top of page
BPCC-106: Development of Psychological Thought

BPCC-106: Development of Psychological Thought

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPCC-106 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Development of Psychological Thought, you have come to the right place. BPCC-106 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAPCH courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BPCC-106 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPCC-106 / ASST /TMA / 2021-2022

Course Code: BPCC-106

Assignment Name: Development Of Psychological Thought

Year: 2021 – 2022 (July 2021 & January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.


Assignment One


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks.


Q1. Discuss Wilhelm Wundt’s contribution in developing psychology as a separate discipline.

Ans) In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt founded the Institute for Experimental Psychology at Leipzig University in Germany. This was the first psychology laboratory, and its establishment is widely regarded as the start of modern psychology. Wundt is frequently referred to as the "Father of Psychology."

Wundt was significant because he distinguished psychology from philosophy by examining the inner workings of the mind in a more structured manner, with a focus on objective measurement and control. Wundt's background in physiology was reflected in the Institute's research interests, which included the study of reaction times, sensory processes, and attention. Participants would, for example, be exposed to a standard stimulus (such as light or the sound of a metronome) and asked to describe their feelings.

Wundt's goal was to record thoughts and sensations and break them down into their constituent elements, much like a chemist breaks down chemical compounds to get at the underlying structure. Wundt founded the school of psychology known as voluntarism, or the process of organising the mind.

Wundt was interested in learning more about the human mind's structure (using introspection). Wundt was an advocate of reductionism. That is, he believed consciousness could be reduced to its fundamental components without sacrificing any of the properties of the whole.

Introspection, according to Wundt, could be used to scientifically study conscious mental states. Wundt's introspection was not haphazard; it was a well-honed form of self-examination. He taught psychology students how to make observations that were influenced by personal interpretation or prior experience, and then used the data to develop a theory of conscious thought.

A stimulus, such as a ticking metronome, would be given to highly trained assistants, who would then reflect on the experience. They'd describe how the stimulus made them feel and think. Each person received the same stimulus, physical environment, and instructions.

After the early 1920s, Wundt's method of introspection was no longer a common tool in psychological research. His greatest contribution was demonstrating the validity of psychology as an experimental science.

He established the first experimental psychology laboratory at Leipzig University in 1879.

He became the first person to be called a psychologist by separating psychology from philosophy and biology.

Because he used experimental methods to find the basic building blocks (structures) of thought and investigate how they interacted, Wundt's approach became known as structuralism. To do so, he looked at sensation and perception, breaking down participants' observations of objects, images, and events into constituent parts in the same way that an anatomist would look at a body to figure out what parts are there and how they interact.

He began by studying reaction time, which he accomplished by systematically changing the stimuli he presented to participants and measuring how long it took them to respond, inferring that the longer it took them to respond, the more mental processes must be involved. Later, he adapted and developed a technique known as introspection to learn more about the processes at hand.

Wundt’s contribution to Psychology:

Wundt’s wrote the first psychology textbook (Principles of Physiological Psychology, 1873-4) Establishment of the first experimental psychology laboratory The structure of sensation and perception was studied using the scientific method. In a series of repeatable laboratory experiments, it was demonstrated that introspection could be used to study mental states.

Q2. Discuss the key issues and debates in the discipline of psychology.

Ans) The following are some of the most important issues and debates in psychology:

Nature vs. Nurture

The extent to which certain aspects of behaviour are a product of inherited (i.e., genetic) or acquired (i.e., learned) characteristics is the subject of this debate in psychology. Nature is what is passed down through the generations. All environmental influences after conception, i.e., experience, are referred to as nurture.

Psychology as a Science

Science is a method of studying the world that emphasises objectivity, or the separation of the experimenter from the subject under study. Objectivity (all sources of bias are minimised), empirical data collection to support or refute a hypothesis, and predictability are all key features of science.

