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BLI-222: Information Sources and Services

BLI-222: Information Sources and Services

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BLI-222 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Information Sources and Services, you have come to the right place. BLI-222 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BLIS courses of IGNOU.

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BLI-222 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BLI-222/AST/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BLI-222

Assignment Name: Information Sources and Services

Year: 2021-2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Marks = 70

Note: Answer all questions.

Answer the following questions in 700 words each. (4X10=40 Marks)

Q1) Discuss in detail non-documentary sources of information with suitable examples. (10)

Ans) Non-documentary information sources account for a significant portion of communication, particularly in science and technology. The relevance of such sources has been highlighted by user research. These sources give information that is not available from other sources.

Formal and informal sources are the two types of sources.


Research groups, societies, industries, government departments, universities, consultants, and other formal sources are examples. The following departments make up the many forms of formal sources of information:

  1. Different departments and courses would be taught at universities in the future.

  2. Eventually, not only one targeted criterion, but multiple criterion would be applied by diverse consultancies.

  3. Organizations founded on diverse researches would spread across not just one, but multiple researches.

  4. Societies, as well as the role of each individual in them.

  5. Many Industries = The various departments' functions in a variety of industries.

Example: Radio, T.V. Conference.:


Conversations with coworkers, guests, and attendance at professional meetings are examples of informal sources. The talk or discussion would frequently bring up primary or secondary sources. Informal sources are real-time sources that are critical in the communication process. When a scientist working on an experiment needs data, he will frequently examine the catalogue in the same laboratory rather than a printed page. Informal sources are handier since conversing with an expert is currently easier than using a bibliography, index, or card catalogue, or even consulting a reference librarian. The materials are essentially monologues, however conversing with a human being can help categorise one's information needs.

  1. In a business meeting, a person's conversations with his team. Other colleagues in the office are also discussing the various ideas.

  2. People's conversations were recorded, or, to put it another way, visits to the workplace were recorded, as well as their perspectives on the office.

  3. Informal sources of information are also known as live sources of information, and they play an important role in the field of communication.

Example: Oral & Telephone Fil

Non-documentary sources of information are real-time sources that are critical in the communication process. When a scientist working on an experiment requires information, he or she will frequently turn to a colleague in the same laboratory rather than a printed page. It's much easier to have a conversation with an expert than it is to use a bibliography, index, card catalogue, or even a reference librarian. Non-documentary sources of information deliver information quickly and are simple to use. The biggest disadvantage of non-documentary sources of information is that it is expensive when people are separated by a great distance, and it also necessitates the use of highly complex technologies such as a computer system, video conference, and telephone.

Government establishments, departments, universities, technological institutes, data centres, information centres, referral centres, clearing houses, consultants, technological gatekeepers, and so on are non-documentary sources of information. Non-documentary sources of information include conversations with coworkers, visitors, seminar, and conference attendees, and so on. The library's referral service connects you to essential non-documentary sources of knowledge, such as the ones listed below.

Cooperative Information Centers: Research associations may set up cooperative information centres. There is the prospect of firm-to-firm conversation and information exchange between members of an association in such instances.

Members of Learned Societies and Professional Institutions comprise the heart of a discipline or profession. The staff at the headquarters assists members on a personal level with professional matters, and they may refer questions to an expert member of the body.

Industrial Liaison Officer: These officers are responsible for providing preliminary information to get a company on the correct track, as well as information that must be presented personally and accompanied by practical guidance in order to be fully successful. They visit businesses, learn about their requirements and issues, and aid them in finding answers, sometimes right away, but more often by connecting them with specialised sources of information and assistance or referring them to other experts.

Mass Media: Mass media is a method of disseminating information to the general public through broadcasting, telecasting, or a combination of the two, which is more effective than documentary sources.

Humans, organisations, and the World Wide Web are the three sorts of non-documentary sources of information.


  1. Information Professionals

  2. Consultants

  3. Experts

  4. Resource Persons

  5. Extension Workers

  6. Representatives of Firms

  7. Technological Gatekeepers

  8. Invisible College

  9. Common Men, etc.


  1. International Agencies

  2. Government Ministries and Departments

  3. Research and Development Organisations

  4. Academic Institutions

  5. Societies

  6. Publishing Houses

  7. Press

  8. Broadcasting Houses

  9. Libraries and Information Centres

  10. Museums

  11. Archives

  12. Exhibitions

  13. Trade Fairs

  14. Database Vendors

  15. Information Analysis Centres

  16. Referral Centres, etc.

Q2) Discuss the Categorisation of information sources as given by Subramanyam. (10)

Ans) Primary, secondary, and tertiary sources of information or evidence are frequently classified. The uniqueness of the content and the proximity of the source or origin are used to classify it. This tells the reader whether the author is presenting first-hand information or relaying the experiences and opinions of others, which is referred to as second-hand information. It might be difficult to tell whether a source is primary, secondary, or tertiary.

