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BPAG-172: Governance: Issues and Challenges

BPAG-172: Governance: Issues and Challenges

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPAG-172 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Governance: Issues and Challenges, you have come to the right place. BPAG-172 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG, BAECH, BAPSH, BAPCH, BASOH, BSCANH, BAEGH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPAG-172 / ASST /TMA /July 2021 & January 2022

Course Code: BPAG-172

Assignment Name: Governance: Issues and Challenges

Year: 2021 – 2022 (July 2021 & January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1. Discuss the governance indicators across six dimensions. 20

Ans) Assessing how governance works is one of the finest ways to measure and manage it at all levels. Indicators of government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and corruption control are used to measure governance across six dimensions. These are described below:

Voice and Accountability

Citizens' Voice and Accountability are crucial governance metrics that show citizens' ability to exercise their rights, express their interests, and hold stakeholders accountable. Participation of citizens in democratic processes. For example, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) uses social audit as a governance instrument to oversee official documents, work quality, and resource allocation at the village level.

Political Stability and Absence of Violence

Economic stability, Consumer Price Index (CPI), social investments, and the government's ability to cope with financial threats of any scale are all indicators of political stability. Absence of Violence/Terrorism refers to the government's ability to respond to terrorist acts and mob violence.

Government Effectiveness

This refers to the perception of public service quality, such as, efficiency in resource mobilisation, access to clean drinking water, affordable health care and education, good infrastructure, food security, civil service integrity, etc.

Regulatory Quality

This is related to simpler tax laws, competitive markets, subsidies, removing superfluous restrictions, and effective government-business interface. India's economic, legal, and physical infrastructure could be improved by introducing economic reforms in 1991. For example, the Government of India established independent regulatory agencies such as the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) in 1992 and the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) in 1997 to encourage a level playing field in the market.

Rule of Law

A society where the business sector and civil society work together with the government to solve complex societal problems requires the rule of law. With multiple players involved in public service delivery, the state is obligated to protect citizens from arbitrary actions of service providers and enforce rights and remedies. The Competition Commission of India (CCI) was founded in 2003 to foster and preserve competition among service providers and protect consumers' interests. Any governmental authority can ask CCI for an opinion on competition problems. It can also address challenges impeding trade freedom in India. For example, in 2018, the CCI fined Google 136 crores for abusing its “dominant position” in the market by favouring its own services and partners.

Control of Corruption

It refers to the government's ability to handle and prevent corruption. Post-globalisation, ministries and departments have persuaded organisations to automate corruptible operations through ICT (ICT). Examples include the Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance (UMANG) launched by the Indian government, which allows citizens to access a wide range of services from many suppliers.

The Worldwide Governance Indicators are a collection of responses from surveys and other cross-country examinations of governance. Firms, individuals, and governmental authorities in the countries being reviewed are all represented. The views of NGOs and assistance donors with extensive expertise in the nations being reviewed are also included.

The World Bank Governance Surveys are country-level governance assessment instruments developed by the World Bank Institute.

Q2. Analyse through examples the stakeholders’ involvement in governance. 20

Ans) George Frederickson proposed five public administration postulates. These include interest groups, consumers, voters, clients, and citizens. The public is considered as passive beneficiaries of benefits rather than active participants in this idea. The public, according to Frederickson, must have four essential elements. Includes the Constitution, an enlarged notion of the good citizen, processes, and procedures for reacting to the aggregate unformed public, as well as compassion or public service.

A virtuous citizen understands the foundational documents (the Constitution), accepts personal moral responsibility, and engages in civil conversation with patience and compassion. Government-citizen interactions help generate informed individuals who can speak up. Accountability between administrators and citizens promotes governance and needs building urban and local institutions.

Participation of major stakeholders in democratic processes improves governance. Conflicts arise frequently in public decision-making, policymaking, implementation, and enforcement. These new governance methods foster cooperation and coordination among diverse policy participants by shifting the focus from interest group competition to consensus formation. These approaches may promote consensus building, participants' feeling of justice, fairness, and legitimacy of the institution involved. The success of Jan Sunwai in Rajasthan and mass mobilisation by Kisan Mazdoor Shakti Sanghatan led to the operationalisation of Right (RTI) as a potent weapon for citizens to access information from the government. Citizens participated in the democratic process. The RTI movement gave citizens a voice.

It was introduced in 1990 after the National Forest Policy was enacted in 1988. Deforestation is reduced by locals and the forest agency. Forests are vital to local economies. Participation of locals in forest protection and management Timber harvesting with the forest service. Resins and honey are examples of secondary forest commodities. If residents refuse, the forest service may own it. Not for sale or lease by JFC. Villages have shared woodlands. They guard the woods. Micro-plans for tree-planting and harvesting. Some rural studies in Maharashtra and Rajasthan show female engagement in NRM. Women are natural gatherers of food and fuel. Women often participated in Maharashtra's joint forest committee sessions.

