If you are looking for BHIE-142 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Applied Econometrics, you have come to the right place. BHIE-142 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAHIH, BAG courses of IGNOU.
BHIE-142 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BHIE-142/ASST/TMA/July 2021-2022
Course Code: BHIE-142
Assignment Name: History of Modern East Asia: Japan
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Note: There are three Assignments in this. You have to answer all questions in the Sections.
Assignment - I
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
Q1. Write a note on the Tokugawa rule in Japan. 20
Ans) Even throughout the Tokugawa period, Japan was not completely insulated from outside contact. On the man-made island of Deshima off the coast of Nagasaki, Japan had granted Dutch tradesmen restricted residency privileges. It's worth noting that two of the most important sources of knowledge throughout the Tokugawa period came from outside Japan, namely China and Holland. This exposure to Western knowledge gave the Meiji thinkers with a foundation from which to learn from the West.
The Japanese have access to a tremendous amount of knowledge about not only these countries, but also about global affairs in general, thanks to translations. Books were imported, and the Dutch were required to report on the state of the globe on a regular basis. Because of their practise of learning from Chinese texts, the Japanese quickly learned from Dutch works, and by the mid-nineteenth century, there was a strong and active tradition of world-aware intellectuals. These intellectuals were becoming more and more eager to go over the world, and when Perry's Black ships arrived, they were keen to investigate the roots of Western strength.
Many of the Meiji leaders were influenced by the loyalist instructor Yoshida Shoin. He was a fervent nationalist who was executed under Tokugawa control for his radical ideals. He attempted to smuggle himself onto Perry's ship but was unsuccessful. Later, another genius, Niijima Jo, was able to smuggle himself into the United States. Various people aided him, all of whom were impressed by the intensity of his ambition to see the world. He studied in the United States and eventually founded a university in Japan, where he became a respected figure. Both of these men had very different ideals, but they both saw the West as a source of power from which they could learn and employ to establish the state's foundations.
Individual meetings and excursions increased over time, but Bakufu also dispatched formal missions. A mission to the United States was chosen in 1860. Oguri Tadamasa, one of the officials, was instrumental in the construction of the Yokohama and Yokosuka foundries and shipyards with French assistance. The Kanrin Maro was the first Japanese ship to traverse the Pacific Ocean, and Fukuzawa Yukichi was on board. The most well-known among the westernizers was Fukuzawa Yukichi. His writings on the West were written in an easy-to-follow Japanese manner, in contrast to the literary style that was popular at the time, and they were big sellers.
Other Bakufu delegations visited Europe, and while they were there for diplomatic purposes, they also acquired information about the West, with many of them conducting systematic investigations into Western organisations and customs. As a result, they would research the school system or the political system and write reports. For example, Fukuzawa wrote extensively about what he saw, delving into not only the operation of Western technologies but also the social and political structure. Between 1866 and 1869, he released Conditions of the West, which provides a wealth of information as well as a model for how Japanese society should be reformed. Visitors to other nations in Japan authored their own books, but many more translated Western literature. Nakamura Masanao's translation of Samuel Smiles' Self Help was one of the most popular.
Q2. What were the political and economic reforms that contributed towards the modernization of Japan? 20
Ans) Travel grew easier and was actively encouraged after the Meiji Restoration. Despite the difficulties it encountered, the new government dispatched the Iwakura Mission, which included many of the new government's top officials. The goal of this trip, which included senior diplomats, was to closely examine the West in all of its features. Members devoted their efforts in specific areas. Okubo Toshimichi, for example, researched industrial and economic systems by touring factories and slums where workers resided.
The Japanese were interested in learning from people all across the world. As their knowledge grew, they began to rank countries, such as:
England served as a model for industrial development,
Prussia for the military,
France for the police and educational system, and
America for agricultural development.
Another key way in which the Japanese learned from the West was through the hiring of foreign teachers. The Japanese learned from the Dutch at first, but the English and French eventually took over. By 1875, there were 520 foreign employees working for the Japanese government during the Meiji period. This number has steadily decreased, whereas the number of foreigners employed by private businesses has climbed.
