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BLI-223: Organising and Managing Information

BLI-223: Organising and Managing Information

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

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Assignment Code: BLI-223/ AST/TMA/ Jul.2023/Jan.2024

Course Code: BLI-223

Assignment Name: Organising and Managing Information

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

I) Answer all the questions in not more than 500 words each.


Q1) Define corporate author? Discuss treatment of Government Publications according to AACR-2R.

Ans) A corporate author is an organization, government agency, company, or other collective entity that is credited as the author of a work. Unlike individual authors, corporate authors are institutions or groups that produce intellectual or creative works. Examples of corporate authors include government departments, companies, nonprofit organizations, and international bodies.


Treatment of Government Publications According to AACR-2R (Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd Revised Edition):

AACR-2R provides guidelines for cataloguing various types of materials, including government publications. The cataloguing of government publications follows specific rules to ensure consistency and clarity in bibliographic records.

a)     Main Entry: For government publications, the main entry is generally made under the name of the issuing agency or corporate body. This helps in organizing and retrieving documents produced by a specific government entity.

b)     Title: The title proper of the government publication is transcribed following the rules for capitalization and punctuation.

c)     Statement of Responsibility: The statement of responsibility includes the names of individuals or entities associated with the creation of the document. This may include authors, editors, or other contributors.

d)     Imprint: The imprint provides information about the publication, including the place of publication, name of the publisher, and the date of publication. For government publications, the name of the government entity is often considered the publisher.

e)     Collation: The collation includes details about the physical extent of the publication, such as the number of pages, volumes, or other physical characteristics.

f)      Series: If the government publication is part of a series, information about the series is included in the bibliographic record.

g)     Notes: Various notes may be added to provide additional information about the publication. This could include notes about the source of the document, the issuing agency, and any other relevant details.

h)     Subject Headings: Subject headings are assigned to facilitate subject access to the document. These headings are chosen from an authorized list of subject headings (e.g., Library of Congress Subject Headings).

i)       Call Number: A call number is assigned to the government publication based on the library's classification system, facilitating the shelving and retrieval of the item.

j)       Additional Entries: Depending on the nature of the publication, additional entries may be made for contributors, related works, or other relevant elements.



Q2) Define Centralised and cooperative cataloguing. Discuss various forms of centralised cataloguing.

Ans) Centralized cataloguing refers to the process of creating bibliographic records in a centralized manner, typically by a central organization or agency. Instead of each library creating its own cataloguing records independently, a central agency takes on the responsibility of cataloguing materials and providing libraries with ready-made cataloguing records. This approach helps in standardization, efficiency, and resource sharing among libraries.


Cooperative Cataloguing: Cooperative cataloguing involves collaboration among libraries or cataloguing agencies to share cataloguing information. Libraries work together to create, maintain, and share cataloguing records, ensuring that resources are catalogued consistently across different institutions. This collaborative effort helps in building a collective cataloguing infrastructure and reduces duplication of cataloguing work.


Forms of Centralized Cataloguing:

k)     National Bibliographic Agencies: Many countries have a national bibliographic agency responsible for creating and maintaining bibliographic records for all types of publications within that country. Examples include the Library of Congress in the United States and the British Library in the United Kingdom.

l)       Union Catalogues: Union catalogues are centralized databases that consolidate cataloguing records from multiple libraries. These catalogues allow users to search and access the combined holdings of participating libraries. WorldCat is a notable example of a global union catalogue.

m)   Shared Cataloguing Networks: Libraries within a region or consortium may participate in shared cataloguing networks. These networks facilitate the exchange of cataloguing records among member libraries, enabling them to benefit from each other's cataloguing efforts.

n)     International Cataloguing Partnerships: In an increasingly interconnected world, international cataloguing partnerships have emerged. Libraries from different countries collaborate to create cataloguing records that adhere to international standards, promoting global resource sharing.

o)     Programs for Cooperative Cataloguing (PCC): The Program for Cooperative Cataloguing is an initiative that encourages libraries to collaborate in creating high-quality bibliographic records. The PCC includes various programs, such as the Name Authority Cooperative Program (NACO) and the Cooperative Program for Serials.

p)     Library Networks: Library networks, whether at the national or regional level, often play a role in centralized cataloguing. These networks may provide cataloguing services to member libraries, streamlining the cataloguing process for individual institutions.

q)     Consortium Catalogues: Consortia of libraries may establish their own catalogues or databases, sharing cataloguing responsibilities among member libraries. This approach is common in academic library consortia.

r)      Commercial Cataloguing Services: Some commercial entities specialize in providing cataloguing services to libraries. These services may include the creation of bibliographic records, authority control, and ongoing maintenance of cataloguing data.