Community Based Planning

Government programmes and policies implemented within legal frameworks do not produce the desired results. A top-down structure fails. A vast bottom-up framework instead. Ideals and convictions trump rules. Participation fosters legitimacy and unity. It is a planning tool. Assessing current situations and planning for the future. Centralised planning has prevented grassroots mobilisation and participation since 1951-56. It underestimated the locals' abilities and resources. Parties involved aren't

Rural and urban residents were protected under the 73rd and 74th Amendments. These include panchayats and municipals. Incorporating government, elected officials, and other key stakeholders into gram Sabha action plans. A village stakeholder Micro planning establishes the community's desired development. Micro-planning tries to establish local policy. The micro plan helps evaluate current situations and plan. This is demonstrated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC). It also has consultants, contractors, and other entities. Stakeholder satisfaction is assessed by agreement success and efficiency.

Stakeholders are worldwide. Public, commercial, and non-profit partners manage rivers in Quebec. Actors make educated water resource management decisions through sharing knowledge and empowering. Consumer organisations in Grenoble debate water pricing. A group of residents and an NGO formed a water and San Ontologies and protocols for cooperative actions including information exchange and water quality debates are set. Arizona employed stakeholder involvement to combat excessive heat. UAWRC encouraged rainwater collecting. Workshops examined utilities, municipalities, counties, and businesses' water harvesting toolboxes.

Assignment B

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q3. Discuss the theories of development. 10

Ans) The key development theories of Development are:

Modernisation Theory

A new paradigm for development and modernity Industrialisation, science, and technology emphasised individualism. Selon this theory, all cultures go through the same stages. Rostow defined modernization in five stages. First, society is ‘traditional'. People live in poverty, use primitive methods of production, and adhere onto traditional values. the ‘pre-launch circumstances. During this time, countries look for help. The country values investment and speedy growth. The fourth step is to mature. Everyone prospers currently. High Mass Consumption (Stage 5) Underdevelopment in the Third World is blamed on traditionalism and aversion to modernisation, according to this school of thought.

Dependency Theory

1960s & 1970s Andre Gunder Frank proposed it. He claimed that industrialised nations exploited poorer nations. They'd get dated tech from developed nations. Developing nations deal with outdated technology. Tech and resource dependent on wealthy nations. Reactionary in nature, dependence theory emerged after WWII. The protagonists saw poverty as a path to development, not a destination. The developed nations tend to seize natural resources, cheap labour, and favourable market conditions. This is done to subjugate emerging nations.

World-Systems Theory

In this theory, there are two sorts of systems. In the British Empire, a single political core ruled the world. Another is global capitalism, which has various centres and cultures. Immanuel Wallerstein proposed this theory. His theory divides the economic world into core and peripheral. The centre controls the periphery and semi-periphery through labour, raw commodities, capital investment, brain drain, etc.

Stand-Point Theory

According to this theory, everyone has a point of view. Every social group has a perception. One group's perception affects others. According to stand-point theory, the favoured class has limited understanding of the rest. The dominant groups also dominate subordinate groups. Subordinate groups have little influence on governance. Thus, marginalised people are often excluded from development.

Q4. Examine the factors responsible for changing role of bureaucracy. 10

Ans) The change in the role of bureaucracy can be understood under the following factors:

  1. Fast pace of globalisation

  2. Rapid advancement of communication technology and problems relating to cybercrime and threats due to social media

  3. Advances in technology and mass-scale digitisation of government operations

  4. New tools of governance

  5. Inclusive policies with a more sense of accountability and responsibility towards the excluded sections of society

  6. Participatory and engaged governance i.e., engaging the civil society for better governance since citizens are the most important assets in governance

  7. Building new skills and capacities

  8. Internal and external security threats

Globalisation has many effects on the state, including changing the role of bureaucracy. The State is to link planning, consultation, negotiation, and decision-making processes involving state and non-state actors at various levels of government. The State acts as a centre for different partners and stakeholders. In line with this, the bureaucracy's role is evolving. According to research, global reform actions are underway to reduce bureaucratic size and scope and make them more responsive to market forces and citizen input.

According to Haque, the role of bureaucracy is changing from:

  1. developmental to managerial role

  2. active(leading) to supportive (facilitating)

  3. citizen-centred to customer-centred.

In academic circles, bureaucracy and democracy are frequently thought of as opposing methods to societal governance. Bureaucracies are often viewed as necessary for good programme management, but legalistic and unsympathetic to citizens' preferences and expectations. Bureaucracies are often linked with hierarchical and even authoritarian forms of governance, even though they were institutionalised to ensure equal treatment of citizens and to provide customers with records and arguments for public decisions.

Q5. Write a note in brief on the forms of governance. 10

Ans) There are various forms of governance more important among which are political, economic and social.


