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BLI-221: Library, Information and Society

BLI-221: Library, Information and Society

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: BLI-221/AST/TMA/Jul.2022/Jan.2023

Course Code: BLI-221

Assignment Name: Library, Information and Society

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


I). Answer the following questions in not more than 500 words each. (4X10=40 Marks)


1. Discuss the role of library in the context of the changing society.

Ans) When people think about libraries, many distinct pictures come to mind. It is possible to draw some conclusions about how libraries' roles are likely to develop by stepping back from individual cases and examining the context in which library services are offered and the trends that are likely to affect them in the future.


In this situation, Brophy identifies four models. Which are:

  1. As a collection, libraries.

  2. The library as a venue for sharing resources.

  3. The library serves as an access point.

  4. The immersive or embedded library.


If we look closely, the general perception throughout most of history has been that libraries were locations where written, including printed materials were kept together for both security and to establish an organised collection for use. The collection was crucial, thus precautions had to be taken to ensure its growth and representativeness. In addition to gathering, resource organisation also gained importance. The notion that the library was a social institution that played a part in the organisation of society was bolstered by the concepts of collection, organisation of access to knowledge, and user needs as individuals. Viewing the public library as a tool for promoting literacy and a love of study is thought to be progressive.


The existing library model is quite simple. Users and the massive amounts of published and unpublished knowledge are connected through the library. The majority of libraries concentrate a lot of attention on how they can facilitate and encourage learning. For libraries, the challenge is to offer a variety of services that assist lifelong learners who choose to learn in any one of the many modes, and possibly in a personal blend of all modes. Therefore, developing their direct involvement in the delivery of learning presents a significant challenge for librarians in the majority of sectors. In actuality, a pedagogical understanding will aid librarians in better service design and delivery as well as in proving the value and significance of libraries. It must be emphasised that libraries are, at their core, service organisations.


They aim to help people of all ages and walks of life with what they do. It is obvious that they are in the business of assisting in the knowledge and understanding development of their users. Whether on a global or local scale, services and information are firmly at the heart of community development. Businesses now have a way to stand out from the competition thanks to the availability of knowledge-based services and the ongoing improvement of their quality. However, libraries don't run businesses. They must advance in the 21st century, empowering themselves to meet the shifting demands of society because they are special.


The future of libraries has been a topic of discussion in the literature. Some experts believe that libraries are in danger of disappearing. They contend that when confronted with the challenges of the twenty-first century, library users will expect just-in-time information to assist them in strategizing, addressing particular issues, and providing answers to particular queries. Information sharing in a timely manner won't be considered the norm anymore. The user will want the information to be instantly accessible, in the correct form, and in the appropriate format. Libraries and librarians must acknowledge this in order to adapt to the needs of the new society and knowledge-based economy. To meet changing requirements and provide more individualised and customised services, librarians must redesign the library.


2. State the Five Laws of Library Science. Discuss the implications of First Law of Library Science

Ans) Following are the Five Laws of Library Science that Dr. Ranganathan outlined:

  1. Books are for use.

  2. Every reader his/her book.

  3. Every book its reader.

  4. Save the time of the reader.

  5. The library is a growing organism.


First Law: Books are for Use


We can assume that something is obvious or a simple statement that doesn't require much thought or consideration when you read a book. But after giving it some thought, you change your mind. If we look at the history of books in libraries, this will be clear. In actuality, the initial emphasis was on book preservation rather than book use. Chained libraries include those from the Middle Ages. Brass chains literally held the books to the shelf so that they could only be utilised there. It is clear that this was done to preserve books rather than to make them easier to utilise. At a time when it was very difficult to publish books, this was a natural inclination. This


Implications: Some key takeaways for library work can be found in the first law of library science. Some of these have to do with the library's location, operating hours, structure, furnishings, and staff.