Q3) Discuss the common isolates in DDC 19the Edition.

Ans) As of my last knowledge update in September 2021, the 19th edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) is widely used for organizing library collections. It's important to note that updates or changes may have occurred since then, so it's always a good idea to consult the latest edition for the most accurate information.


In the Dewey Decimal Classification, an "isolate" refers to a number that stands alone in a specific discipline or field. It's a number that does not have any subdivisions, and it may be used for a variety of reasons, including a topic not extensive enough to require further breakdown or a topic where detailed subdivisions are not provided.


100 - Philosophy & Psychology: 100 is used as an isolate for the general works on philosophy. It includes comprehensive works on philosophy that do not fit into specific philosophical systems or schools.

200 - Religion: 200 is often used as an isolate for religion. It includes works on the philosophy and theory of religion, religion as a social institution, and comparative religion.

300 - Social Sciences: 300 is commonly used as an isolate for social sciences. It includes works on the general social sciences and interdisciplinary works that do not fit into specific social science disciplines.

400 - Language: 400 is an isolate for language. It includes works on linguistics, the study of languages, and general works on language.

500 - Natural Sciences & Mathematics: 500 is used as an isolate for natural sciences and mathematics. It includes works on the general principles of science and mathematics.

600 - Technology (Applied Sciences): 600 is often an isolate for technology and applied sciences. It includes comprehensive works on technology and applied sciences that do not fit into specific applied science disciplines.

700 - Arts & Recreation: 700 is commonly used as an isolate for the arts. It includes works on the general principles and aspects of the arts.

800 - Literature: 800 is an isolate for literature. It includes comprehensive works on literature rather than specific literary genres or national literatures.

900 - History & Geography: 900 is often used as an isolate for history and geography. It includes works on the general principles of history and geography.


Q4) Discuss the various principles for facet sequence given by Dr. S R Ranganathan.

Ans) Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, a renowned Indian librarian and library scientist, introduced the concept of facet analysis as part of his Colon Classification system. Facet analysis involves breaking down subjects into their component parts or facets to create a systematic classification. The sequence of facets is crucial for effective information retrieval. Dr. Ranganathan proposed several principles for facet sequence, aiming to ensure a logical and efficient arrangement of subjects.


s)      Fundamental Facet Sequence (F1 F2 ... Fn): According to this principle, the primary facet (F1) is followed by the secondary facet (F2), and so on. The facets are arranged in a hierarchical order based on their significance to the subject.

t)      Enumerative or Specific Facet Sequence (F1 F2a F2b ... Fn): This principle suggests the enumeration of specific sub-facets under each main facet. For example, under a specific country (F1), may enumerate regions or states (F2a, F2b).

u)     Decimally Expressible Facet Sequence (F1.F2.F3 ... Fn): Facets are expressed decimally to indicate subordination. For example, a work on a specific plant (F1) within a particular region (F2) might be expressed as "F1.F2."

v)     Ranganathan's Law of Hierarchy (Vertical Hierarchy): This law emphasizes that in a faceted classification, the facets should be arranged in a hierarchical order from general to specific. This ensures a logical sequence that mirrors the natural hierarchy of subjects.

w)    Ranganathan's Law of Natural Flow (Horizontal Hierarchy): This law suggests that within each facet, the sequence should follow a natural flow of thought. For example, in the "language" facet, it might progress from general topics like linguistics to specific languages.

x)     Consistent Sequence (F1 F2 F3 ... Fn): This principle emphasizes the consistent sequence of facets in different schedules for similar subjects. Consistency aids users in understanding and navigating the classification system.

y)     Postulate of Infinite Ascending Order (F1 F2 F3 ... Fn): Dr. Ranganathan postulated that in a comprehensive classification system, the facets should be arranged in an infinite ascending order. This accommodates future expansion and addition of new facets.

z)     Postulate of Maximum Separation (F1 + F2 + F3 ... + Fn): This postulate suggests separating the different facets by specific symbols or signs. For example, the plus sign (+) can be used to separate facets, ensuring clarity in the classification notation.

aa)  Zero Facet: The concept of a zero facet allows for the inclusion of subjects that do not fall within the usual hierarchical structure. It accommodates non-hierarchical facets or aspects.

bb) Principle of Significant Isolates: This principle advocates for the isolation of important and significant subjects. Isolates allow users to easily locate critical subjects in a classification system.


