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BPAE-143: Administrative System in BRICS

BPAE-143: Administrative System in BRICS

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BPAE-143 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Administrative System in BRICS, you have come to the right place. BPAE-143 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAPAH, BAG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPAE-143/ASST/TMA/July 2022 & January 2023

Course Code: BPAE-143

Assignment Name: Administrative System in Brics

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Assignment I


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. 2×20


1. Discuss the constitutional framework of Brazil and Russia.

Ans) Brazil is the biggest and most populous nation in Latin America, with an area of 8.5 million square kilometres and a total population of over 202 million.


Constitutional Framework of Brazil


The Constitution of Brazil in 1891: The United States Constitution and Brazil's first republican constitution were extremely similar. It introduced male universal suffrage at age 21 and founded the presidential system. It also had a number of other provisions, including a federal chamber, a bicameral legislature, checks and balances, and the separation of powers.


The Constitutions of Brazil from 1934-1937: Getulio Vargas organised a military uprising and oversaw a coup in the year 1930. This government drafted a new Constitution in 1934. Vargas faced a counter-revolution a few years later, forcing him to stage a coup. He then started a new constitutional process, which ultimately led to reshaping the features of the constitution, such as authoritarian, by emphasising the president's executive and legislative powers as the top authority of the State.


The Constitution of Brazil in 1946: After Getlio Vargas was deposed by his war minister in 1946, the dictatorship of the New State under his rule began to supersede the Constitution. A representative democracy was established, and Eurico Gaspar Dutra, a new president, was chosen for a five-year term. A more liberal and balanced Constitution was written by the constituent assembly this time, reinstating fundamental individual liberties and the separation of powers.


The Constitutions of Brazil in 1967-1969: The Constitution of 1946 had so many flaws that they seriously undermined the spirit of the instrument and destroyed its democratic nature. Consequently, a new constitution from 1967 took its place. In 1969, this document underwent yet another constitutional modification.


Due to their attempts to institutionalise the military dictatorship, both constitutions were characterised by a concentration of authority in the hands of the executive, particularly the President.


Transition of the Constitution in 1988: As economic growth grew too slowly in the 1970s, the military regime of the previous Constitution encountered popular upheavals and discontent, and in 1974 it transitioned from an authoritarian system to a democratic one. A progressive process of political opening or liberalisation was carried out by President Ernesto Geisel and his Chief of the Cabinet, General Golbery de Couto e Silva. This approach was characterised by minor improvements that prevented the development of a fully functional democracy.


Structure of the Government under Constitution of 1988: Brazil is now a presidential, federal republic as a result of the new Constitution. In 1996, a change was being made that would have included municipalities as a part of the federation alongside the states. As a result, there are 26 States in the country in addition to the Federal District. The legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal, state, and municipal governments are separate from one another. The 1988 constitution aimed to decentralise the federal power and grant state and local governments more administrative autonomy and responsibility for carrying out policy.


Constitutional Structure of Russia


The Russian Federation's Constitution, which was approved by a national referendum on December 12, 1993, and which entered into force on December 25, 1993, provided a detailed breakdown of the various powers that the country possesses. These powers were later modelled after many western democratic systems that uphold the doctrine of the separation of powers by being divided into the three branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. The preamble and two sections make up the Russian Constitution. Since there had never before in its history been another form of democratic governance, the Constitution also made a point of emphasising self-determination, human rights, and citizen civic liberties.


2. Examine the administrative reforms undertaken in China.

Ans) Since the early 1980s, the Chinese government has actively pushed for long-term administrative reforms to accommodate political, social, and economic developments. It was only done to increase governance promotion efficacy.


The following are discussed in relation to China's administrative reforms:

  1. Look into the difficulties China's administrative reform is currently facing.

  2. Examining the significant administrative changes made under the traditional State-Centred model.

  3. Examining a different administrative reform strategy for China.


After the 1980s, the political, economic, and ideological landscapes all underwent significant changes to varying degrees. A basic social realm had changed.