Location of the library: As an illustration, the emphasis placed on library location is a message that is forward-thinking. In order to attract more patrons, the law recommends that libraries be placed in more accessible areas. A peaceful central location is excellent for a public library, whereas a school library should be placed prominently on the school grounds. If a university library is supposed to be the beating heart of the institution, then that idea ought to be mirrored in the library's physical location.


Working Hours: The first law also conveys the critical lesson that a library's operating hours should be convenient for the majority of its patrons. Many libraries in India must pay close attention to this issue and remain open when their patrons are not involved in other activities in order to allow them to use the facility. This kind of proactive approach to choosing the library's operating hours will undoubtedly produce positive outcomes.


Library Building and Furniture: The first law stipulates that careful consideration must be given to the planning and design of the library structure as well as the many pieces of furniture that are furnished with the library. The library building should have both practical uses and appealing aesthetic qualities. Furniture should be both useful and appealing to the eye. Books should be positioned on the racks at user-friendly heights to make it easier for customers to remove them and use them. Children should be drawn to the furnishings in children's libraries, in particular. The library consistently attracts patrons with its cosy furnishings.


Staff: Staff are a crucial part of every library. For the first law of library science to be fulfilled, the library staff must meet specific requirements. Despite Dr. Ranganathan's extensive discussion of library employees in his explanation of the first law, the essentials come down to these crucial characteristics: The staff at the library needs to be qualified in order to successfully manage the space and deliver high-quality services. This would undoubtedly guarantee that books were used properly. The human qualities of the library staff, however, may be far more significant than academic qualifications.


3. Define library legislation. Discuss its role in public library development in India.

Ans) Library Legislation: The goal of library legislation is to give the public libraries a sound legal foundation and sufficient funding to operate efficiently. It's also known as the Public Libraries Act. Public libraries, including their organisation, establishment, governance, upkeep, personnel structure, financial resources, authority to enact regulations and changes, etc., are some of the various elements of such an Act.


Library Act is a type of law or legislation that is any country and state government passed and implemented to establish a library system in its territory. Thus, we can say that the Library Act is known for the creation of a library system under the Central or State Government and its maintenance, functions, services, rights, and management in a lawful form. Great Britain is one of the countries in the world where the Library Act was first passed on 14 August 1950. In 1956 passed the library act in the USA.

The need for Library legislation: The following are the requirements of the Library Act in any country or state.

  1. To establish the Library

  2. To the development of Library

  3. For the establishment of networking in the libraries

  4. Library, Structure, Strengthening Policy, Determining Finance Provisions.

  5. Formation of the Board of Directors of Ensuring and Continuing the Library.

  6. Training of employees

  7. Provide free library service to the public.


Concept of Library Legislation: According to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, there are the following elements of the Library Act which are required to be mentioned in the Library Act

  1. Premilaries

  2. Top Management

  3. Library committee

  4. Finance Provision

  5. Accounts & Audits

  6. Rules or Bylaws


Model Public Library Act: Quality of Good Model Library Act:


The Best Library Act has the following qualities:

  1. The Act should contain provisions relating to the administration and direction of libraries.

  2. The publication of committees and subcontracts related to the library and various functions. There should be a provision for the formation of committees.

  3. There should be a clear provision of the duties and responsibilities of these reviewers and sub-committees.

  4. There should be a provision of good financial resources for the operation of libraries.

  5. There should also be a provision for the establishment of additional, non-governmental libraries.

  6. There should also be a provision to maintain harmony between the library.

  7. There should be the free provision of services provided in the library.

  8. Keeping in mind the interests of all sections of the society, according to the type of libraries.

  9. People of the society who are unable to visit the library due to personal reasons. There should be a provision to provide library service for Man.

  10. Along with this, the posts, pay scale, service of employees working, Promotion, teaching-training, in the libraries, etc. should also be arranged. "


In 1933 and 1937, the Madras Library Association was first prepared and presented the Madras Library acts, but for some reason, they couldn't be passed. In independent India, the same act was passed in the state of Madras in 1948. Which is the first state in India to pass the Library Act. So far 19 states of India have passed the Library Legislation Act in their state.