II) Answer the following questions in not more 250 words each.


Q1) Explain the steps of Chain indexing with an example.

Ans) Steps in Chain Indexing are the following:


cc)  Construction of the Class Number: Classify the subject using a preferred classification scheme, resulting in a class number (e.g., 155.4072054 according to DDC, 22nd Edition).


dd) Representation of the Class Number in Chain: Create a chain representation, linking parts of the class number with verbal translations.

100 Philosophy, Parapsychology and Occultism

150 Psychology

155 Differential and developmental psychology


155.4 Child psychology

152.40 ———

152.407 Education, Research related topics

152.4072 Research

152.40720 ———

152.407205 Asia

152.4072054 India


ee)  Determination of Links: Identify various links such as Sought Links (SL), Unsought Links (USL), False Links (FL), and Missing Links (ML) within the chain.


E.g., 100 [USL], 150 [SL], 155 [USL], 155. [FL], 155.4 [SL], 152.40 [FL], 152.407 [USL], 152.4072 [SL], 152.40720 [FL], 152.407205 [USL], 152.4072054 [SL].


ff)    Preparation of Specific Subject Heading: Derive the specific subject heading by moving upwards from the last Sought Link. E.g., Research, Child psychology, India.

gg) Preparation of Subject Reference Headings: Derive subject reference headings from upper Sought Links. E.g., Research, Child psychology; Child psychology; Psychology.

hh) Preparation of Cross References: Prepare cross references for alternative terms used in specific and subject reference headings.

ii)     Preparation of Index Entries: Organize index entries such as Research, Child psychology, India; Research, Child psychology, 152.4072054; Child Psychology, 155.4; Psychology, 150, etc.

jj)     Alphabetization: Arrange entries in a single alphabetical order for ease of retrieval.


Q2) Explain the need for notation in library classification.

Ans) Notation in library classification serves as a crucial component for organizing and retrieving information systematically. The need for notation arises due to several reasons:

kk)  Unique Identification: Notation provides a unique identifier for each class or category within a classification scheme. It ensures that each subject or topic is assigned a distinct code, preventing confusion and ambiguity.

ll)     Hierarchical Organization: Library classification systems are often hierarchical, with broader categories subdivided into narrower ones. Notation helps in representing this hierarchy by assigning codes that reflect the relationships between classes. This hierarchical structure aids users in navigating through various levels of specificity.

mm)                                                                                                                                                                     Facilitates Retrieval: Notation facilitates the systematic arrangement of documents or resources on the shelves. With a well-designed notation system, materials on related topics are placed close to each other, making it easier for users to locate relevant resources efficiently.

nn) Consistency and Standardization: A standardized notation system ensures consistency in the classification process. It enables different libraries to use the same or similar notation for identical subjects, promoting uniformity in the arrangement of materials across institutions.

oo) Accommodates New Subjects: Notation systems are designed to be expandable, allowing for the accommodation of new subjects or topics. As knowledge evolves, notation can be adapted or extended to incorporate emerging fields without disrupting the existing organizational structure.

pp) Ease of Updating: Libraries regularly acquire new resources, and notation makes it feasible to integrate these materials seamlessly into existing collections. When new editions or updates occur, notation aids in the systematic reorganization of information without major disruptions.

qq) Saves Shelf Space: Effective notation contributes to the optimal utilization of shelf space. By organizing materials based on subject relationships, it minimizes wasted space and ensures that library collections are efficiently arranged for easy access.


Q3) What is MARC? Explain the structure of MARC21 record.

Ans) MARC, which stands for Machine-Readable Cataloguing, is a standardized format for bibliographic and authority records used in library catalogues. MARC records enable libraries to organize and share bibliographic information in a machine-readable form, facilitating the exchange and retrieval of data. The most widely used version of MARC is MARC21, developed by the Library of Congress and partners.


MARC, which stands for Machine-Readable Cataloguing, is a standardized format for bibliographic and authority records used in library catalogues. MARC records enable libraries to organize and share bibliographic information in a machine-readable form, facilitating the exchange and retrieval of data. The most widely used version of MARC is MARC21, developed by the Library of Congress and partners.

a)     Structure of a MARC21 Record: A MARC21 record consists of three main components: the Leader, the Directory, and the Variable Fields.

b)     Leader: The Leader is a fixed-length field that provides overall information about the record. It includes details such as the record length, type of material, bibliographic level, encoding scheme, and more.

c)     Directory: The Directory is a sequence of entries that serves as an index to the variable data fields in the record. Each entry in the directory contains a tag, length, and starting location of the corresponding variable field.

d)     Variable Fields: Variable fields contain the actual bibliographic information. There are three types of variable fields:

1)      Control Fields (00X): These fields contain control information, such as the record control number and language code.

