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BPAG-172: Governance: Issues and Challenges

BPAG-172: Governance: Issues and Challenges

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BPAG-172 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Governance: Issues and Challenges, you have come to the right place. BPAG-172 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAG, BAECH, BAPSH, BAPCH, BASOH, BSCANH, BAEGH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPAG-172/ASST /TMA /July2022& January 2023

Course Code: BPAG-172

Assignment Name: Governance: Issues and Challenges

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Assignment A


Answer the following in about 500 words each. 2×20


1. Explain the concept of civil society and analyse the relationship between globalisation and civil society.

Ans) Since globalisation affects every area of our life, including the economic, political, cultural, and environmental ones, it is clear that it is a reality. It is a powerful force propelled by multinational, transnational, or global corporations that limits and subverts the nation-authority state's while also subjecting people to obscure and distant points of control through the use of high-speed mass communication.


The term "civil society" refers to a range of entities, including private institutions, associations, social movements, and public communication channels, which exist between the economy and the state. Although theoretically distinct from the State, in practise civil society is governed by laws set forth by the State, which is the highest authority. In contrast to simply juxtaposing the State, Kaldor remarked that civil society has developed into a generalised medium through which "people negotiate a social contract with overlapping and many centres of authority."


According to Diamond's institutional framework, civil society can be divided into institutions involved in the economy, culture, informal education, special interests, political action, and social and emotional institutions. The term "civil society" refers to the grouping of all social organisations that operate independently of the government and have as one of its main objectives the attempt to sway public policy on behalf of their constituents. All local and international financial, private, philanthropic, social service, developmental, and professional organisations are included in the networks of groups that make up the civil society.


Very frequently, civil society has been compared to non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The most visible members of civil society are NGOs because of their work on environmental and social issues. The development of the "Global Civil Society" has been a significant development in the context of NGOs. In order to "overcome the spatial separations, by engaging in aggregated networks stretched over vast geographical areas," local NGOs may come together at the global level and mobilise in the pursuit of common objectives.


GCS was described by Keane as "the enormous assemblage of organisations acting outside the reach of governments and across borders." Keane defined the GCS as a dynamic and inclusive "society among societies" governed by laws and norms of conduct. It includes a diverse range of non-profits, corporations, social movements, tourists, scholars, artists, cultural performers, ethnic and linguistic groups, and more. The State and market are typically viewed as distant decision-makers who may not have much of an impact on community life, whereas civil society offers a distinct civic identity that is shared by many different groups of individuals and serves as a mediator between the State and market.


Globalization is a contributing factor to the rise of GCS, whether it be in the areas of human rights or environmental preservation, education or women's advancement, or racial or religious discrimination. These individuals are fighting for the aforementioned causes and are what Falk referred to as "globalisation from bottom." To combat transnational market pressures, often known as "globalisation from above," there are transnational democratic forces at work in this process.


By Appadurai, it was also referred to as "grassroots globalisation," and its goal was to prevent or address inequalities brought about by globalisation. GCS served as "deliberative agents" in global governance as a result. Bohman specifically recommended that GCS embrace three mandatory characteristics of public spaces in addition to being "deliberative agents": engage in public discourse and be open to various motivations, uphold the ideas of freedom and equality, and reach out to an endless audience.


2. Make an appraisal of functioning of Panchayati raj institutions in India.

Ans) The fundamental pillar of Indian democracy is the Gram Sabha. "A Gram Sabha may exercise such powers and perform such tasks at the village level as the legislature of a state may by legislation prescribe," reads Article 243A of the Indian Constitution. Through the Gram Sabhas, the electorate holds the elected officials accountable. Therefore, they must be watchful and sensitive to their own issues if they are to succeed with PRIs. At the same time, it must hold regular meetings with the broadest possible attendance. At first, this was not the case, and the poor did not receive the benefits. However, in some states, the Gram Sabhas began convening more frequently, and the advantages of the rural development programmes began to trickle down to the average person.