4. Discuss the role of INFLIBNET in promoting automation of library and information activities and services in India.

Ans) Library Automation: One of INFLIBNET's main initiatives is the automation of university libraries. Additionally, it is necessary for resource sharing and library networking under the INFLIBNET Program. Understanding the significance of this fundamental need, the INFLIBNET Centre has been awarding grants to the participating universities through the University Grants Commission.


Every year, initial grants of Rs. 6.5 lakhs are given to 15-20 libraries that have been recognised. This makes it possible for the university libraries to buy equipment like computers, modems, phones, printers, air conditioners, and software. Additionally, ongoing grants are given to these chosen colleges for the first five years following the installation of the systems. This enables them to cover costs such as the salary of an information scientist, data input, consumables, computer upkeep, telephone costs, etc. 142 universities have received funds to date for automation-related purposes. The aforementioned assistance has significantly boosted the automation initiatives at the participating universities.


Understanding the significance of this fundamental need, INFLIBNET Centre has given grants to the universities listed under the programme through the University Grants Commission. These grants were given to 142 universities. The university libraries were able to buy computers, a modem, a phone, a printer, an air conditioner, software, etc. thanks to a non-recurring grant. In order to assist them in maintaining the systems and converting the collection into machine-readable form, they were also given a recurring grant for the first five years following the implementation of the systems.


Services of INFLIBNET

  1. INFLIBNET is envisioned and created as a network with multiple functions and services. It offers the subsequent services.

  2. Services Based on Catalogs: The cataloguing of monographs, serials, and non-book resources is included in the catalogue services. united catalogue of books, serials, and non-book items compilation providing online access for collaborative cataloguing and location identification, which helps with the creation of catalogues on card books, magnetic tape, floppy discs, etc.

  3. Data base services: these comprise database searches for both present-day and historical services. Through accumulating, preserving, and querying, computer-based SDI is provided, as well as non-bibliographic information about institutions, experts, and ongoing and completed projects.

  4. Services for providing documents include interlibrary loans, document delivery via fax, non-fax, and the internet, among other things.

  5. The primary goal of the collection development service is to aid the member libraries in all facets of acquisition, procurement, and selection.


Services that are communication-based include:

  1. Advisory services.

  2. Email service via the internet.

  3. View and update the bulletin board.

  4. Electronic mail for academic communication. Such non-bibliographic databases, file transfer computers, audio/video conferencing, etc.




The UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium, INFLIBNET Centre, and the INDEST-AICTE Consortium are working together to carry out the Ministry of Human Resource Development's National Mission on Education through ICT project, "National Libraries Information Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content." Students, researchers, and professors from universities and other institutions can access electronic resources thanks to the N-LIST project. Once they have been properly validated as authorised users through servers deployed at the INFLIBNET Centre, the authorised users from colleges can now access electronic resources and download the articles they need directly from the publisher's website.


Achievements of INFLIBNET:


1)It frequently organises training courses for students at member colleges to prepare them for careers in automation.

2)By now, it has brought forth the publication that followed.

a)assembling a union catalogue.

b)thesis and dissertation databases.

c)serials repositories.

3)It creates criteria for data collection, encourages library automation efforts, and implements the software at member libraries.

4)Additionally, it has created its own library automation software called SOUL:


II). Answer the following questions in not more than 250 words each. (6X5=30 Marks)


1. Discuss in brief the activities and role of referral centres and cleaning houses.

Ans) Many different organisations are involved in the distribution of information. For these various organisations to operate effectively, appropriate coordination by an organisation is required. A new type of organisation with a clear mandate to move between various information dissemination institutions is a necessary prerequisite. Referral Center is the name for such a company. The phrase "Referral Center" has the following explanation in The Harrods Librarian's Glossary:

  1. "A group that guides people looking for information and data to the right libraries, information evaluation centres, documentation centres, documents, and other sources.

