If you are looking for BPAC-113 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Development Administration, you have come to the right place. BPAC-113 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAPAH courses of IGNOU.
BPAC-113 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BPAC-113/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: BPAC-113
Assignment Name: Development Administration
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.
Q1) Examine the scope of development administration. 20
Ans) As with administration, the scope of Development Administration is very broad. It includes all activities related to development, such as setting economic, social, and political policies and goals, organising development activities, setting up an organisational structure for improvement and development, and making arrangements for an administrative development system of the tools and resources needed to reach economic goals. John D. Montgomery and Fainsod have both looked at the scope of Development Administration as planned economic growth. Both of them connect development administration to a country's economic growth and note that it covers all kinds of activities that have to do with economic growth.
Scholars like Lucien Pye, F. W. Riggs, and Edward Weidner, who all have different points of view, have pointed out the many different areas of Developmental Administration. The scope of Development Administration keeps growing in a good way to cover basic needs and welfare of society. It has to do with reaching a wide range of goals that are all about growth. It not only brings about changes in society, culture, politics, and the economy, but also helps people plan and programme with purpose by getting them involved.
Development administration is always interacting with the environment in order to make the best use of natural resources and reach a wide range of development goals.
Treatment of economic problems and poverty alleviation: Under development administration, it is also possible to solve economic problems like poverty, hunger, a lack of economic opportunities, systematic social deprivation, and the lack of public services like clean water, housing, clothing, and health care. In this case, it is very important for the economy to run smoothly that development administration solves these problems. In a world with limited resources, the main goal of economic life is to meet people's needs.
Fulfilment of goals for increasing rational needs and opportunities: Development Administration also deals with the problem of how to make the best use of limited resources and how to meet the needs of people who will always have them. In this situation, it's important to know that development isn't just about getting rid of poverty and meeting basic physical needs. From a modern point of view, it includes improving both the quantity and quality of human life and dignity, empowering people, and building their skills.
Development administration, political culture and ideology: Development administration is in charge of guiding and keeping an eye on how different policies and programmes for development are put into action. This is made possible by political culture and ideology. In this way, development administration acts as a steering wheel for society, making sure that political leaders and staff involved in the development process have clear goals to work toward. It gets rid of the obstacles that were getting in the way of development needs and administrative development.
Nation-building, social welfare and traditional and parochial social structure: Development Administration also takes care of building a country and helping people. In a modern, globalised world, it needs to change and rebuild its social structure and relationships based on religion, family ties, caste, etc. So, for national development, it needs to put more attention on democracy, industrialization, promoting and developing technology, education, fairness, social justice, job creation, and other interconnected aspects of social welfare.
Q2) Write a note in brief on administrative reforms undertaken by the government since independence. 20
Ans) Various reform measures taken by the government of India since independence:
The Secretariat Reorganisation Committee, 1947: The Government of India put together a six-person committee led by Sir Girija Shankar Bajpai to look into the problems of not having enough staff, improving work methods, and making the best use of the people who are already there. On the eve of independence in July 1947, this was the first time the GOI did anything to change things.
The Ayyangar Committee, 1949: This committee did the first full review of how all the parts of the Central Government work together. In his report "Reorganization of the Central Government Machinery," Sh. N. Gopalaswamy Ayyangar suggested that the ministries be reorganised into four bureaus, that the number of departments in each ministry be limited, and that each ministry have three types of ministers: a cabinet minister, a Minister of State, and a Deputy Minister.
Gorwala Report, 1951: A. D. Gorwala Committee was set up to look into the administrative machinery and methods and decide if they were good enough to meet the needs of planned development. In his report, he talked about how bad things were between the minister and his secretary and how important it was to hire the right people, train them well, and give them the right jobs to meet the administrative needs that came out of planning. He also strongly suggested that Organisation and Methods be used in public enterprises.
Committee on Prevention of Corruption, 1962: In September 1962, the Santhanam Committee was set up to look into the problem of corruption, evaluate the methods already in place to stop it, and suggest ways to make them better. The committee was also asked to make suggestions for changes to the rules for how government workers should act and how they should be punished. The report from March 31, 1964, looked at the different social, economic, and political factors that led to corruption in public services. The committee made a number of suggestions, such as making a Central Vigilance Commission, changing Article 311 of the Constitution of India so that government workers can be disciplined, and making civil servants follow a code of conduct.
