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BPAG-171: Disaster Management

BPAG-171: Disaster Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPAG-171 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Disaster Management, you have come to the right place. BPAG-171 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG, BAECH, BAHIH, BAPSH, BAPCH, BASOH, BSCANH, BAEGH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPAG-171/ ASST/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BPAG-171

Assignment Name: Disaster Management

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1. Define vulnerability and various factors of causing it. 20marks

Ans) Physical, social, economic, and environmental elements or processes that raise a community's sensitivity to dangers. Understanding the core causes of vulnerability in technical, physical, or socio-economic situations is critical to resolving it through empirical research and policy. Vulnerability identification is difficult because complex processes interact to result in system or region/people vulnerability (s). Combating vulnerability requires both short- and long-term solutions, as it is ultimately a development issue. To reduce vulnerability, the solution is in policy analyses of development planning to make sustainable development measures more accurate and need-based.

Vulnerability Factors

Vulnerability encompasses both the danger of hazards and the relative inability to cope with the associated stress. According to Timmerman, ‘vulnerability' is ‘the degree to which a system, or part of a system, reacts negatively to a hazardous event.” System-wide vulnerability reduction is usually expressed as resilience or reliability. Anderson highlighted how the concept of human vulnerability has evolved through time, while not universally accepted, discipline-free definition exists.

‘Resilience' is a social capacity to absorb and recover from a stressful situation. In places of poverty, where calamity is typically viewed as a ‘normal' part of life, resilience has traditionally been the principal defence. Community coping skills are critical here. For example, semi-arid herders tend to stockpile cattle during good grazing years to prepare for drought.

‘Reliability', on the other hand, measures how often safety devices fail. This method works well in developed places where technology and engineering design have delivered high levels of perceived reliability for most city services. Extreme stress, such as an earthquake, can readily destroy road networks, electrical lines, and water supplies. Over the last 45 years, natural calamities have claimed many lives across Asia and the Pacific. The region was only touched by roughly 43% of global disasters, but the toll in terms of lives lost was significant. Between 1970 and 2014, disasters killed almost 2 million people, or 56.6% of all deaths worldwide. A look at the total number of people affected shows the effect and vulnerability of Asian and Pacific countries. Natural catastrophes have affected almost 6 billion people in the region, 87.6% of the global total (UNESCAP, 2015). Most of these people live in disadvantaged areas, where poverty, discrimination, and lack of democracy impede progress.

In dangerous places, whether urban shanties or deteriorated rural habitats, the poorest have little choice. Disasters strike worst where the poor are concentrated in terms of loss of life and economic effect. Rural dwellers outnumber urban dwellers in less developed countries. Even though, the third world has more urban people than Europe, North America, and Japan combined. Metropolitan cities grow quicker. Urban squatter colonies may have ten times the current population density. Many buildings are built on steep slopes or flood-prone ground, subject to severe winds and landslides. In densely populated rural areas, population density can approach 1000 per kilometre, while access to arable land is scarce. Many people are landless, and land tenure regimes limit them access to resources.

Climate science, development studies, disaster management, health, geography, policy development, and economics are just a few of the fields that experts from. An integrative framework is required to bring together multiple traditions in a way that allows researchers to assess vulnerability and adaptability in diverse contexts” (IPCC, 2001).

Q2. Briefly discuss the relationship between disaster and development. 20marks

Ans) Disasters and development are intertwined. Disasters damage development initiatives while creating new ones. Development techniques can both enhance and minimise vulnerability. Traditional disaster management referred to natural disasters as “acts of God” that caused death, property destruction, and economic losses. Historically, most growth plans were constructed without addressing the impact of disasters or community views and plans. During a disaster, the attention used to be on immediate necessities. With regards to catastrophe risk reduction and sustainable development, a coordinated set of plans is thought to be more effective and reduce, if not eliminate, losses.

