjar, and Mahmud Gawan at the lead. The Afaqis, on the other hand, were upset since the power they had under Ahmad II's rule had been considerably decreased under his successor.

The conflict to a head under Shihabuddin Mahmud's rule. The Dakhnis allied with the Habshi (Abyssinian) side whereas the king displayed a strong preference for the Afaqis. In 1487, the latter attempted, but failed, to assassinate the monarch. The Dakhnis were massacred in vast numbers over the course of three days. The centre was weakened by all these factional battles. Shihabuddin's reign was tarnished by Qasim Barid, Malik Ahmad Nizamul Mulk, Bahadur Gilani, and others' rebellions and intrigues. With Shihabuddin's death, these nobles had practically complete control over their territories. Finally, in 1537, Ibrahim Adil Shah of Bijapur became the first to declare independence. The Bahmani Sultanate's physical breakdown began at this point.

Q4. Define iqta. What changes were introduced in the iqta system by Muhammad Tughlaq and Firuz Tughlaq. 10

Ans) During the Buyid dynasty, an iqta was an Islamic tax farming system that spread throughout Muslim Asia. It was a type of administrative assistance award. The essence of the iqta changed according to time and place, and a translation based on other systems of institutions and notions has frequently led Western historians, and those who followed them, to be misled.

The Iqta System

Budgetary responsibilities were partially moved from muqtis or walis to central bureaucrats during Muhammad Tughlaq's reign. According to Ibn Battuta, the iqta of Amroha was shared between two officers: an amir (perhaps in charge of the army and administration) and a wali-ul kharaj (in charge of revenue collection). Muhammad Tughlaq further ordered that the salary of soldiers maintained by iqta-holders be paid by the diwan-i wizarat to prevent officers from cheating officers. The state treasury paid the iqta holders' troops in cash during Muhammad Tughlaq's reign. This may have infuriated the commanders and generated political problems for Muhammad Tughlaq.

As a result, Firuz Tughlaq made the decision to make concessions. He doubled the cash salaries of the nobles and ordered new revenue estimates, known as jama. Firuz's successors made no move to restore central control. Under the Lodis, administrative and tax responsibilities were combined, and these were known to as sarkars and parganas rather than iqta. A system of sub-assignments gained popular under Sikandar Lodi. The primary assignees made sub-assignments to their subordinates, who in turn made sub-assignments to their soldiers.

Q5. Give a brief account of the agrarian relations in Mughal India. 10

Ans) During Akbar's reign, ties between the central government and jagirdars, zamindars, and peasants in general were good. Peasants cultivate both edible and non-edible crops during the Mughal Empire. Ain-i-Akbari provides a list of 16 rabi crops and 25 kharif crops, as well as the tax rates applicable to each. Under specific conditions, peasants were able to choose between zabti and batai. When crops were destroyed by natural climatic or harsh conditions, such a choice was made. The peasants had the option of paying revenue in cash or in kind under batai, albeit the state preferred cash. At various times, Akbar used a variety of revenue collection methods. He used the zabti system, batai system, nasd system, dehsala system, and karori system as his key systems.

Akbar was very interested in cultivating and expanding his lands. He requested that the 'Amil' make advance money accessible to peasants in the form of loans for crops, implements, and animals in times of need, and that they be repaid in easy instalments. He was supposed to endeavour to persuade the peasants to cultivate as much land as they could and sow higher-quality crops. Peasants, like farmers, had a hereditary right to cultivate their land and could not be expelled if they paid the land tax.

During the Mughal Empire, most of the land was provided as grants. Altamga grants were given to Maulavis and could only be taken back by the emperor’s instructions. The receivers of grants were looking to take over the zamindars' rights.

Assignment – III

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q6. Provincial kingdoms of Malwa and Jaunpur 6

Ans) The Sultanate's demise paved the door for the independent kingdom of Malwa to develop. In 1401-2, Dilawar Khan Ghori, the Tughlaq governor of Malwa, declared himself king of Malwa and declared himself independent. He expanded his kingdom's borders by conquering Nimar, Sauyar, Damoh, and Chanderi. He was able to rescue Malwa from attack by preserving close connections with Gujarat's Muzaffar Shah. However, soon after his death in 1406, Malwa fell prey to Muzaffar Gujarati's imperialistic intentions.

During Firuz Shah Tughlaq's second Bengal campaign, he constructed Jaunpur on the banks of the Gomti River. Malik Sarwar used the Timur invasion, which essentially wrecked the kingdom of Delhi, to declare his independence in Jaunpur. Kol (Aligarh), Sambhal, and Rapri were all under his control. Malik Sarwar's goals resulted in a series of violent armed conflicts with Delhi, Bengal, Odisha, and Malwa. Finally, in 1483-84, Bahlol Lodi annexed Jaunpur and placed it under Mubarak Nohani's command. Husain Shah made a valiant endeavour to reclaim Jaunpur, but he was unsuccessful. Bahlol ultimately ascended to the throne of Jaunpur with his son Barbak Shah, putting an end to the Sharqi monarchy.

Q7. The Caliphate and the Delhi Sultanate 6

Ans) After the death of Prophet Muhammad, Abu Bakr became the new head (Khalifa) of the Muslim community, and the Caliphate was established. The Caliph was seen as the guardian of religion and the upholder of political order in the Islamic world. He was the community's de facto leader.

The granting of robes of honour, letters of investiture, bestowing of titles, having the name of the Caliph inscribed on coins, and reading of khutba in his name in the Friday prayer symbolised an acceptance and a link with the Islamic world by the Delhi Sultans, though in reality it only meant an acceptance of a situation where a ruler had already placed himself in power. The Sultans of Delhi kept up the pretence of the Caliph's status being accepted.

Q8. Bill of exchange (hundis) 6

Ans) During this time, hundis, or bills of exchange, became a popular way to exchange money. Hundi was a paper document that promised payment of money once a specified amount of time had passed at a specific location. The practise began because of the difficulties associated with transporting large sums of currency for commercial transactions. Merchants wishing to transport cash to a certain location would deposit it with a sarraf, who would then issue a hundi to the merchant. At his destination, the merchant was to submit it to the sarraf's agent and encash it. This began as a secure and convenient way of money transfer.

Q9. How did the Portuguese trade finance in India? 6

Ans) An Italian calculated in 1506 that the total investment needed to conduct trade with the East was 170,000 ducats per year, based on the facts of the Portuguese enterprise on the Malabar coast between 1500 and 1506. Only a quarter of this sum was donated by the Portuguese king, with the remainder raised by merchants and financiers who worked with him. In 1500, he issued a decree allowing both native and foreign traders to outfit their own ships for the journey to the East. Revenues obtained in the form of loot, tributes, and taxes levied on private merchant ships were also used to fund commerce with India.

Q10. Evolution of Mughal school of painting under Akbar 6

Ans) The beginning of the Mughal School of Paintings represents a watershed moment in Indian painting history. The school dates to Akbar's reign. Mughal paintings combined Indian, Persian, and Islamic elements in a unique way. Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdus Samad Khan created the first works of the Mughal School during Akbar's reign. Humayun was the one who hired these two artists in the first place. In addition to this well-known duo, over a hundred painters were hired, the majority of whom were Hindus from Gujarat, Gwalior, and Kashmir. These painters combined and consistent efforts gave birth to a new school of painting known as the Mughal School of Miniature Paintings.

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