The Chinese administrative system underwent a number of changes, including:

  1. Ideology

  2. Economic System

  3. Social System

  4. Globalization


The revolution and class conflict gave way to economic prosperity. Economic development requires involvement from both the people and the government. Prior until now, China had a centralised planned economy. The state's interventionist role and totalitarian status are no longer relevant. The market has now changed into a need. The Chinese society is amenable to social mobility in terms of its social structure. Public employment, which is connected to the Civil Service and recruitment, has restricted openness. China is now being seen to create modern industries. Town planning and urbanisation are expanding quickly in China. The Chinese society sought economic fusion with the rest of the world following globalisation.


The administrative system is under excessive strain from the Chinese society. faced several difficulties. These are recognised as the principal problems and difficulties in governance:

  1. Legitimacy problems

  2. Issues with State-Owned Enterprises.

  3. Fiscal problems

  4. State Administration Problems.


The area of trust has shrunk due to the legitimacy dilemma. Corrupt bureaucrats were everywhere. The output of the state-owned enterprise was insufficient. There is a financial shortfall in everything from local government to centrally supported programmes and governance. The Chinese administrative state was one of nepotism and authoritarianism. The responsibility was false. The late leader Deng Xiaoping acknowledged it. These issues and catastrophes were often tolerated by governments to varying degrees at every level.


The government made the decision to pursue an effective reform in order to increase administration transparency against a background of many challenges. For the average Chinese person, good governance will be made possible through the implementation of administrative reform. The widespread Government Organizational Reform (GOR) across the nation allegedly took place at four round tables to address the government's numerous problems and struggles. It was clear in 1982, 1988, 1992, and 1998, respectively.

The following areas were highlighted by the reform:

  1. changes to how the government performs its duties.

  2. Norms and the structure of government.

  3. Reduce the workforce.

  4. Rationalization of the public and private sectors.

  5. Constitutional law codification.


The government is now focusing on social capital, such as the distribution of services and the provision of public goods, in its lines of business. In theory, China supported limited government. The Chinese economy urgently needs to adapt the government with new structures and standards. The GOR streamlined the departmental organisation in accordance with the Central Government Rules of 1998.


The principle of "Small Government, Big Society" was upheld. Chinese society stood for a civil service system that was built on merit and an army of skilled public servants. China's government proposed reducing the number of government employees by 50% due to pressure on the country's finances. The Chinese government purposefully avoided using bureaucratic procedures to increase business. In China, administrative government is based on the rule of law. Government employment systems have begun to transition from favouritism to merit-based systems.


Assignment II


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 3×10


3. Highlight the executive authority in South Africa.

Ans) South Africa is a constitutional democracy with a parliamentary republican form of government. Based on their Constitution, there is a three-tier structure of national, provincial, and local levels of government. The Constitution's declared goal is for the nation to operate under a system of "Cooperative Governance." The President, Deputy President, and Ministries are given executive authority. In addition to leading the government, the President serves as the head of state.


The President

The members of the National Assembly elect the president of South Africa from among themselves. That person must retire from the National Assembly after being elected president. The term of office for the President is 5 years, renewable once. The President of South Africa serves as the nation's head of state, head of government, and commander in chief. According to the Constitution, the President's first and main duty is to serve the country and uphold the dignity and respect of the Constitution.


Deputy President

In addition to serving as the National Assembly and Cabinet's representative, the Deputy President of South Africa is the country's second-in-command. Since the length of his term in office is not set by law, it begins the moment he is chosen by the President from among the National Assembly members and takes the required oath. He can be removed from office in four different ways: the President can fire him, the National Assembly can vote a resolution of no confidence in the president, the Deputy President can face the same resolution, and he can resign himself.



The South African executive, which consists of the President as head, the Deputy President, and the Ministers, includes the Cabinet as a crucial component. The Deputy Presidents, Ministers, and Deputy Ministers are appointed by the President, who also grants them the corresponding authority and responsibility and has the authority to remove them. He might even consult the national party leaders in this regard. The National Assembly's members may choose any number of ministers, and the President may also choose up to two ministers from outside the Assembly. The President designates a Cabinet member to oversee normal government business in the National Assembly.