In other instances, the local community is also participating more actively at the same time. More than two million people participated in the inaugural Gram Sabha, which was held in the state of Kerala back in 1996. The gramme sabhas were generally quite successful and stimulated public discussion about development throughout Kerala. A state statute in Madhya Pradesh gave the gramme sabhas a new status to ensure the complete development of the villages. In West Bengal, the Gram Sansad/Gram Sabha has been given complete authority over the choice of programme beneficiaries for eradicating poverty.


The Constitution now includes the Eleventh Schedule, which designates 29 subjects to the PRIs. In order for panchayats to function as institutions of self-government, it was anticipated that the State Legislature would provide them such rights and authority through legal means. However, because no comprehensive executive instructions regarding devolution were given, the powers and responsibilities were not genuinely transferred to the PRIs in the proper sense of the word.


Each tier's area of responsibility under each item is left up to the state governments in question and has not been specified. As a result, there are differences amongst states in the way that each layer of PRI is given different authorities and responsibilities. For instance, the state of Karnataka has kept a significant amount of regulating, controlling, and oversight authority, thereby removing the PRIs' autonomy. According to what has been learned thus far, the District Collector serves as the overall supervisor and controlling authority for the many departments and agencies that conduct programmes at the district level. The PRIs must consequently make do with rear-seat driving.


Each level is currently carrying out "activity mapping" as directed by the administration. In order to clearly specify the tasks that are to be carried out at each level of the panchayats, states are currently mapping out their activities. This will make it easier to determine the necessary revenues and their sources. Additionally, it will aid in the delegation of tasks necessary to carry out these actions. The operation of the PRIs in relation to the necessary seat quota for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, as well as the one-third reservation for women, shows that the issue has not been fully resolved despite the reservation for the aforementioned categories. Democratic decentralisation has increased women's, SCs', and STs' participation in politics in the majority of states, but it has done much less to give them more influence.


Primarily, only those people who had the support of the ruling social classes and served as their mouthpiece at the formal meetings of the PRIs were initially chosen from restricted constituencies. The female family members acted on behalf of the male family members. Women's democratic support has grown in recent years. In fact, from reserved seats, around 80% of all elected women are women.



Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 1×10


3. Discuss governance indicators across six dimensions.

Ans) Voice and Accountability: Accountability and Citizens' Voice are important governance metrics that show how well citizens may exercise their rights, express their priorities, and hold responsible parties accountable for their deeds. Citizen participation in democratic processes is used to measure this.


Political Stability and Absence of Violence: Economic stability, the Consumer Price Index (CPI), social investments, and the government's ability to handle financial risks of any size are all influenced by robust political institutions and predictable political policies. The government's capacity to respond to mob violence and its readiness to respond to terrorist attacks are both factors in the absence of violence and terrorism.


Government Effectiveness: The perception of public service quality is referred to here, and examples include the effectiveness of resource mobilisation, availability of clean drinking water, access to inexpensive health care and education, strong infrastructure, food security, civil service integrity, etc.


Regulatory Quality: This is related to fiscal policies and regulatory frameworks that support commercial firms, simplified tax laws, the promotion of competitive markets, subsidies, the elimination of pointless regulations, efficient government-business interfaces, etc. India might increase its productivity and strengthen its foreign commerce and investment by enhancing its economic, legal, and physical infrastructure with the adoption of economic reforms in 1991.


Rule of Law: The fundamental sign of a free society where the private sector, civic society, and the government collaborate to tackle complicated societal problems is the rule of law. The State is supposed to protect its citizens from the arbitrary actions of the service providers and in the enforcement of rights and remedies as a result of the involvement of several parties in the delivery of public services.


Control of Corruption: It speaks to the ability of the government to deal with and stop corrupt behaviour. Following globalisation, government agencies have convinced businesses to use information and communication technology to automate operations that are susceptible to corruption (ICT).