  2. A referral centre is a kind of information desk for the scientific and technical community that suggests sources more likely to satisfy users or clients rather than directly providing inquiries with the information they need. A referral centre is an organisation that provides sources from which scientific information can be obtained on a particular topic.


The referral centre must: in order to perform its duties.

  1. possess a list of all important information sources from various disciplines.

  2. assemble and disseminate directories of sources for technical and scientific information.

  3. Analyse the working relationships within the complex of scientific information.


Clearing Houses


A clearing house is a relatively recent concept in science. It functions as a document repository with the added purpose of acting as a central organisation in charge of information distribution. Additionally, it performs tasks like compiling and keeping track of research and development records. Sometimes, ambiguous inquiries about items in these records are referred to the source, necessitating the usage of a clearing house as a referral centre. Such clearing houses exist and are in operation both in the UK and the United States.


2. Explain the concept and services of a digital library.

Ans) The digital library is defined by the working group of the US Government's Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications as a "system" that gives users cohesive access to a sizable, organised depository of information and knowledge. According to R. R. Larson, a digital library is a network of thousands of "networked electronic libraries" that functions as one large virtual library. Networking is not required for the digital library. A digital library is one that includes all of its materials in electronic form and allows users to access them via electronic devices. As a result, a digital library is one that offers remote access to numerous databases as well as a number of machine-readable publications.


According to the American Digital Library Federation, a digital library is an organisation that offers materials, such as   Digital Library Services provides a wide array of services to assist members of the library with organizing collections of materials or making them more widely available. the following services offered by the Digital Libraries.

  1. Catalogue Databases,

  2. Current Awareness Bulletins,

  3. Externally Purchased Databases,

  4. CD-ROM Databases,

  5. Remote Information Services,

  6. Internally Published Newsletters, Reports & Journals,

  7. Internet Information Sources Mirroring & Cataloguing,

  8. E-mail,

  9. Bulletin Board Service,

  10. Netnews system,

  11. Audio and Video Communication,

  12. Electronic Table of Contents,

  13. Electronic Document Delivery Service,

  14. Electronic Theses and Dissertations,

  15. Reference Service,

  16. Electronic Publishing,

  17. Discussion groups and forums

  18. Central storage facilities for Hosting digital collections and indexes

  19. Tools for loading, storing, searching, and displaying digital objects

  20. Special Collections service


3. Discuss the objectives and activities of ILA in brief.

Ans) The objectives and activities of ILA are as follows:



  1. Promotion of the nation's library movement and adoption of library legislation.

  2. Enhancing library services.

  3. In order to preserve high educational standards, library science education is being developed, as is library school accreditation.

  4. Salary, service, and status improvements for library employees.

  5. Fostering collaboration between libraries and professions.

  6. Promotion of bibliographical study and research.

  7. Membership in regional and state library associations.

  8. Collaboration with organisations on a national and worldwide level with comparable goals.

  9. Publishing periodicals and other publications to spread information

  10. Organising conferences, seminars, and gatherings to create a single venue.

  11. Promotion and creation of guidelines, rules, and standards for the administration of library and information systems and the services they provide.

  12. The creation of libraries, documentation centres, and information centres, as well as support for their growth.

  13. Performing all other tasks that are incidental to or helpful in achieving the aforementioned goals.



 Every year, a conference for all libraries in India is held somewhere in the nation. A university, an organisation, or a regional library association serves as the host institution. The All India Library Conference's schedule includes a national seminar on one or more issues of significance and relevance. National seminars on timely topics are also occasionally held in addition. In Delhi and other places, the Association organises lectures, roundtable discussions, and other events. It participates in programmes that are often organised during National Library Week in November each year by joining forces with libraries, other library associations, organisations, etc.


4. Define “information society”. Distinguish between information society and knowledge society.

Ans) An information society is a society where the usage, creation, distribution, manipulation and integration of information is a significant activity.


