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BHIC-133: History of India from c.1206 to 1707

BHIC-133: History of India from c.1206 to 1707

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: BHIC-133/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BHIC-133

Assignment Name: History of India from 1206-1707

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions given in the Sections.




Answer the following in about 500 words each.


Q1) Critically examine the local administration of the Vijayanagara empire.

Ans) When the nayaka and ayagar systems gained popularity during the Vijaynagar period, the institutions of nadu (territorial assembly), sabha, and ur (village assemblies), did not entirely vanish.


The Nayankara System

The Vijaynagar political organisation was distinguished by the Nayankara system. The nayaka or amaranayaka title denoted the military leaders or warriors. It is challenging to categorise these fighters according to a certain job, ethnic identity, set of responsibilities, or rights and benefits. Two Portuguese explorers, Fernao Nuniz and Domingo Paes, who travelled to India in the sixteenth century under the rule of the Tuluva dynasty's Krishnadeva Raya and Achyut Raya, examined the system of nayaka in great detail. They merely see the nayakas as Rayas' servants. The issue of feudal responsibilities is raised by Nuniz's proof of the payments made by the nayakas to the Rayas. The nayakas are described as territorial tycoons with political aspirations that occasionally clashed with the goals of the monarchs in the Vijaynagar inscriptions and later Mackenzie texts.


The Ayagar System

Autonomous local institutions, particularly in the Tamil nation, experienced a setback during the Vijaynagar era. Local institutions in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh had less autonomy in pre-Vijaynagar times than those in Tamil Nadu. Local territorial divisions changed during the Vijaynagar period in Karnataka as well, but the ayagar system persisted and spread widely over the macro-region. Due to the waning influence of Nadu and Nattar, it spread throughout the Tamil nation throughout the 15th and 16th centuries. The ayagars, which were made up of groups of families, were village workers or servants. These included watchmen, accountants, and headmen. They received a plot or chunk of land in a community.


Land and Income Rights

Rice served as the main crop. Between Coromandel and Pulicat, rice of both the black and white varieties was cultivated. Additionally, grains like gramme and pulses were grown. Other significant products included coconut, betel nuts, and spices. The state's primary source of income was land-revenue. According to the land's fertility and geographic location, the rate of revenue demand fluctuated across the empire as well as within a single locale. Numerous professional taxes were also levied in addition to the property tax. These were applied to business owners, farm workers, shepherds, washermen, potters, shoemakers, singers, etc. Property tax was another charge. There were additional housing and grazing taxes. The upkeep of the village officers was also expected to be covered by the villagers.


Economic Role of Temples

In the Vijaynagar era, temples became significant landowners. The gods that were worshipped in the huge temple were given hundreds of villages. Officers from the temple oversaw the devadana communities to make sure the grant was used effectively. The ritual workers were fed by the money from the devadana communities. It was also used to buy supplies needed for performing the religious ceremonies, such as food offerings. The state also endowed the temples with money so they could perform religious services. Temples started doing irrigation work as well. Large temples with devadana holdings have irrigation departments under them for correctly allocating financial grants to the temples. Those who contributed money to temples also shared in the food offering that resulted from the higher output.


Q2) Discuss Mughal relations with the Marathas.

Ans) The historical links between the two main regions of the Indian Subcontinent, the Great Indian Plains, which are supported by the Ganges and Yamuna rivers, and the Deccan Plateau cultures, where civilizations were cradled on the banks of the river have always piqued the interest of scholars and ordinary people alike. "Maratha-Mughal Relations: Through North-South Historical Linkage" is an attempt to explore these historical links from cultural, political, and economic perspectives. These river cultures, which are found in the northern and southern parts of the Indian subcontinent, tapped into local cultures and enabled north-south trade and cultural interchange.