4.Examine the factors responsible for changing role of bureaucracy.

Ans) Due to a variety of circumstances, bureaucracy's position has drastically changed in recent years. The profile of bureaucracy has undergone substantial modifications as a result of the shifting function of the State in the modern environment. The Indian bureaucracy is changing significantly due to the expanding effects of liberalisation, privatisation, and globalisation, as well as the complexity of administrative issues, the entrance of information technology, and socio-cultural upheavals. As a result, there have been ongoing calls for an administration that is responsive, responsible, and effective.


The bureaucracy needs to create a balance between user and citizen, competition and conflict, and involvement and responsibility. The bureaucracy is responsible for ensuring that there is an appropriate environment where citizens' rights are safeguarded, peace and order is upheld, stability is offered, and effective infrastructure is put in place to improve social services for the populace. In India, there are a number of political and socioeconomic obstacles to the country's government. Additionally, there are regional differences, problems with the relationship between the centre and the state, and so forth. India's bureaucracy has some paradoxes. It involves both a strict adherence to protocol and a lack of resistance to various pulls, pressures, and interventions.


The foundation of the Indian administrative system is bureaucracy. Its appearance is evolving alongside the socio-cultural and economic environment. Under the aegis of New Public Management (NPM) and good governance reforms, the governance environment is evolving, with a greater focus being placed on making bureaucracy more visible, effective, and responsible. Bureaucracy's obligations, regulatory obligations, and service obligations are growing. In order to handle the issues of modern governance, it is anticipated to take on the job of knowledge manager.


At different levels, bureaucracy plays a varied function. Bureaucracy's top-level responsibilities relate to formulating policies and coming up with effective execution plans. The middle level bureaucracy is in charge of managing the supervision, coordination, networking, communication, and oversight of the implementation and execution of tasks. It needs a combination of administrative, technical, and interpersonal abilities. In order to provide the services, the bureaucracy must be proactive, inventive, and entrepreneurial.


5.Write a note in brief on the theories of development.

Ans) These are the main theories of development:


Modernisation Theory

The modernization hypothesis first appeared in America and Europe between 1945 and 1960. The three prominent proponents of this idea are Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, and W.W. Rostow. The newly independent states endured economic contraction and destitution. A few nations also experienced political upheaval. Ideologically, the world divided into two after World War II. The modernization idea associated modernity and development. Because of their advancements in science, technology, and industrialization, the industrialised countries placed a greater value on individualism. This idea holds that all cultures pass through a similar set of developmental stages.


Dependency Theory

Andre Gunder Frank put forth the idea in the 1960s and 1970s in opposition to modernization theory. He claimed that developing nations were exploited by more industrialised nations and were not inherently backward. In general, developed nations would provide these nations outdated technologies. With outmoded technologies, poor nations struggle to exist. Poorer nations would be forced to rely on developed countries for resources and technology.


World-Systems Theory

The modernization theory was criticised. It insisted on a world free of exploitation. In contrast to modernization and dependence theories, it places focus on subjects like economics, culture, history, sociology, politics, and development studies. This theory holds that the world is dominated by two different kinds of systems. One is a global empire with a single political centre, a la the British Empire. Another is the global economy, or capitalism with many centres and many different cultures. Immanuel Wallerstein made this hypothesis.


Stand-Point Theory

This hypothesis holds that everyone in this world would adopt a perspective on how things are. In a society, every social group has a perception. Other people or groups are impacted by how one group is perceived. According to stand-point theory, the favoured elite has little knowledge of the other members of the same society. The dominance of ruling groups over inferior groups was also added. The views of inferior groups hardly ever have any bearing on governance. Therefore, those that are marginalised typically do not participate in the growth process.