There were 760 people like this in 1897. These employees worked in a variety of fields, including education, engineering, and many technicians. It's worth noting that the Japanese government spent a lot of money to acquire the best knowledge possible. Foreigners' salaries accounted for one-third of the Ministry of Industries' regular budget and one-third of Tokyo Imperial University's allocations, indicating the government's willingness to incur a financial hardship in order to obtain access to the expertise they deemed vital. At the same time, the high expense most likely caused them to learn quickly, which was repeatedly emphasised.
"It is vital that we take this chance to properly train and educate ourselves.... then, of course, we shall be able to do without foreigners," Ito Hirobumi remarked in a lecture in 1873. As a result, all aspirant young people throughout the land should pursue their studies with energy."
The ambition to learn from and imitate the West, on the other hand, reached ridiculous proportions. For example, the "hall of the Deer Pavillion," where the Meiji elite dressed in Western formal clothing, complete with top hats, and held ballroom dances, epitomises the enthusiasm for Western things. However, this was not the only aspect of westernisation, and despite the excesses, there was a strong desire to learn new things.
Assignment - II
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
Q3. Write a note on the Meiji political order. 10
Ans) A tiny handful of leaders who had helped bring about the Meiji Restoration oversaw the political reforms during the Meiji period. They were partly driven by a desire to transform Japan into a modern nation so that the unequal treaties might be revised. They wanted to construct a great and affluent country as well. To promote slow and incremental transformation, they leveraged existing institutions like as the Imperial institution or religious concepts. The Meiji officials were worried about social unrest and the infusion of contentious ideas from Western countries. That is why they selectively took from countries like Prussia in order to create a political framework that matched their vision of Japan.
The opposition movements, like the Meiji oligarchy, desired to construct a Japan, but their vision differed from the oligarchy's. The traditional elite's anti-Meiji revolts, known as the shizoku, were backward-looking and originated from the loss of privileges and the erosion of customary rights. These elites were subjected to market forces that they didn't comprehend or have any influence over. The Peoples' Rights Movement represented a liberal and democratic opposition to the Meiji State in its early stages, but its scope and intensity grew over time as more socioeconomic groups who were disadvantaged were involved. There were even violent episodes that put the state's power at jeopardy. The movement's collapse was due to a combination of issues, including factionalism and ineffective leadership, but the Meiji administration was already too established intellectually and institutionally to be overthrown.
Q4. Discuss Japan’s emergence as an economic power. 10
Ans) Japan took advantage of World War I to accelerate its economic growth. However, the economic boom did not endure long, and certain industrial sectors, particularly agriculture, experienced a collapse. Despite the government's efforts to combat agricultural stagnation, little progress was made. Rice front colonies were imported as a result of the Rice Riot. Although it momentarily lowered prices, it had long-term consequences. Despite the global recession, many sectors of Japanese industry, such as the heavy and chemical industries, cotton, textiles, and power, continued to develop.
Sericulture improved as well, and it became a popular secondary activity among peasant households. In Japan, you can also see the emergence and persistence of dual economic systems, such as traditional and modern sectors. Initially, the zaibatsu tightened its grip on the manufacturing process and financial capital. This, however, caused complications, drawing condemnation from both peasants and supporters of military. During the interwar period, foreign trade grew as well. Military expansionists, on the other hand, followed an aggressive posture not only in international relations, but also at home, suppressing all voices of opposition to military participation in government policies. However, in terms of economic development, Japan reached high goals, despite the suffering of the poor labour and peasants.
Q5. Why did the political parties fail in Japan? 10
Ans) The emergence and collapse of party governance in contemporary Japan is a complicated storey, but it's worth noting that the Meiji oligarchy's constitutional government was strongly opposed to party rule. In this difficult climate, political parties and their followers constructed a structure in which they could exercise some authority, drawing on native traditions as well as Western ideals. They were able to accomplish so by reaching an agreement with the Meiji oligarchy. The socialist and later communist parties, as well as other radical organisations, were unable to mobilise a large-scale movement. Nonetheless, they functioned and were able to communicate the longings of people who were experiencing the challenges brought on by industrialization.