Grogan, Boon and Smith, and Giljarevskij studied largely macro materials for categorising (books, journals, etc.). Micro documents have also been included by Subramanyam (journal articles, preprints, etc.). His classification, which is more thorough than others, is as follows:

Primary Sources

These sources are unaltered records of events or evidence as they were initially described or occurred, with no commentary or interpretation. It is knowledge that is being displayed for the first time or original materials that are being used to support other study. Original thought, new discoveries, and new knowledge are all showcased in primary sources.

  1. Laboratory Note Books

  2. Diaries

  3. Notes

  4. Medical Records

  5. Personal Correspondence

  6. Videotapes of experiments and surgical operations

  7. Graphs, charts, and tables usually machine-generated during experiments

  8. Transcripts and audio or videotapes of lectures and discussions

  9. Letters to the editor or short communications in primary journals

  10. Preliminary Communications in “letters” journals

  11. Preprints and Reprints of Conference Papers

  12. Conference Proceedings

  13. Technical Reports

  14. Theses and Dissertations

  15. Journal Articles, Preprints, Reprints

  16. Newsletters

  17. House Organs

  18. Internal Research Reports

  19. Memoranda

  20. Company Files

  21. Patent Specifications

  22. Computer Program

  23. Standards, Specifications, Codes of Practice

  24. Trade Literature


Subramanyam's classification is broad, encompassing a variety of micro documents such as medical records, videotapes, and audiotapes. Journals and a few other artefacts, however, appear to be missing. Rather than including journals as such, he has listed the contents of journals, such as journal articles, preliminary communications in 'letters' journals, letters to the editor in primary journals, as well as preprints, reprints, newsletters, and house organs, all of which adequately cover journals. There are no anthologies (including festschriften), research monographs, official publications, information pamphlets, personal files, data files, or other materials. Newspapers, information cards, and other forms of media are not included in this classification because it is based solely on scientific and technical literature.

Secondary Sources

Primary sources are analysed or restated in these sources. They frequently strive to explain or describe primary sources. They are usually works that summarise, interpret, rearrange, or add value to a primary source in some way.

  1. Bibliographies

  2. Indexes

  3. Abstracts

  4. Current Awareness Services

  5. Dictionaries

  6. Directories

  7. Tables

  8. Handbooks

  9. Catalogues

  10. Yearbooks

  11. Almanacs

  12. Reviews

  13. Monographs

  14. Textbooks

  15. Encyclopaedias


The range of products covered is broad. It's worth noting that the author has mentioned 'abstracts' instead of abstracting publications. An abstracting periodical is nothing more than a logically organised compilation of abstracts. Of course, the express information service is absent, as it is largely unknown outside of Russia. Lists of ongoing research, manuals, formularies, treatises, translations, and other materials are also absent.

Tertiary Sources

These are tools for indexing, abstracting, organising, compiling, and digesting information from other sources. When the primary goal of reference materials and textbooks is to list, summarise, or simply repackage ideas or other information, they are considered tertiary sources. Tertiary sources are rarely attributed to a specific author.

  1. Bibliography of Bibliographies

  2. Directory of Directories

  3. Guides to Literature


Catalogues of libraries have been included in the secondary sources section. 'Guides to reference sources' have not been included separately, probably because they are included in the category of 'literature guides.' There is a tiny distinction between 'literary guides' and 'reference sources guides.' The listing of primary and secondary sources can be found in 'guides to literature.' 'Guides to reference sources,' on the other hand, are unlikely to include original sources.

Q3) Explain the importance of institutions as sources of information. Describe different types of institutions. (10)

Ans) The importance and different types of institutions as sources of information are as follows:

Government Ministries and Departments

Ministerial speeches and announcements, as well as those of other Ministry officials, are valuable sources of information. The Ministry's countless documents and files are the same way. When the Ministry has to establish plans and policies, the files are a significant resource. Students going overseas for higher education can also get information from the Ministry. These and other pieces of information are disseminated by the organization's many departments and bureaucracies. The Ministry's website is also a great source of information.