The differences between information society and knowledge society are as follows:


An information society only develops and disseminates raw data, whereas a knowledge society helps to transform information into resources that enable society to take productive action. Throughout human history, people have had the ability to gather and interpret information.


“The transformation of existing societal structures by knowledge as a core resource for economic growth, employment and as a factor of production constitutes the criteria for designating advanced modern society as a Knowledge Society.”


Here, it is important to distinguish between definitions that seek to describe an already-existing or newly-emerging reality and those that reflect a vision—a yearning or desire—for a future society. Both are important: the first because they aid in analysis, and the second because they influence policy. We will mention Manuel Castells, an expert on the topic of the information society, in the first category.


According to him, a knowledge society is one in which the conditions for producing knowledge and processing information have undergone significant change as a result of a technological revolution that is centred on information processing, knowledge generation, and information technology. According to Castells, the knowledge society emphasises economic agents who should be more highly qualified to carry out their work, while the information society lays more emphasis on the content of work (the process of gathering, processing, and disseminating the essential information).


5. Explain the concept of IPR and role of libraries in its implementation.

Ans) According to WIPO, intellectual property rights are comparable to other types of property rights. They make it possible for those who have produced something, own patents, trademarks, or works covered by copyright to make money off of their own labour or investment. Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights defines the right to benefit from the protection of moral and material interests resulting from the authorship of scientific, literary, or creative achievements.


In addition to providing protection and incentives to creators and scientists across a variety of disciplines of study, IPR laws promote new knowledge, creative and inventive works, and inventions for the benefit of humanity. Libraries are primarily concerned with copyright rules in order to preserve a balance between knowledge creators and knowledge users.


Libraries are essential for promoting literacy and education, laying the groundwork for growth, and preserving the world's scientific and cultural history. For the benefit of the general public in all nations, we must move quickly to ensure that libraries can continue to provide their services in an efficient manner.


The concept of information transfer and availability on the internet has changed as a result of the development of information technology, particularly the internet, CD-ROM, and communication media. Traditionally, libraries acquired information sources, processed information, stored information retrieval, and disseminated information. Copyright is granted to promote domestic and creative activity, facilitate technology transfer, draw in international capital, and guarantee maker access to products. It established economic values, granted the right to govern use of the creators' works, and assessed the economic value of the creator.


6. Describe the functions of IFLA in brief.

Ans) The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, or IFLA, is the principal organisation that represents the interests of libraries, information services, and the people who use them internationally. It is the profession of libraries and information's global voice. IFLA celebrated its 75th birthday during its conference in Glasgow, Scotland, in 2002. IFLA was established in Edinburgh, Scotland, at an international conference in 1927. There are currently more than 1600 members of IFLA spread over roughly 150 nations. In 1971, IFLA was established in the Netherlands. The facilities for the headquarters are kindly provided by the Royal Library, the National Library of the Netherlands, in The Hague.


Each year, the IFLA General Conference and Council is held in a new place in August or early September. More than 3,000 delegates come together to share experiences, discuss professional challenges, view the newest information industry goods, conduct IFLA business, and learn about the local culture. The IFLA Core Activities are concerned with issues that affect libraries and information services globally. The Professional Committee is in charge of steering the Core Activities, which have goals and initiatives related to the Federation's Program and the Divisions and Sections' top priorities.

One, the scope of ALP is very broad, focusing on a variety of issues that are unique to the developing world. The others, Preservation and Conservation, IFLA - CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards, and IFLA UNIMARC, address critical, present global challenges. A Director oversees each of the Core Activities and is accountable to the Executive and Professional Committees.


The IFLA office for Free Access to Information and Freedom of Expression was founded in Copenhagen in 1998 with considerable initial support from the Danish government, the City of Copenhagen, and the Danish library community. It has an international steering committee made up of experts. To the Executive Committee, FAIFE submits reports. The Committee on Copyright and Other Legal Matters is another entity that answers to the Executive Committee. Professional organisations and Core Activities hold a variety of meetings, seminars, and workshops worldwide. .

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