Assignment C


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. 5×6


6. Describe the various forms of stakeholder involvement in governance. technology.

Ans) Any group or person that has the potential to influence or be impacted by the accomplishment of an organization's goals is referred to as a stakeholder in that organisation. Individuals who care about or have a vested interest in a project, organisation, or any government programme are known as stakeholders. They are the individuals who actively participate in the work of the projects or programmes or who stand to gain or lose from their implementation.


Stakeholder participation can take many different forms. This comprises:


  1. Communication: Through distributing information to everyone concerned or impacted.

  2. Consultation: For the outcome, collect data and experiences from all relevant parties..

  3. Participation: Including them in a project or policy.

  4. Representation: Incorporating them to aid in making decisions

  5. Partnerships and cooperation.

  6. Co-decision and Co-production: A fair distribution of power among the concerned parties.



7. Bring out the key challenges of information and communication technology in governance.

Ans) ICT advancements in India have led to a number of initiatives. Despite this, there are a number of difficulties. Lack of organisational, technological, and human resource infrastructure has made it difficult to use ICT in governance effectively. Bridging the digital divide is among the most difficult tasks. The gap between people who regularly and effectively have access to digital and information technologies and those who do not is known as the "digital divide."


It includes both physical access to technological equipment and, more broadly, the knowledge and assets that enable its usage. Socioeconomic or geographic categories are frequently mentioned when the subject of a digital gap is brought up. The term "global digital divide" describes disparities in access to technology between nations.


The gap between those who have access to digital technology and those who do not is, in essence, what this refers to. The main factors contributing to the digital divide in India include access to computers, connectivity, content, inadequate ICT infrastructure, education, and illiteracy. Particularly in developing nations, the accessibility of information resources can close the gap between poverty and prosperity. Through a number of IT-focused projects, the government has taken encouraging measures to better the lives of regular people.


8. What do you understand by democracy and identify its features.

Ans) Democracy is a system of government in which laws, policies, leadership, and major undertakings of a state or other polity are directly or indirectly decided by the “people,” a group historically constituted by only a minority of the population but generally understood since the mid-20th century to include all adult citizens.


Features of Democracy

  1. Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.

  2. In a democracy, the final decision-making power must rest with those elected by the people.

  3. Democracy must be based on a free and fair election where those currently in power have a fair chance of losing.

  4. In a democracy, each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value.

  5. A democratic government rules within limits set by constitutional law and citizens’ right


9. Explain the need for transparency and accountability in governance.

Ans) People choose their representatives in a democracy, giving them the authority to rule and govern on their behalf. In exchange, they anticipate that the elected officials will implement programmes and policies that benefit the populace. In other words, it becomes the government's responsibility to act in the people's best interests, which will ultimately result in their wellbeing. The government spends a significant amount of money, a large portion of which comes from tax payers, on providing goods and services and carrying out welfare functions.


In such a situation, the government is held accountable to the people and must account for the money spent, demonstrate that development goals have been met and that benefits are being distributed to the general public, and demonstrate that none of the government's various policies and programmes are contributing to welfareism. Citizens have a right to know all of this, thus the government must tell them of its decisions and deeds. With all of this in mind, it becomes crucial that the government operates transparently and is held responsible for its choices and deeds.


10. What is corporate social responsibility?

Ans) Since before India became independent, CSR has been popularised as a philanthropic undertaking. National and international organisations were continuously considering the need to reduce the growing gaps in gender, poverty, health, internet access, and education. The National Voluntary Guidelines for Social, Environmental, and Economic Responsibilities of Business as well as the CSR portion of the 2013 Companies Act were created as a result by the Government of India. According to the CRISIL Foundation Report on CSR Spending, Indian corporations spent more than Rs 50,000 crore between 2015 and 2018.


The research points out that the area of education and skill development saw the biggest social spending during the 2018 fiscal year, followed by health and sanitation and rural development initiatives. This information makes it clear that CSR may be a useful tool for the development of vulnerable, disadvantaged, and marginalised populations. Long-term sustainability is predicted to be renewed through cooperation between state and non-state actors.

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