International Agencies

FAO's operation as a knowledge organisation relies heavily on publications from international agencies. FAO publishes around 300 titles in several languages each year on issues such as hunger and food security, commodity markets, climate change, nutrition, fisheries, forestry, and rural livelihoods, among others. The most important publications published by the FAO provide comprehensive and objective information and analysis on the current situation of food and agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture, forests, agricultural commodities markets, and hunger around the world.

Research and Development Organizations

A typical R&D organisation is both a consumer and a producer of knowledge. An R&D organization's characteristic makes it a valuable source of knowledge on two levels. Because R&D institutes are information consumers, they typically contain extensive libraries and information centres that are a valuable source of information in a particular sector. It's also worth noting that most R&D institutes host conferences and seminars, which serve as significant forums for information transfer, debate, and networking among scientists and researchers.

Academic Institutions

Because academic institutions offer a variety of courses, information on the courses and programmes available is one of the numerous types of information available. Academic institutions have centres or departments that deal with student placements, public relations, business partnerships, technology commercialization, and alumni, to name a few areas where information is disseminated. Academic institutions also have well-stocked libraries, which are valuable sources of information in their own right.

Learned Societies

A learned society is a non-profit organisation dedicated to the advancement of a particular academic discipline or combination of disciplines. Non-profit organisations make up the majority of learned societies. Regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research discoveries, as well as producing or funding academic journals in their discipline, are characteristic of their activities. Some also serve as professional bodies, regulating the activities of their members in the public interest or for the benefit of the society's membership as a whole.

In several areas, India has a number of learned societies. The Asiatic Society was created in 1784 by Sir William Jones (1746-1794), who began his work with a vision of a Centre for Asian Studies that included nearly everything related to man and environment within the continent's geographical boundaries. The Asiatic Society's library contains around 1,49,000 volumes, with a focus on Indology and Asiatic Lore, as well as regular philological and scientific serials.

Publishing Houses

Publishing houses are in the information industry by publishing a wide range of documentation materials, primarily books, but also maps, atlases, and other documents. Publishing is a method of producing and disseminating material or information in and of itself. Traditionally, the term "publishing" refers to the production of printed goods. However, publishing is being redefined as a result of the introduction of ICT applications, particularly the Internet. Large publishing houses produce a wide range of items, including books and journals. Publishing houses are important sources of information because they are in the information industry.


The press and print news media are both institutions in the information sector, with the difference being the press and print news media concentrate on current events. Newspapers are a great source of current information and documentation. Sports, business, trade, science, and other niche industries have newspapers and news magazines that strive to communicate information to people in addition to mainstream publications. The press also plays an essential role in information archiving. Students, researchers, investigators, filmmakers, authors, and others who seek information benefit greatly from stored material.

Broadcasting Stations

Broadcasting stations are radio and television channels that provide entertainment and news programming. Television, in particular, has become a vital part of one's life as a source of entertainment and public awareness in recent years. Aside from amusement, radio and television stations are utilised to help education through various radio and television programmes.

Gyan Vani and Gyan Darshan, for example, are educational radio and television stations operated by IGNOU. India's regional radio programmes promote the local state's tradition and culture through talks with specialists.


A museum is a structure or organisation that houses a collection of objects. Museums acquire and care for scientific, artistic, and historical artefacts, and then display them in permanent or temporary exhibits for the public to see. The majority of large museums are located in major cities around the world, whereas smaller museums can be found in smaller cities, villages, and even rural areas. Early museums began as private collections of art and uncommon or unusual natural objects and artefacts amassed by affluent people, families, or institutions.


Archives, like museums, are repositories of important historical documents. A collection of historical records is referred to as an archive. Archives are collections of records that have been chosen for long-term or permanent preservation because of their cultural, historical, or evidential value. Unlike books or magazines, which have many identical copies, archival records are virtually always unpublished and almost always unique. Although archival collections can often be housed within library facilities, archival collections are unique from libraries in terms of their activities and organisation.

The National Archives of India is in charge of not only safeguarding the records of the Government of India's various ministries and departments, but also of devising appropriate mechanisms to streamline the management of their records in a systematic manner so that they can be easily accessed by administrators and scholars. It also provides guidance to state governments, custodial institutions, and other organisations on how to properly maintain and manage their records. The National Archives of India provides preservation, reprographic services, reference services, and training programmes on archives and records management.

NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations)

The non-governmental organisation (NGO) serves as a link between the governed and the governor. NGO's play an essential part in assisting the ordinary man with their legitimate requests, as well as attempting to assist needy people in any manner possible. They are in charge of imparting education and making individuals aware of their rights to the general public. NGOs require a highly efficient and successful team of professionals who can keep supporters informed and inspired, as well as plan and conduct rallies and events that keep their cause in the news.

4) While analysing marketing opportunities, discuss the various factors that affect external environment of an organisation? (10)

Ans) External factors are significant because they can have direct and indirect influence on business operations, people, and income. The external environment of a business changes on a regular basis in ways that are beyond the company's control, but executives and managers can keep track of these changes and mitigate their effects. Businesses can defend themselves against predicted events and lessen the effects of unanticipated developments by monitoring the dynamic nature of external environment elements.

There are nine different sorts of external environment influences that have an impact on a company:

Technological Factors

Companies might benefit from technological advancements or face difficulty competing with them as technology advances. A company that makes GPS systems for personal cars, for example, may see a drop in sales as a result of the incorporation of GPS on mobile devices, but they can overcome these obstacles by producing new products. Healthcare professionals, for example, can employ contemporary methods to collect information from patients, maintain patient records, and streamline patient care.

Economic Factors

Every facet of daily life, from employee well-being to a company's ability to prosper, is influenced by the state of the economy. Businesses may have to work harder to keep their employees and adapt their operations to continue earning money if the economy continues to decline and unemployment grows. If the company makes products for retail sale, for example, it can consider lowering the price to boost sales and improve revenue.

Political and Legal Factors

As politicians leave office and new ones take their place, the policies they enact often have an impact on businesses in related industries. Businesses frequently follow legislative proposals to prepare for any changes due to the inconsistency of politics. The following policies may have a long-term impact on businesses:

  1. Taxation

  2. Tariffs

  3. Employment law

  4. Competition regulation

  5. Import restrictions

  6. Intellectual property law

Demographic Factors

Successful businesses assess the demographics of their target market to ensure that their products and services suit the demands of individuals who would profit from them. They also put their consumers through exams to see how well they service them. This enables them to determine whether their target market has changed and how they may improve their service to existing clients while also attracting new ones. The following demographics have an impact on corporate decisions and processes:

  1. Age

  2. Gender

  3. Race

  4. Nationality

  5. Belief system

  6. Marital status

  7. Occupation

  8. Income

  9. Level of education

Social Factors

What, where, and why people buy things is influenced by where they reside, their personal values, and their socioeconomic standing. When designing and marketing products, businesses consider social considerations, and many exploit current events, movements, and social issues to appeal to their clients. A corporation that supports a women's organisation, for example, may gain the trust and loyalty of female customers. Catering to the special preferences and expectations of minority groups, who now wield greater market power than in previous years, can help boost consumer satisfaction and corporate success.

Competitive Factors

By keeping track of their competition, businesses may expand their market share and remain relevant to their customers. They can recognise and assess accomplishments and issues, allowing them to learn what to include in their own procedures and how to avoid income loss. They can also use the data they collect to come up with new product ideas, such as product revisions, relaunches, and new product development.

Global Factors

Executives have a responsibility to stay on top of both domestic and foreign issues, especially if their company does business worldwide. Company leaders can deliver relevant training to their teams by learning about social concerns that influence people in various nations, as well as their cultural norms, consumer trends, and economic status. This allows them to create products or provide services that address the needs of overseas clients by addressing consumer challenges.

Ethical Factors

Because everyone has their own sense of ethics and morality, some businesses may find it difficult to strike a balance between employees' personal life and their job expectations. Employees' personal lives, like as their social media accounts, might have a negative impact on their employer. They have a responsibility as company representatives to avoid any behaviour that could harm the company. Managers can manage concerns like revealing sensitive information or harassing a co-worker outside of work by creating guidelines and, if required, instituting disciplinary action.

Natural Factors

As consumer knowledge of environmental issues grows, more people are becoming aware of the impact of corporate procedures on the environment. Some customers have used their purchases to support businesses that promote environmentally friendly practises like biodegradable packaging and solar energy. Businesses can make adjustments that help them protect the environment, retain customers, and grow revenue by paying attention to these external problems and modifying their processes.

Answer the questions in 250 words each. (6X5=30 Marks)

Q1) Explain why there is a lack of unanimity in the categorisation of text books. (5)

Ans) Ranganathan categorises papers first and foremost by the magnitude of the thinking content – macro or micro – and secondly by the recording material – paper and non-paper. It is quite evident that classification criteria have not yet been clearly established, and the identifying of sources in some cases has not been precise.