The Kothari Committee, 1976: In 1976, the UPSC put together a group called the Committee on Recruitment and Selection Methods, which was led by Shri Kothari. Its job was to look at the system for hiring people for the All India Services and the Central Group A and Group B Services and make a report on it. The central government agreed to hold a single test for both the All-India Services and the Central Group A non-technical services, which was one of its suggestions.
National Police Commission,1977: This was set up under the leadership of Sh. Dharamvira to look into the roles and responsibilities of the police, with a focus on crime control, maintaining public order, methods of managerial supervision, the investigation and prosecution system, and keeping records of crimes. The report was very detailed and had almost 500 suggestions about how the police should be run.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
Q3) Discuss the concept of New Public Service. 10
Ans) The writings of J. V. Denhardt and R. B. Denhardt gave rise to the idea of New Public Service (NPS), which aims to change the way traditional administrative systems work so that they are better able to deal with the challenges of running societies that are becoming more complicated. NPS could be seen as an ideological answer to the hegemonic claim that the Neoliberal perspective is the only reasonable way to build administrative systems in the modern world.
In other words, it is a strong answer to the universalist goals of the free market forces, which have tried to change the democratic and socialist focus of the public administration in most, if not all, developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. People think that NPS is a subtle attempt to bring back the ethos and values of New Public Administration , which have been ruthlessly eroded by the spread of neoliberalism in almost every part of the world. Even though marketization principles are important, NPS argues for resetting the agenda for administrative reforms so that public administration can serve the needs of the people instead of the market.
When Denhardt and Denhardt come up with the idea of NPS, they are actually arguing for a change in the nature and workings of the administrative system so that it becomes the mainstay of serving the interests of the common people. In other words, the people who support NPS want to give some functional indicators to reshape the public administrative system so that it really serves the public and doesn't just watch the predatory market forces try to eat up the public's interests. So, instead of focusing on making the public administration a helper for the market forces in getting goods and services to the people, as is usually done, NPS wants the public administration to take a more active role in serving the interests of the people instead of just being a helper for the market forces.
Q4) Analyse the role of local bodies in development. 10
Ans) The role of local bodies in development are:
Increasing Community Development Prospects: High levels of community participation help the growth of communities in many places. Community development is important for restoring democracy and making it easier for policies to be carried out.
Improved Public Facilities: The people who live there and the government work together to help the people get better services. Development at local levels is a prerequisite for national development. So, a nation grows as a whole when there are more public facilities for people to use near where they live.
Cultivating Future Leaders: Self-government at the local level helps shape future leaders. It gives people who want to be politicians a chance to learn about how democratic decisions are made.
Greater Transparency in Operations of the Central government: People often think of local government as the link between different communities and the national government. The institution is what brings the two ideas together. People are told about what the government is doing and what its policies are. On the other hand, the government of the union learns what the people need.
Protecting each Person's Identity: The city government is in charge of protecting the personal and cultural identities of many different groups. It backs the idea of pluralism, which is the foundation of democracy.
Access to Quality Infrastructure: Local governments are part of the central government, but they also give people a place to say what they want from politics. Its goal is to make sure that people at the local level have access to clean water, electricity, and good sanitation.
Q5) Explain the Self-help group approach to development. 10
Ans) Self-Help Groups (SHGs) have been set up to help poor people work together and improve their own skills so they can get out of poverty. Based on the ideas that "self-help is the best help" and "unity is strength," SHGs are meant to help poor people improve their way of life and income.
The SHG approach is one way to help the poorest people in a country improve their social and economic well-being. On the one hand, it is a rights-based approach that believes that development and human rights are linked and uses the principles of non-discrimination and equality to get rid of poverty.
SHG approach focuses on poor (especially women) and provides platform to:
lead their life with dignity.
equip them to come out of poverty trap.
strengthen their decision-making skills at the household and community level.