For the Southern Deccan region, the North remained a pilgrimage area where Adi-religious Shankarashayra's fervour gave rise to Kashi and Shrinageri, and since the time of Agastya rishi, Southern Niligiri gave rise to Vedic and Upanishadic philosophy in Southern Deccan parts of India. The mythological sacred tales of Ganesha and Murugan provided the foundation for Ashtavinyaka and Mug The South-Deccan connection to the North follows the same commercial and cultural routes. If the Ganga runs across the northern Indian plains, the Dakshin Ganga or Godavari runs through the Deccan and the South, feeding the population. North and South have long traded their cultural, religious, and commercial activities thanks to these historical-political and physical connections.


Political connections intensified when Allauddin Khalji attacked Devgiri north-south (Deccan) in 1307. An exclusive culture of Marathas, Kannadas, and Telugus developed as a result of these north-south connections through the Deccan hills of Vindhyas and Satpuda, as Ferishta skillfully recounts in his literature "Tarikh-I-Fehrishta." After the Khaljis, it was Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq who renamed the city of Devgiri to Daulatabad and proclaimed it the capital of the entire Delhi region.


Assimilative tendencies and the cultural clash between north and south/Deccan persisted. Mughals from Akbar's era entered the Deccan. In addition to entering the Deccan region and forcing his son Danial to wed a princess of the Deccan sultans, Akbar also experienced the Dakshin Kashi region, also known as Pratishthan or Paithan, during his conquest of Malwa and Gujarat as well as his endeavours in the Khandesh and Nizamshahi districts. The main focus of the conference is the latter Aurangzeb era, namely his interactions with Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Shivaji's captivity in Agra in 1676. The interaction between the Mughals and the Deccan was not just political, but it also altered how the Mughals viewed the political and social structure of the Indian subcontinent.


The Deccan politics that ultimately led to the fall of the Mughals from their capitals in Agra, Lahore, and Delhi The 17th-century Mughal-Maratha connections altered the political and cultural discourse of the Indian subcontinent. With Maratha, Rajput, and Sikh relations with the Mughals in India, a new trajectory entered Indian cultural and political history that fundamentally altered the political landscape of that country in the 18th and 19th centuries. This brought about cultural plurality in the Indian subcontinent and revived rulers emerging from Mughal mansabdars (as Nawabs and Nizams), Maratha Sardars-Peshwas, Rajput rajas, Sikh Sardar




Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 10x3


Q1) Briefly discuss Deccan policy of the Delhi Sultans.

Ans) The Deccan and south India policies of the Delhi sultans were solely driven by economic considerations. The kingdoms were required to pay taxes to the Delhi Sultanate since they intended to make money and gather wealth from this region. Although there were troops stationed in a few South Indian towns, Delhi was not directly in charge of the administration. The Southern States' distance from Delhi also made it necessary to adhere to such a policy.


As the Caliphate fell apart, the Sultan started to emerge as a strong leader and independent sovereign of a particular province. The Delhi Sultans may enact civil and political laws for the good of the populace. Sikka and khutba were acknowledged as crucial aspects of sovereignty. On Fridays, the congregational prayer was followed by the ceremonial sermon, or khutba, in which the Sultan's name was referred to as the head of the society. Coinage was a privilege of the ruler, and each coin bore his name.


Dynasties rose and fell rapidly during the Sultanate. Only with the help of the nobility, who themselves were divided into several groups, could the Sultan or a potential heir to the throne maintain his position of authority. According to Barani, Balban emphasised the Sultan's unique status as the "shadow of God" on earth. Balban stressed regal opulence, decorum, and manners. He also supported harsh, especially for nobility, exemplary punishments. All of this was significant because many nobles believed they had an equal right to govern and that the crown was never safe from their ambitions.


Q2) Discuss the main features of the Sultanate architecture.

Ans) An obvious characteristic of this "new" style is the sharp rise in masonry construction starting around the 13th century. It appears highly likely that the use of a new cementing agent during this time period gave masonry structures a longer lifespan and increased durability.