If we rigorously adhere to the characteristics of a primary source, a textbook cannot be classified as a primary source because it is intended to contain anything unique. When the content of a textbook is examined, it can be shown that most textbooks contain facts that have already been documented in primary sources and are well-known. It must be a secondary source because it is dependent on primary sources.


If a collection of scientific monographs is analysed, it is likely that some of the monographs contain the research findings of a specific experiment, survey, or other study. These monographs are clearly primary sources, and they are more appropriately referred to as research monographs. If, on the other hand, a monograph is created by collating data from primary sources, it will be considered a secondary source. This category includes monographs such as Rice in India. As a result, research monographs fall under the category of primary sources, whereas other monographs fall under the category of secondary sources.


Yearbooks are primarily used as reference sources and draw material from primary sources such as newspapers and other forms of mass communication. Yearbooks are thus classified as secondary sources.

Research in Progress Directories and Lists

Reference materials include directories and lists of ongoing research. They are secondary sources from this perspective. When we look at how they were created, we can see that both of them were created using data acquired through surveys rather than primary or secondary sources. As a result, these two sources can also be called primary sources.

Q2) What criteria will you adopt to evaluate a dictionary? (5)

Ans) The following are the criteria for evaluating dictionaries:


The reputation of a dictionary's compilers/editors, associates, and publishers can determine its authority. A dictionary is usually created by a linguist and a philologist working together with experts in pronunciation, spelling, etymology, and many subject fields. Qualifications and scholarly contributions in respective fields might be used to assess the authoritativeness of these compilers and specialists.

Purpose or Scope

The size of the vocabulary and the rationale for word selection used by the compiler can be used to determine the dictionary's scope. By reading the preface and introduction to a dictionary, you can determine its scope and purpose. The category into which it falls and the types of readers for whom it is written assist us in determining the dictionary's purpose.

Word Treatment and Arrangement

The entries in most dictionaries are organised alphabetically. The vocabulary is organised either letter by letter or word by word. Users of dictionaries are usually aware of their layout and can consult it quickly. However, a well-designed dictionary with clear instructions on how to use it makes it easier for users to refer to it. The meanings of the abbreviations and how to indicate pronunciations should be self-explanatory. The entries should be arranged, formatted, and ordered in a consistent manner.


The dictionary's physical format should be conducive to efficient use. When assessing a dictionary, pay close attention to the size, binding, paper, print, and appearance.


Several encyclopaedic features are included in some general and subject dictionaries. They increase the usefulness of a dictionary by turning it into a handy reference tool.

Q3) Describe the importance of virtual reference service in present society. (5)

Ans) Virtual Reference Service is a reference service initiated electronically, often in real time, when users use computers or other Internet technology to communicate with reference staff without being physically present, according to the Machine Assisted Reference Section of the Reference and User Services Association of the American Library Association. Chat, videoconferencing, Voice over IP, co-browsing, e-mail, and instant messaging are all common communication channels used in virtual reference. Digital reference, e-reference, online reference, and remote access reference are all terms used to describe virtual reference services. While telephonic reference service has long been accepted and used in libraries to answer to requests from remote users, virtual reference service is a newer phenomenon.

The growing availability of the Internet and electronic resources were key elements in the development of a virtual reference service that can be accessed electronically by faraway users. Through their websites, today's libraries make a variety of electronic resources available, such as online catalogues, indexes, abstracts, digitised collections, e-journals, and full-text databases. The availability of electronic sources via remote access necessitates that library staff help patrons in making appropriate use of these resources. As more people use personal computers with Internet connection from home, work, or a cybercafé, the number of people using the library in-house has steadily decreased. As a result, librarians are experimenting with new ways to communicate with their patrons. They have begun to provide a virtual reference service.

In a broad sense, virtual reference service refers to the supply of reference services to library customers who are not physically present at the library via the Internet. E-mail, electronic forums, and real-time chat contact are currently the key channels of distribution for virtual reference services. The most popular sort of virtual reference service is e-mail reference. The user sends an e-mail reference inquiry to the library, including any information he or she believes is necessary. The librarian may respond via e-mail, phone, fax, or letter, among other methods.

Q4) Explain how information generators and information compilers act as sources of information.(5)

Ans) Information is generated by researchers, inventors, innovators, discoverers, thinkers, authors, planners, policymakers, decision makers, and judges, to name a few. All of these people are well-versed in the information they have generated, making them valuable sources of information.