To reducing the impact of disasters in the wake of relationship between disaster and development there are three basic themes:

Development Programmes can Increase Vulnerability

A population without development activities is more vulnerable to natural disasters. However, the process of growth itself may increase vulnerability to the same disasters. Poverty, marginalisation, overpopulation, and vulnerability are interconnected. Poverty breeds vulnerability. Pauperized people are more likely to live on landslide-prone slopes, near flood plains, or on marginal agricultural land. Poorer countries are more prone to have harmful building stock due to lack of resources to enforce acceptable building codes, structural design, and quality control.

Poor education with lack of awareness results in absence of consciousness, which typically increases susceptibility. People may be ignorant of their alternatives for reducing vulnerability due to lack of awareness and education. People in poverty have less assets to invest, increasing their susceptibility. Poor individuals are less able to band together to reduce hazards. Moreover, disasters cause famine and chronic illness, posing new threats to people.

Development Programmes can Decrease Vulnerability

Mitigation is widely used to lessen the impact of disasters. Mitigation can be classified in two ways based on the problem and methodology:

  1. Structural mitigation strategies reduce the economic and social impact of risks by installing dams, terracing, windbreaks, and hazard resistant buildings.

  2. Non-structural mitigation includes land-use policy, zoning, agricultural diversity, building rules, and forecasting and warning systems. Non-structural mitigation includes environmental awareness, education, community organising, and employment strategies.

It has been shown that including hazard-reduction strategies into regular investment projects works best. The risk is analysed, particularly in the context of planning and investment programme evaluations. Evaluation of cost-effectiveness of certain emergency preparedness and risk reduction initiatives. There is potential for investment institutions to aid governments in gaining access to new advancements in hazard-reduction technologies. Early warning systems and other components of emergency preparedness are given priority in regular investment programmes.

Disasters as Opportunities for Development Initiatives

Disasters can have effective development plans. The political consequences of damage and disruption can spur reform. Several factors influence disaster-inspired development projects, but two stand out:

  1. Disasters can expose unique vulnerabilities, such as places with high death tolls or economic losses disproportionate to the severity of the impact. This usually highlights the general level of underdevelopment.

  2. For a few weeks or months, the political climate may favour faster economic and social change, such as land reform, housing improvements, new job training, and economic base reorganisation.

  3. Amounts of direct international help offered following disasters may partially compensate for economic losses. The initial value of the aid rarely exceeds 10% of the total losses and is frequently much less. There may be further long-term development aid available in the coming months and years.

Thus, policymakers cannot disregard the link between disasters and growth. Projects are thus constructed with catastrophe recovery and long-term development in mind. Disasters can greatly restrict resource allocation for development.

Assignment B

Answer the following in about 250 words each.

Q3. Write a note on the National Policy on Disaster Management, 2009 and National Disaster

Management Plan, 2016. 10marks


National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM), 2009

The National Policy Framework was developed after extensive consideration and in accordance with the National Vision to construct a holistic, proactive, multi-hazard, and technology-driven disaster management plan in order to build a safe and disaster-resilient India. It was recognised that this might be accomplished by fostering a culture of disaster prevention, mitigation, and readiness in order to provide a quick and effective response in the case of a disaster. Through the combined efforts of all government departments and non-governmental organisations, the entire process put the community front and centre, providing impetus and sustenance (NGOs).

The NDMA has taken a mission-mode approach to translating this vision into policy and strategies, encompassing a number of projects with the cooperation of numerous institutions at the national, state, and local levels. The NDMA has taken a mission-mode approach to translating this vision into policy and strategies, encompassing a number of projects with the cooperation of numerous institutions at the national, state, and local levels.

National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP), 2016

The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) was released by India's Prime Minister as the country's first-ever national plan.