Arch and Dome

According to reports of the Archaeological Survey of India, which were compiled between 1865 and 1877, the frequency of masonry construction, especially residential buildings, increased dramatically in Northern Indian towns after the 13th century. This was made possible in large part by the employment of lime-mortar as the primary cementing substance and the use of a novel architectural form, the arch, in the construction of masonry structures. A dome, an expanded type of arch, was also used as an architectural form to primarily supply the ceiling to the masonry structure. According to the Archaeological Survey Reports, these new procedures increased the stability of masonry constructions and extended their lifespan.


Building Material

It is an odd truth that there aren't many early Turkish structures in India where the architects employed freshly mined stone. It was common practise to construct with elaborately carved capitals, columns, shafts, and lintels from pre-Turkish buildings. Buildings in India weren't constructed using originally mined or produced materials until the beginning of the 14th century, when the source of such material had run out. It is not surprising that stone has been utilised extensively in masonry work given its strength. The superstructure is made of dressed stone or coarse stonework that has been coarsely formed, while the foundations are generally made of small, abrasive rubble or, where accessible, river stones.



Islamic architecture used decorative art to hide the structure under themes rather than to show it. As depictions of live things were typically discouraged, the components of embellishment were typically restricted to:

  1. calligraphy,

  2. geometry,

  3. foliation.


The Sultanate buildings were given a rich and opulent appearance thanks to their modification. In contrast, these Pan-Islamic decorative ideas were applied to all types of structures in the Delhi Sultanate, which is generally the case when it comes to ornamentation.


Q3) Give a brief account of the main features and working of the jagir system under the Mughals.

Ans) The holders of the assigned regions were known as jagirdar and the assigned areas as jagir. Iqta/iqta'adar and tuyul/tuyuldar were also occasionally used, but extremely infrequently. It must be made clear that the income/revenue from the land/area, not the land itself, was granted to the jagirdars. This system evolved gradually over time, going through numerous alterations before stabilising.


After his conquest, Babur gave the former Afghan chieftains their former positions back or assigned them more than one-third of the conquests. The people who held these positions were referred to as wajhdars. A predetermined amount of the region's overall revenue was designated as wajh. The remaining revenue generated by the territories was considered to be a component of the khalisa. The zamindars remained to rule in their particular regions, but Babur used hakims to reign in other territories he had taken. Perhaps Humayun continued the same trend.


During Akbar's reign, the entire country was roughly split into two regions: Khalisa and Jagir. The proceeds from the first went to the Imperial Treasury, while the proceeds from the jagir were given to the jagirdars in place of their rank-based salary in cash. A few people received both cash and jagir. Mansabdars were given different portions of the territory based on their status. As it was determined in dam, the expected revenue was referred to as jama or jamadami. Land revenue, interior transit fees, port customs, and additional taxes known as sair jihat were all included in the jama. The revenue officers also used the phrase "paibaqi." This was implemented in the regions whose revenue had not yet been allocated to mansabdars.


The jama of the khalisa in the provinces of Delhi, Awadh, and Allahabad represented nearly a fourth of their entire revenue in the years 1596–1597 of Akbar's reign. Nearly 90% of the region was given to Jahangir's domain, leaving only 10% available for the Khalisa, and the ratio "even went below 5% of that of the total empire." Jagir to khalisa ratio was inconsistent. By the 20th year, it was almost one-seventh, reaching one-eleventh under Shah Jahan. The pattern persisted during the succeeding era; in the tenth year of Aurangzeb, the jama of the khalisa made up over one-fifth of the total.




Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. 6x5


Q1) Arabic and Persian Historiography

Ans) Persian historiography focused more on the political history and lives of the kings and aristocracy than a socio-religious history of the period, condensing the scope of history. As a result, Persian history might be described as "dynastic history," or the history of the "kings" and "aristocracy." In order to "increase the worth of their work," Persian historians preferred to dedicate their works to the ruler.