4. Explain the role of bureaucracy in public policy process of Brazil.

Ans) Transparency, decentralisation, involvement, accountability, and other long-requested concepts are reflected in the Brazilian Constitution. The pattern of policy-making and implementation in Brazil underwent a considerable change as a result of these good governance principles or components. The Constitution stipulated a fresh redistribution of functional tasks and allowed administrative autonomy to sub-national government in terms of fiscal and intergovernmental relations. The Constitution also required the decentralisation of governmental policy in a wide range of fields, including environmental policy and fields like health and education.


Thus, Brazil has a system of democratic policies. There is a system in place, extending from local councils to the National Conference, for this purpose. The National Public Policy Conferences offer participatory and deliberative experiences that enable individuals and even watchdog groups to have their voices heard in Congress. National conferences give these minority groups a chance to have their interests represented in the legislature even if they are unable to elect their candidates.


The executive calls meetings and plans them; sometimes the government and civil society work together to plan them. Similar to this, regional and municipal conferences are often organised, giving citizens a place to participate in and voice their opinions on the creation and execution of policy. Over 28000 local councils have been established at the local level, according to research, to give individuals a chance to participate in policymaking and monitor its execution. Additionally, these Councils offer a framework for improved downward responsibility. Although Brazil's national conference on public policy has a long history, the practise has become regular, extensive, inclusive, and broad since 2003.


In Brazil, the government allowed civil society to participate in the task of creating new policies and updating existing ones rather than forming them on its own through a formal procedure that would, at best, incorporate the technical assistance of professionals. Brazil's federal government is in charge of calling the summit. The process is started by a presidential decree, but it may also be the executive or administration that senses the need for new policies or, occasionally, outside pressure from civil society.


5. Analyse the role of LBSNAA in training of Civil Servants in India.

Ans) Historically, the government has placed a significant focus on the training of this elite civil service. IAS officials receive two years of training at the LBSNAA following the "sandwich" pattern, in which institutional training is broken up by field training. It stands out due to a shared Foundation Course where all candidates chosen for Group A Services, i.e., Due to the increased intake into the civil services, only Officer Trainees assigned to the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Foreign Service, and Indian Police Service are currently completing their Foundation Course at LBSNAA, Mussoorie. They train together for the first fifteen weeks before beginning their service-specific professional training.


Foundation Training

Officer Trainees of the All India Services (Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, and Indian Forests Service), as well as the Indian Foreign Service and different Central Services (Group-A), are eligible for the Foundational Course. It is conducted once a year at LBSNAA and at partner institutions, often from September through December.


Objectives of the Foundation Training

  1. Introduce the administrative, social, economic, and political environments of the nation to officer trainees.

  2. create awareness of the potential and difficulties facing the Civil Services.

  3. Encourage the overall development of the officer trainees' moral, intellectual, physical, and aesthetic faculties.

  4. Building esprit de corps will promote better collaboration amongst personnel from various civil services.

IAS probationers remain at LBSNAA for professional training after completing the Foundation programme. The probationers of other services depart for their respective professional training institutions. For instance, Indian Police Service (IPS) officers transfer to the Sushma Swaraj Foreign Service Institute in Delhi while Indian Foreign Service (IFS) officials receive professional training at the Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel National Police Academy (SVBPNPA), Hyderabad.


Assignment III


Answer the following questions in about100 words each. 5×6


6. Discuss the audit system in Russia.

Ans) Audit is now seen as a favourable signal in the Russian governance system, which it was not before. During the latter half of the 1980s, audit was first implemented in its current form. On the basis of the "Provincial Rules of Audit Activity," which were implemented in Russia at the end of 1993, four different types of audits were introduced: general audits, book audits, insurance audits, and audits of commodities and stock exchanges.