Salient Features

The NDMP utilises the Sendai Framework's strategy in a significant way. All phases of disaster management are covered in the plan: prevention, mitigation, response, and recovery. It allows for horizontal and vertical integration amongst all of the government's agencies and departments. The plan's goal is to make India more disaster resistant. It aims to improve the country's ability to cope with disasters at all levels by incorporating disaster risk reduction into development and enhancing preparedness to respond to all types of disasters. Disaster Management Act, Policy, and Institutional Arrangements to deal with disasters at all levels by incorporating disaster risk reduction into development and strengthening disaster preparedness.

Q4. List out the statutory provisions for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction. 10marks

Ans) The following are the statutory provisions for mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the Disaster Management Act of 2005:

  1. Section 6 states that the NDMA may adopt any further steps it deems essential for disaster prevention, mitigation, readiness, and capacity building in the case of a threatening catastrophe situation or disaster.

  2. The SDMA may examine the development plans of the various departments of the State and ensure that prevention and mitigation measures are integrated therein, according to Section 18 (2) (g).

  3. The SEC may analyse the vulnerability of different sections of the state to different types of catastrophes and prescribe actions to be implemented for their prevention or mitigation, according to Section 22 (2)(b).

  4. The State Plan must incorporate measures for catastrophe prevention and mitigation, according to Section 23 (4) (b).

  5. The State Plan must incorporate the method in which mitigation measures will be integrated with development plans and projects, according to Section 23 (4) (c).

  6. The State Plan must incorporate capacity-building and readiness measures, according to Section 23 (4) (d).

  7. Section 30 (2) (iv) states that the District Authority may ensure that all departments of the government at the district level, as well as local governments in the district, follow the National Authority's and State Authority's guidelines for disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness, and response measures.

  8. Section 30 (2) (xiii) provides that the District Authority may facilitate community training and awareness programmes for disaster prevention or mitigation with the support of local authorities, governmental and non-governmental organisations;

  9. Section 30 (xiv) provides that the District Authority may set up, maintain, review, and upgrade the mechanism for early warnings and dissemination of proper information to the public;

  10. Section 31 (3) (b) provides that the District Authority may establish, maintain, review, and upgrade the mechanism for early warnings and dissemination of proper information to the public;

Q5. Examine the case study of ‘The Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2004.’ 10marks

Ans) On December 26, 2004, a tsunami hit India, caused by a series of earthquakes in the Bay of Bengal, originating from Northern Sumatra's west coast. The huge and strongest oceanic quake measured 9.0 on the Richter scale. After three hours it attacked the west of Pulo Kunji Great Nicobar, India (7.3 on Richter scale). The tremor triggered massive tsunamis up to 10 metres high that reached 3 kilometres inland (ADB, UN and WB, 2005). The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami devastated numerous countries and irreparably damaged the Indian coast. More than 20 countries were affected, with a total of 2.2 million people affected.

The Indian Ocean Tsunami affected about 2,260 km of Indian coastline, including Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. According to the Indian government report, 12,405 people died, 6,913 were injured, and 6,47,59 was displaced. Around 100,000 homes were damaged or destroyed. Approximately 2,000 km of Indian coastline was inundated up to two km.

In Tamil Nadu, 13 coastal districts were affected by the tsunami: Chennai, Tiruvallur, Kancheepuram, Villupuram, Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur, Thanjavur. Overall, 6106 deaths occurred in Nagapattinam (6065), Kanyakumari (828), and Cuddalore (617). (State Planning Commission, 2005). However, the tsunami reaction was rapid and thorough, involving government agencies, NGOs, and the local population as a whole. Even before the government, NGOs, and other players arrived, local residents flocked to the aid of the tsunami victims. The Government and NGOs only came forward later in the Tsunami aftermath. The government helped with relief and restoration. They were active in the prevention, response, and recovery programmes. Moreover, the world community mobilised fast to respond to the tsunami.

Search and rescue, first aid, shelter, restart of key infrastructure, transit routes, communication lines, and electricity were swiftly implemented.

Assignment C

Answer the following in about 100 words each.