Changing global politics and economies have impeded nation-state governance. ‘Hollowing out' of the State Global financial markets, global corporations, and supranational organisations like the World Bank and the EU have acquired power. Regions and cities now wield power. These reforms have resulted in a smaller and more divided government. Tactical informal influence, facilitation, and regulation have gained in value. But this does not diminish the state's role. New governance coexists with hierarchical, institutional control.


The governance literature emphasises markets, hierarchies, and networks. Different institutional arrangements in different countries, yet networks are likely to coexist.

Neoliberalism of the 1980s and 1990s destroyed it. As market processes proliferated, service delivery and regulation splintered, demanding new forms of cooperation. In reaction to privatisation, contracting out, quasi-markets, devolution of powers, and the separation of policy and delivery functions in the public service, executive agencies were created. All of them were examples of control.

Locally, similar events occurred. Local government had grown into a system of local governance involving public, private, and non-profit groups. Eliminating market inefficiencies, setting service standards, ensuring fair competition among all actors, and defending their interests are all part of economic governance.


Unfolding society's complexity, diversity, and change. Co-governance, say Kooiman and Van Vliet. Our civilization's governance goal is to deal with complex, diverse, and dispersed societies' difficulties and possibilities. This has hampered the Nation State's external autonomy and internal power over social subsystems. Coordination and influence of social, political, and administrative interactions require new forms of participatory government. Assisting social actors and systems in self-organization is interactional governance.

Right now, the state is not alone. Rather, it is strengthening co-regulation and collaboration with the private sector. Many publics, business, and non-profit institutions collaborate to guide. Not a government issue. Collaborative and participative processes build human capacities.

Assignment C

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q6. Discuss the conceptual framework of information and communication technology. 6

Ans) ICT is a data processing and transmission technology. The utilisation of computers and software is used to input data. The sharing of information is required for many of these actions.

Government service delivery has changed because of the usage of information and communications technology (ICT). The use of information and communications technology has improved government services. E-governance aids in the improvement of government efficiency. The usage of information and communication technology (ICT) should be used to modernise government processes and services.

Information and communications technology is being used to reengineer existing government procedures. To fulfil these goals, it is necessary to purchase items and services. When decisions are made, the poorest and most vulnerable people's voices are heard.

Q7. State the key elements of citizen’s charter. 6

Ans) The charter's main points are:

  1. Standards - establishing, monitoring, and publishing service standards for users. This would include service providers. Providing timely and relevant information to residents increases their satisfaction and respect for the civil service.

  2. Charters should also include information on official hierarchy, how citizens can obtain information, and a backup plan in case the designated officer is unavailable.

  3. Choice and consultation - the public sector should provide choice whenever possible, in consultation with people served. It should allow citizens to provide input to governmental offices, allowing them to improve their service delivery.

  4. Courtesy and helpfulness - it should ensure citizens receive courteous treatment while visiting governmental agencies. Public offices should serve all citizens equally, so that no one feels discriminated by public employees.

  5. Correction - the charter must ensure that services are supplied within rules. If something goes wrong with the quality or grade of services, citizens should be immediately apologised to and offered alternatives. The redress system should respond quickly to citizen complaints.

  6. Value for money — efficient and effective delivery with minimal resource consumption.

Q8. What do you understand by financial decentralisation? 6

Ans) It involves devolving powers about taxation, funds, and expenditure upon local bodies in order to first improve the financial position and then giving them the financial autonomy for planning and implementation as per the local needs. Devolution of funds upon the local bodies by the State is important to augment financial capacity of the local bodies.

To provide the local bodies’ scope to prepare plans as per local needs, and then to incur expenditure, financial decentralisation becomes important. The local bodies in India could not function properly because of lack of funds. They had to depend on the devolutions and the grants-in-aid from the state governments.

Q9. Explain sustainable development goals. 6

Ans) The 2030 Development Agenda was accepted by 193 countries at the United Nations General Assembly on September 25, 2015. It defined 17 specific goals for long-term growth. All parties involved agreed to work for long-term growth. Limiting the rise in global temperature was also emphasised in the Paris Climate Agreement. Within the next fifteen years, the countries resolved to mobilise the resources needed to alleviate poverty, combat inequality, and confront climate change.

Regardless of wealth, countries recognise the importance of alleviating poverty and addressing the needs for education, health, social security, and job opportunities in tandem with economic growth. The countries agreed to collect the relevant statistics at regular periods in order to track their progress.

Q10. Bring out the challenges to inclusive and participative governance. 6

Ans) As state and non-state actors around the world work together to advance the objective of "inclusive and participatory governance for development," contemporary governments have reaffirmed their commitment to long-term sustainability. Nonetheless, there are numerous obstacles to overcome in terms of caste, class, gender, and the development of elected representatives and other stakeholders' capacities.

Despite constitutional reforms in governance, local governments have not yet been able to meet their resource needs because of the difficulties described above. The concept of an "inclusive and participatory context" is more important in a local context since it can engage citizens directly.

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