The following five self-regulatory organisations for auditors still exist today after being founded in 2008:

  1. Moscow Audit Chamber

  2. Institute of Certified Public Accountants.

  3. Russian Auditing Chamber.

  4. Collegium of Auditors in Russia.

  5. Association of Auditors.


There is a constitutional body called the Accounts Chamber of Russia, which was established by the Federal Assembly and serves as a permanent body of financial supervision, for the external audit of the Russian Federation. It completes the tasks given to it by the State Duma and the Federation Council. It does, however, work independently.


7. Examine the role of developmental local government in South Africa.

Ans) Local governments that are committed to development are referred to as ordinary people and groups inside the community to discover successful traditions to fulfil their needs in terms of social, financial, and material resources; and excellence in their lives. The Constitution protects the civil rights of all citizens in the nation to work toward autonomy, safety, equality before the law, and self-respect.


In South Africa, the local government that is developing is taking the lead in inspiring the community, defending human rights, and gathering basic necessities. It focuses its efforts and resources on humanising the best aspects of neighbourhood and community life as well as the status of marginalised groups, women, and extremely poor people.


The following four interrelated characteristics characterise developmental local government:

  1. Social Progress and Development.

  2. Development Integration and Coordination.

  3. Developing democracy.

  4. Leadership and education.


The Local Government Authority receives the best training possible. force on the neighbourhood’s social development. The obligation of Empowering the disadvantaged is the goal of developmental local government. Its purpose is to enhancing social capital In particular, the Local Government is advocating for the advocacy of redistribution within the South African Community.


8. Write a note on citizenship in India.

Ans) A person who is considered to be a citizen can join the national society and draw his or her moorings from that national and constitutional position, in addition to the recognition aspect and perception of the idea of citizenship. However, as the country develops, we do not have to confine it to the concept of a law book. Instead, the concept of citizenship also governs a person's ability to interact with the state and how they can effectively express themselves within the confines of Indian law and the constitution.


The American ideal of E Pluribus Unum, which expresses the notion that one is created out of many, is closely linked to the concept of citizenship. Since Indian citizens enjoy and are entitled to a great deal of freedom of expression, liberty, and constitutional generosity, the level of political engagement that is permitted in India also reflects this. The extent to which freedom is upheld in the Indian democratic system is demonstrated by the right to vote and other essential rights.


9. Discuss the process of provincial planning in China.

Ans) The three steps of the provincial planning process are as follows:


  1. Stage of preparation.

  2. Formal Draft Outline Stage.

  3. Stage of Information Dissemination.


An evaluation of the previous five-year plan is the first step in the preparation stage. Numerous research are carried out and assessed about various economic aspects. It gives policymakers the information they require. The formal draught and outline of the relevant provincial five-year plan are referred to as the second stage.


For a general description of the five-year plan, studies at the provincial and city levels have been gathered and analysed. The third stage involves the formal dissemination of information through publications in print and online media, as well as through government and party guides.


10. Enumerate the powers and functions of the State Duma.

Ans) The State Duma is able to do the following:


  1. Accepts the President's suggestion to nominate the Chairman of the Government (also known as the Prime Minister).

  2. Make a decision on the issue of Russian Federation Government Confidence.

  3. Hears the government's yearly reports on the outcomes of its operations and the concerns put forth by the State Duma.

  4. The appointment and removal of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the Russian Federation's Accounts Chamber, and half of its auditors;

  5. Declares a pardon.

  6. Makes accusations against the Russian Federation President in an effort to have him or her removed from office.


A Chairperson is chosen by each house to perform the customary duties of presiding over meetings and managing the processes.


The two houses typically convene separately but may do so to hear statements from foreign leaders as well as messages from the President and the Constitutional Court. It is important to note that both houses' meetings are open to the public.


The two houses have a procedure in place for creating committees out of their respective membership. Up until a few years ago, the State Duma had 28 committees and a number of ad hoc commissions, while the Council had 12 committees and two commissions. Due to the cyclical nature of its members, the Federation Council has created fewer committees. The committee may also create a few subcommittees.

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