  1. A researcher conducts surveys, observes, thinks, hypothesises, prepares, and conducts experiments, documents the findings, and draws conclusions. Occasionally, he conducts surveys, tabulates the data, and analyses the tabulated data.

  2. An inventor creates a new machine, equipment, tool, or the like after a tremendous deal of hard effort, which can take years. S/he publishes her/his innovation in the form of a patent, which describes the invention in detail.

  3. While examining the night sky with a telescope, an astronomer may come across a comet that has never been observed before. When s/he informs the media about her/his discovery, knowledge spreads quickly, and the rest of the world learns about it.

  4. While examining a new pandemic, a doctor may come upon a new virus. It will very certainly generate fresh data.

  5. Philosophers' ideas have spawned a plethora of philosophical systems all around the world over the centuries.

  6. Books, essays, paintings, drawings, sculptures, and other manifestations of the author's mind's output can be seen in a variety of ways.

  7. A well-known industrialist preparing a new business or product, a global conglomerate planning a joint venture in a developing region, an internationally renowned athlete planning to build a modern stadium, and so on, all of these plans produce data the moment they are revealed.

  8. The instant a decision by a head of state, prime minister, or other high-ranking official is made public, it almost always generates information of national and international significance.

Q5) What are the negative influences of the information generated by mass media? (5)

Ans) The most important aspect of reporting is that the material is gathered from reliable and trustworthy sources, and nothing should be misunderstood. However, this principle is frequently neglected.

Because the nature of mass media is persuasive, it may go beyond the ethical boundaries within which it is intended to operate and become biassed, manipulative, and propagandist. It is not commonplace for a political party or a government agency to skew reports in their favour, indicating political dominance. Biased reporting might occur in order to achieve a favourable outcome. To assist a political party, a journalist or reporter may bring her or his own preference on an issue. A single event or celebrity may be given undue prominence, leading to youths engaging in harmful behaviours. It may portray an opulent lifestyle, which may instil false ideas in children.

Unnecessary exaggeration of a common occurrence may exaggerate its significance, causing dread and panic among the people. Wrong interpretations of news can exaggerate events, causing unrest or even bloodshed at any time and place, posing a law-and-order issue. Due to a dearth of important news to report, a certain event or news item may gain undue emphasis at times. This would create unnecessary and avoidable public conflict once more.

The mass media will continue to be a powerful influence in society as long as they provide what people need or want. However, when they gain power, authority, and supply what they believe people want, they become manipulative and begin striving to influence people's thoughts, leading to indoctrination. This is true for every programme they air. As a result, if the media are to be trusted as agents of social change, they must operate with restraint and accountability, adhering to established norms, standards, conventions, and practises.

Q6) List the basic information literacy skills necessary for undergraduate and graduate students. (5)

Ans) The basic information literacy skills necessary for undergraduate and graduate students are as follows:

  1. "Know how to understand a call number and how to classify resources in academic libraries by subject (no fiction or biography sections, as in conventional high school libraries)."

  2. Recognize the components of a bibliographic record.

  3. To obtain a manageable research focus, be able to use reference materials such as dictionaries, encyclopaedias, handbooks, almanacks, and statistical sources.

  4. Ability to condense a complex research query into searchable concepts, keywords, and synonyms.

  5. Understand the concept of a regulated vocabulary and how it can be useful (all online catalogues and many databases & indexes employ controlled vocabularies).

  6. Recognize the distinction between subject and word searching.

  7. Recognize the online catalogue’s requests (Boolean, truncation, adjacency, etc).

  8. Be able to create a research strategy and comprehend how questions are refined and redefined throughout the research process.

  9. Understand that on almost any issue, both popular and scholarly material exists; be able to distinguish between the two categories of content and determine when and why each is suitable to utilise.

  10. Be able to tell the difference between primary and secondary resources, as well as when and why these two categories of resources should be used.

  11. Recognize the characteristics of periodical literature, as well as why and when it is helpful.

  12. Recognize the purpose of periodical literature abstracts and indexes, as well as why they are useful. Understand that the scope (what subjects are covered, how many titles are indexed, etc. ), arrangement (classified, subject, etc. ), and substance of these resources varies (full-text, abstracts, citation only)

  13. Be able to assess information for usefulness, bias, timeliness, and authority (including Internet resources).

  14. Understand plagiarism and intellectual property concerns such as quoting, paraphrasing, and attributing ideas, as well as what constitutes fair use.

  15. Ability to appropriately document information sources in a variety of forms using a style manual.

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