Free-will vs. Determinism

The free will/determinism debate centres on the extent to which our actions are influenced by forces over which we have no control, as well as whether people can choose whether or not to act or behave in a certain way. According to the determinist viewpoint, all behaviour is predetermined and thus predictable.

Free will assumes that we are free to choose our behaviour, or that we are self-determined, for example, people can choose whether or not to commit a crime (unless they are a child or they are insane).

Conscious vs. Unconscious Mind

Anything that has the potential to enter the conscious mind is considered preconscious.

All of the thoughts, memories, feelings, and wishes that we are aware of at any given time are stored in the conscious mind. This is the part of our mental processing that we can rationally think about and discuss. This includes our memory, which is not always part of our awareness but can be easily retrieved and brought into it.

Outside of our conscious awareness, the unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories. Unacceptable or unpleasant content, such as pain, anxiety, or conflict, can be found in the unconscious.

Observable Behaviors vs. Mental Processes

Behavioural outcomes are overt behaviours that are presented to us as observables and thus can be observed directly (for example, a student who solves a probability problem correctly or incorrectly and writes the solution down on a sheet of paper). Psychological processes are hidden behaviours, such as the underlying mental states (e.g., encoding, storage, and retrieval of information in short and long-term memory, as well as the student's ability to process information) that are supposed to occur while the student is solving a probability problem.

Individual Difference vs. Universal Principles.

The universal laws that govern behaviour are at the heart of a lot of psychology. Individual differences research adds to the search for broad principles by looking at how people differ from one another. Individual differences researchers try to quantify, predict, modify, and comprehend the causal influences on traits that are relatively stable over time and across situations. Personality, ability, motivation, and psychopathology are examples of traits that can fall into the normal or abnormal range.

Assignment Two


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks.


Q3. Non-western traditions in Psychology

Ans) Thinkers and sages in some non-Western civilizations have debated the nature of human beings and their relationship to the world, the meaning of life, and the nature of human knowledge in great detail. Reflections on human psychology were part of a broader scholarship related to various aspects of human life and society in non-Western philosophical and religious discourses as well, just as they were in Western philosophical and religious discourses. It's worth noting that non-Western religious and philosophical systems' discussions of human nature reflect some fundamental values that differ from those of Western civilizational values.

Q4. Jung’s structure of psyche

Ans) ‘By psyche, I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious and unconscious, so we use the term ‘psyche' rather than ‘mind,' because mind is commonly used to refer to the conscious aspects of mental functioning.' The psyche, according to Jung, is a self-regulating system.

The psyche tries to strike a balance between opposing qualities while also actively seeking its own development, or individuation, as he called it. The psyche, according to Jung, is inherently separable into component parts, with complexes and archetypal contents personified and functioning independently as complete secondary selves, rather than just drives and processes. It's important to remember that Jung's model is a metaphor, not a concrete reality or something that will never change.

Q5. Cross-cultural and Indigenous Psychology

Ans) The three research traditions in psychology have influenced them: (1) universalist, (2) contextualist, and (3) integrationist approaches. The derived etic approach and the indigenous psychologies approach are two integrationist approaches in cross-cultural psychology. Researchers adapt and integrate existing theories to fit local knowledge in the derived etic approach. Sinha's concept of indigenization exemplifies this approach. The primary goal of indigenous psychologies is to comprehend how people think, feel, and behave in a given situation. It promotes a bottom-up model-building paradigm that looks at people's generative abilities. The indigenous psychologies approach is thoroughly examined.

Q6. Criticism of Functionalism

Ans) The most vehement opponent of functionalism was structuralism. With both approaches gaining traction, American psychology seemed to be torn between Titchener's structuralism at Cornell and Chicago's functionalism.

One of the most common criticisms of functionalism was that the term itself was not well defined. Ruckmick, a Titchener student, looked at how the term "function" was used in 15 introductory psychology textbooks. He discovered two common applications: a) as an activity or process; and b) as a service to other processes or the entire organism. Ruckmick chastised functionalists for their ambiguity about what the term meant and the inconsistency that resulted from it. Harvey Carr responded to this criticism seventeen years later, in 1930, by claiming that the same processes are being referred to in both instances, and thus the two definitions are not incompatible.