Q6. What do you mean by epidemics? 6marks

Ans) Descended from the Greek word’s epic (upon/among) and demons (people). Unusual increase in cases of an infectious disease already present in a region or population. It can also refer to a large number of cases of an infectious disease in a normally disease-free area or population. Tropical storms, floods, earthquakes, droughts, and other disasters can cause epidemics.

As well as humans, epidemics can cause economic calamities. Communicable diseases include hepatitis, typhoid, diphtheria, malaria, cholera, influenza, enteritis, diarrhoea, skin disorders, food poisoning, and others. Smoking, substance addiction, and health-related incidents like accidents are all epidemics. During calamities, we are more concerned about disease outbreaks.

Q7. Discuss the key components of disaster preparedness framework. 6 marks

Ans) Various measures must be included in a disaster preparedness framework.

The following are some of the most important aspects of disaster planning:

  1. Strengthening regional, national, and local disaster management policy, technical, and institutional capacities, particularly those related to technology, training, and human and material resources.

  2. Promoting and facilitating discourse, information exchange, and cooperation in order to create a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction.

  3. Developing and strengthening integrated regional ways to create, review, and update disaster preparedness plans and policies at all levels, with an emphasis on the most vulnerable areas and groups.

  4. Encourage the creation of emergency funds wherever they are needed to support preparedness efforts.

  5. Creating specialised mechanisms to elicit active engagement and ownership from key stakeholders, such as communities, in the spirit of volunteerism.

Q8. Comment on the concept of social and economic rehabilitation. 6marks

Ans) The importance of social rehabilitation cannot be overstated. Its goal is to provide victims with social assistance. It could be as a result of:

  1. Creating educational groups that provide regular counselling to those who are afflicted.

  2. Finding people who could lead educational activities and give youngsters with books and writing materials.

  3. Various programmes relating to physical and mental health, stress management, diet and cleanliness, and so on are being run.

  4. For a limited time, providing day care and old age homes to the patients.

  5. Creating a multi-purpose community centre and encouraging the formation of self-help groups.

  6. Finding native environments for sufferers such as the elderly, women, and children.

Economic Rehabilitation

It is crucial in reimbursing the victims for the economic losses incurred as a result of the disaster; it entails offering compensation to the victims depending on:

  1. Investigation of existing livelihood strategy and business; and Investigation of actual and

  2. prospective hazard and compulsion of problematic group.

Q9. Write a note on the types of traditional knowledge. 6marks

Ans) The indigenous knowledge can be divided into three types, that is, Technological Knowledge, Economic Knowledge and Environmental Knowledge.

Technological Knowledge

To solve some of the issues of disaster risk reduction, indigenous people apply their technological skills. For example, traditional community building strategies still exist in flood-prone, coastal, and mountainous places. Including local technical expertise and fostering community engagement in disaster preparedness enhances sustainability.

Economic Knowledge

The other sort of indigenous knowledge is economic knowledge. People devise economic solutions to transitory problems. For example, during and after a crisis, the community can build temporary/permanent shelter using local resources. So, the community plans a low-cost method using local resources.

Environmental Knowledge

The community senses environmental information based on minor or minute inferences from the environment or surrounds. People used to forecast and warn each other based on the colour of the water or clouds. It utilised to help community members prepare by storing food, firewood, water, and livestock feed.

Q10. List out the principles of community-based disaster management. 6marks

Ans) The following are the basic principles of community-based disaster management (CBDM):

  1. Active participation: Community participation is critical to lowering disaster risk. When catastrophe risk reduction methods are community-based, local advocates own the design, implementation, and management.

  2. Use of local resources and capacities: Interventions start with local resources, capacities, and networks/partnerships. Using all of these features locally is critical in a crisis.

  3. Own choice and decision: Community should consider their choices and decisions while engaging in disaster risk reduction.

  4. Capacitating community: DRR programmes should be community specific and focus on increasing the capacity of the local level people.

  5. Attention to vulnerable groups: Special focus should be given to vulnerable groups, so that their wellness and needs are taken care of in the pre, during and post-disaster phases.

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