Because of its independence from the Diet and its conceptions of Japanese security interests, the military steadily damaged the democratic process, toppling party administrations that did not share its viewpoints. It, too, was unable to impose a fully totalitarian regime, and political competition continued even during its peak. Because of this, the nature of Japanese "fascist" differs significantly from that of Europe. It is very controversial whether Japan experienced an era of "fascist," and most Western experts disagree. This isn't to suggest the system wasn't democratic or that Japan didn't engage in militaristic exploits around the world. Finally, it's worth noting that the party system was included into the Meiji structure, allowing conflicting groups to negotiate their demands.
Assignment - III
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.
Q6. Japanese Constitution 6
Ans) The Japanese Constitution is the country’s constitution as well as the state's ultimate legislation. When it went into force on 3 May 1947, the constitution replaced the Meiji Constitution of 1890, which had been written mostly by American civilian officials working during the Allied Occupation of Japan. The constitution establishes a parliamentary administration and ensures the protection of certain fundamental rights. Unlike the Meiji Constitution, which gave Japan's Emperor supreme political power, the new charter relegated the Emperor to "the emblem of the State and of the unification of the people" and limited him to a ceremonial function operating under the people's sovereignty.
Q7. Samurai 6
Ans) From the late 12th century until 1876, the Samurai were a hereditary military nobility and officer caste in mediaeval and early modern Japan. They were the daimyo's well-paid retainers. They enjoyed high status and unusual rights, such as the ability to wield two swords. They practised the bushido martial virtues of indifference to suffering and unwavering allegiance, participating in several local fights. They rose to the position of governing political class, with great power but also great responsibility. Against the invading Mongols in the 13th century, the samurai proved to be skilled fighters. As modern forces arose in the nineteenth century, the Samurai became increasingly outmoded and costly to sustain in comparison to the typical conscript soldier.
Q8. Anglo-French Rivalry in Japan 6
Ans) In 1864, a Bakufu official was dispatched to Paris, and Leon Roches (1809-1901) arrived in Japan. Roches eventually began to seek an autonomous French policy instead of cooperating with other Western powers. He advocated a firm response to Japanese attacks on foreigners, gave tunds to the Bakufu to help build the Yokosuka arsenal, and floated the idea of forming a combined Franco-Bakufu commercial enterprise. The British were rapidly swaying in favour of the Han. Japan was becoming increasingly entangled in the Anglo-French struggle, and the threat of imperialist encroachment was rapidly escalating. Bakufu's alliance with France and Britain's alliance with Satsuma-Choshu had major internal ramifications. On the one side, the daimyo were strengthened in their opposition to the Bakufu, but mutual distrust grew, making conciliatory gestures harder. Finally, both the daimyo and the Bakufu became more reliant on Western military technology and training.
Q9. Peoples Rights Movement in Japan 6
Ans) In the 1880s, the Japanese political and social movement for democracy known as the Freedom and People's Rights Movement, Liberty and Civil Right Movement, or Free Civil Right Movement. It pursued the construction of an elected legislature, reform of the Unequal Treaties with the United States and European countries, the institution of civil rights, and the reduction of centralised taxation. The Movement prompted the Meiji government to establish a constitution in 1889 and a diet in 1890; however, it failed to loosen central government control, and its demand for true democracy remained unmet, with ultimate power remaining in the Meiji oligarchy because, among other limitations, the Meiji Constitution's first election law enfranchised only men who paid a substantial amount in property taxes, as a result of the Laffer Curve.
Q10. Rise of Militarism in Japan 6
Ans) The groundwork for the growth of Militarism had been laid from the start. Even before World War |, Meiji officials preached and practised an expansionist foreign policy. At home, the media was governed by a set of rules, and no opposition was accepted beyond a certain degree. The presence of the elder statesmen, on the other hand, had been able to keep the military under control. Following World War |, political parties were given the opportunity to address the economic catastrophe and restore domestic political stability. Despite the fact that there were divisions inside the military, the infighting had no effect on the military's hold over politics and administration. Economic resources were redirected to build a war machine that was only disassembled after Japan was defeated in WWII.
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