The SHG approach has three ways: the economic, the social, and the political.
Economic Dimension: SHGs save agreed-upon amounts of money as a group and give loans to their members to help them get ahead financially. The group would come up with the rules for how money would be exchanged. SHG builds "mutual trust," "accountability," "participation," and "creativity" through this economic dimension.
Social Dimension: The social dimension focuses on "affinity", "trust", "participation", and "mutual responsibility". SHGs focus on both individual and community problems, and well-structured SHGs also work with other groups to form a bigger group.
Political Dimension: The political dimension shows that the SHGs are "independent" and "involved" in solving problems in their neighbourhoods and gives them the power to do so. This gives them the courage to work on bigger problems at the local, regional, and national levels.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.
Q6) Bring out the advantages of political parties. 6
Ans) Institutions matter in democracies. Voting ensures democracy. Modern democracy requires political parties. They determine a group's needs and inform the public and political system in a way they can understand and act on. Political parties are the only ones that can place local issues in a national framework, which is crucial. In varied and pluralistic nations, political parties unite citizens with different interests. They prepare for compromise. They organise chaos. This helps societies unite. They represent the public and can take direct requests since there are no long-term governing structures. In weak, corrupt, or underdeveloped governments, this is especially true. They ensure law enforcement and provide checks and balances.
Q7) Explain the functions of NITI Aayog. 6
Ans) NITI Aayog does the following things based on these pillars:
Develops a shared vision and gets states to work together on the priorities and strategies for national development.
Fosters cooperative federalism through structured support initiatives and mechanisms with the States on an ongoing basis, recognising that strong states make a strong nation.
Develops a shared vision and gets states to work together on the priorities and strategies for national development.
Makes sure that economic strategy and policy take into account the needs of national security.
Pays special attention to the parts of society that might not be able to benefit enough from the country's economic growth.
Plans policies and programmes for the long term and keeps track of their progress and success. The lessons learned from monitoring will be used to make any changes and improvements that are needed along the way.
Q8) Voluntary organisations can play a pioneering role in the country’s development-Elaborate. 6
Ans) Volunteer groups are a big part of growth and change. The State does not have the resources or time to deal with all the different parts of development on its own. It needs to work with other organisations that aren't part of its formal structure but can help it develop.
They connect government and people. They provide trustworthy data and input to the government, aiding development initiatives. They represent the people and the government because they chat.
They spread information. Despite government efforts, many impoverished, illiterate, and uninformed people don't know about development plans. Free organisations provide this information.
Volunteer groups reach many people and convey development goals to the local level, which can be difficult in locations with inflexible government systems.
Volunteer groups also implement development strategies. Rajasthan's Akshay-Patra assists Jaipur's Mud-Day feeding programme.
Q9) Write a note on Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. 6
Ans) Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy began in 2001. Nonprofit. The organisation joined the Indian Trusts Act in 1882. Janaagraha wants to make Indian cities better. Janaagraha works with citizens to create active civic learning, participation, advocacy, and reform neighbourhoods. The Bala Janaagraha involves around 200,000 kids in 500 schools in 25 cities. Groups of students clean a nearby roadway. Students question locals, store owners, and traffic cops after choosing a street. By identifying the issue and communicating to affected parties, students create a model street change. They then offer their model solution to City Commissioners, Mayors, MLAs, and others.
Q10) What are the roles and responsibilities of Village Health Sanitation Nutrition committees (VHSNCs)? 6
Ans) Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committee’s job is to make sure that health care systems work better, especially in rural areas. This Committee is a place to talk about health, find out what the community needs, and plan and keep an eye on things from a community perspective. Some of the roles and responsibilities include raising awareness about health and nutrition in the community, doing a survey on the village's nutritional status and deficiencies among women and children, promoting traditional knowledge about locally available foods by talking to the community, supervising the Anganwadi Center, and holding a Village Health and Nutrition Day to check on the village's programmes. The VHSNC is important because it keeps an eye on the primary and secondary health care services. VHSNC can find gaps and key issues by filling out scorecards for the facilities and services that have been offered at the healthcare unit and by talking to people who use the services.
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