2)     Data Fields (1XX-9XX): These fields hold descriptive and subject information. For example, the 245 field typically contains the title information.

3)     Subfields: Many data fields contain subfields, which are smaller units of information within a field. Subfields are preceded by a delimiter, commonly the dollar sign ('$'), and each subfield has a code that indicates its content.


Q4) Describe the concepts associated with Simple Knowledge Organisation System (SKOS).

Ans) The Simple Knowledge Organisation System (SKOS) is a W3C recommendation that provides a standard model and vocabulary for expressing knowledge organization systems, such as thesauri, taxonomies, and classification schemes, in a machine-readable format. SKOS aims to facilitate the interoperability and sharing of knowledge organization systems on the web.


In SKOS, a concept is a unit of thought that represents an idea or a meaning. Concepts are the building blocks of knowledge organization systems, and each concept is assigned a unique identifier.


a)     Concept Scheme: A concept scheme is a set of concepts organized in a structured way. It represents a collection of interrelated concepts, often forming a hierarchy or another relationship. Concept schemes provide context for understanding the relationships between concepts.

b)     Labelling: SKOS introduces various types of labels to describe concepts. These include:

4)     Preferred Label: The primary term used to represent a concept.

5)     Alternative Label: Synonyms or alternative terms for a concept.

6)     Hidden Label: A label that is not intended for public display.


c)     Hierarchical Relationships: SKOS supports the representation of hierarchical relationships between concepts through broader and narrower relationships. A broader concept encompasses a narrower one, creating a parent-child relationship.

d)     Associative Relationships: Concepts can also be linked through associative relationships, indicating a connection between concepts that is not hierarchical. This is useful for expressing related or associative connections.

e)     Notation: SKOS allows for the inclusion of notations to represent specific identifiers or codes associated with concepts, enhancing interoperability with external systems.

f)      Mapping Relationships: SKOS provides features to express mappings or relationships between concepts from different knowledge organization systems. This is valuable for linking concepts across different vocabularies.


Q5) What is a Shelf List? Differentiate it with library catalogue.

Ans) A Shelf List is a detailed record maintained by a library to track the physical location of each item in its collection. It serves as an inventory and location guide, providing information about the exact position of each book or item on the library shelves. The shelf list typically includes details such as the accession number, call number, title, author, and shelf location of each item.

Q6) Explain the major problems in Cataloguing of Non-Book Material (NBM).

Ans) Cataloguing of Non-Book Materials (NBM) presents several challenges due to the diversity of formats and the need for specialized approaches. Some major problems in cataloguing NBM include:

a)     Multiformat Challenges: NBM includes a wide range of formats such as audiovisual materials, maps, multimedia, electronic resources, etc. Cataloguers need to be familiar with various cataloguing standards and rules specific to each format, making the process complex and requiring specialized knowledge.

b)     Technological Changes: Rapid advancements in technology lead to the emergence of new formats and platforms, making it challenging for cataloguers to adapt their practices accordingly. Electronic resources, websites, and digital content require metadata that may not fit traditional cataloguing standards.

c)     Lack of Standardization: Unlike books, there is often a lack of standardized cataloguing rules for many types of NBM. This lack of consistency can affect the interoperability of catalogue records and hinder resource discovery.

d)     Metadata Complexity: Non-book materials often require detailed and complex metadata to capture various aspects such as time-based elements in audiovisual materials, spatial elements in maps, etc. Metadata creation can be time-consuming and requires expertise in the specific subject matter.

e)     Interdisciplinary Nature: NBM can belong to multiple disciplines, and cataloguers need interdisciplinary knowledge to adequately describe and classify materials.

f)      Accessibility Issues: Electronic resources pose challenges in providing accurate and up-to-date access points due to changes in URLs, platforms, or access restrictions.

g)     Copyright and Licensing: NBM materials may be subject to different copyright and licensing issues compared to traditional library materials. Cataloguers must consider and communicate these issues in catalogue records.

h)     User Expectations: Users may have diverse expectations when searching for non-book materials, and cataloguers need to balance standardization with flexibility to meet user needs.

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