The Tabaqat-i Nasiri by Minhaj-i Siraj Juzjani, the Tarikh-i Firuzshahi by Ziauddin Barani, and the Tarikh-i Alfi by Arif Qandahari were all dedicated to Nasiruddin Mahmud. Similar to this, Mu'tamad Khan gave Jahangir his Iqbalnama-i Jahangiri. Literati, intellectuals, and saints are rarely discussed in Persian histories, and when they are, it is usually in the context of the governing class. The renowned Chishti and Suhrawardi saints were active in sufi activities during Minhaj's time, yet they are entirely absent from his storey.


Q2) Humayun and the Afghans

Ans) Afghan nobles fled to Gujarat as a result of Humayun's defeat of the Afghans. As a result, there was a political void in the east, which gave Sher Shah the chance to increase his influence. For Sher Shah, the years 1530–1535 were significant. He had to contend with Bengali and Afghan aristocrats who sought refuge with the Bengali monarch in order to strengthen his power in the east. At the Battle of Qannauj on the banks of the Ganga, Humayun suffered a crushing defeat. The second Afghan empire's creation in India was made possible by this. The failure of Humayun's campaign against Sher Shah was caused by a number of circumstances. These consist of:

  1. He encountered his brothers' animosity. He often treated them with too much kindness.

  2. He occasionally reacted slowly when the circumstances called for quick action. His campaigns in Bengal and Gujarat provide good examples of this.

  3. He was a victim of "inexorable fate" as well.

  4. Humayun lacked the financial resources necessary for ongoing conflict. When he became stranded in Bengal and was short on supplies and money, this weakness was quite obvious.

  5. Sher Shah also possessed the strength, wisdom, and organisational skills, and he was adept at seizing political opportunities. Humayun was unable to compete with his ability.

Q3) Alauddin Khalji’s market control measures

Ans) The policies of Alauddin Khalji were not limited to the agricultural economy but also included the urban market. He is credited with publishing a list of seven rules that became known as market-control measures. The sole authority that provides these restrictions in detail is Barani, who serves as our primary source on this topic.


The Sultan set the pricing for all goods, including cattle, food, cloth, and slaves. Since the Sultan made careful plans to ensure the success of the measure, these prices were actually going to be enforced. Barids, Munhiyan, and a market controller were selected. The shahna-i mandi took control of the grain traders and demanded sureties from them. Daily reports from each of these three sources were to be sent individually to the Sultan. Regrading was not permitted. The Sultan maintained rigorous market control while also paying attention to a more crucial need, namely the consistent supply of goods at cheaper costs, such as cereals.


Q4) Monotheistic Movements

Ans) In the centuries that followed the creation of the Delhi Sultanate and the arrival of Islam in that region of the country, both of these movements emerged in Northern India. Because of this, the emergence of both movements is sometimes linked to shared factors, such the impact of Islam on Hinduism. The two movements' origins, sources, and the things that influenced them, however, were completely different. The discussion that follows will make evident that a factor that explains one movement may not explain another. This is so because while the Vaishnava movements started during the Sultanate period but peaked during the Mughal period, the popular monotheistic movements emerged and achieved their apex during the Sultanate period.


Q5) European influence on Mughal school of painting

Ans) Later on, particularly in the 17th century, European art had an impact on Mughal painting. The painters of the Mughal Empire incorporated some of the topics and some of the techniques of European artists. Mughal court artists were initially inspired to create precise replicas of European paintings as a result of their interactions with them. These imitations, as remarked by travellers from modern Europe, were flawlessly executed. However, Mughal artists also conducted experiments by creating new works based on themes picked from European paintings.


One notable aspect of some Mughal paintings is the attempt to make them appear three-dimensional. It expresses the influence of European technique without a doubt. The effect of light and shade, which was primarily used in night scenes, was another European standard that the Mughal painters found acceptable. Again, European paintings had an influence on the depiction of "halos," winged angels, and raging clouds in Mughal paintings. The Mughals were not particularly drawn to a key European technique called oil painting. There is no oil-based artwork during this time period.

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