Q7. Basic assumptions of behaviourism

Ans) The following are the two basic assumptions of behaviourism:

  1. The principle of parsimony. The concept of "parsimony," also known as "Occam's razor" after the English philosopher who first proposed it, is the most fundamental of all the basic principles in behaviourism. For any event, parsimony frequently seeks the simplest possible explanation. Introspection was opposed by behaviourists in part because it solicited too many vague concepts that lacked parsimony.

  2. The concept of associationism the role of experience in determining behaviour, which manifests itself through learning, is emphasised in behaviourism. Since Aristotle's time, the basic explanation has been that organisms learn by association, or by forming connections between ideas and events. This concept of "associationism," which was also endorsed by British empiricists, influenced psychology's behaviourists in particular. Associationism is the second basic assumption of behaviourism, after parsimony.

Q8. Vector psychology

Ans) This section of Lewin's system dealt with concepts relating to motivational aspects of human behaviour, and thus plays an important role in fully comprehending human behaviour. A complex energy system, according to Lewin, is an individual. Psychological energy is used to carry out psychological tasks. An increase in tension in one or both parts of the system can cause a state of disequilibrium to occur. When a person seeks equilibrium, psychical energy is created, and the system comes to a halt when the tension is equalised.

Need can be categorised as a physiological or psychological state. The terms "need" and "quasi-need" were also defined. Almost a requirement Gestalt psychology is a type of psychology that is influenced by social factors to shape specific intentions. For example, you may require a particular pizza from a specific restaurant.




Note: You need to complete the activities according to the given instructions. Please attempt the activities in a coherent and organized manner. The word limit for each activity is around 700 words. Each activity is of 15 marks. For the activities, you need to refer to the self-learning material, and any other relevant offline or online resources. Some useful resources are also listed at the end of each unit.


Q1. Watch the video here:

(350) Mod-01 Lec-05 The core and context of Indian psychology – YouTube


Q1) What are the key features of Indian world view?

Ans) Aiming to conceptualise the burgeoning field of scholarship known as Indian Psychology (IP) against the backdrop of disciplinary advancements, The Core and Context of India Psychology is a book-length endeavour. After setting Indian Psychology within the disciplinary matrix, the paper articulates the meaning and scope of IP, as well as its important aspects and common misconceptions concerning its conceptualization and implementation. Intellectual Psychology is defined as a school of psychology with its roots principally in the varied Indian thinking systems and a panhuman appeal. It has the potential to provide an all-encompassing vision that encompasses the immense span of human awareness from a dynamic experiencing vantage point, which would be extremely beneficial. IP, both as a theory and as a practise, is both practical and transcendental in its character. However, while IP is primarily concerned with existential difficulties from a first-person perspective, its inclusive approach does not overlook the more prosaic concerns of everyday living or societal welfare to achieve its goals.

Key Features of Indian Psychology

Despite all the differences and similarities, there are several characteristics that are shared by all IP systems and schools that are relevant to Indian Psychology.

Indian psychology is often regarded as a universal psychological phenomenon, according to scholars. If the goal is to narrow the scope of psychological inquiry, indigenous, folk, and cultural psychology cannot be included together under the umbrella word "psychology" It has been referred to as "Greater Psychology" instead, due to a lack of a more appropriate term. Intellectual property addresses the perennial issues of human existence (e.g., human strivings, virtues, self-understanding, self-control; Yoga; meditation; human conduct; pain; misery; kleshas; happiness; bliss; health; well-being; justice; morality; conflict); issues that transcend geographical boundaries and time periods. Intellectual property addresses the perennial issues of human existence. Almost a century ago, wise men and thinkers were posing questions and attempting to provide answers to situations that are still relevant today.

Indeed, the term "Indian psychology" is used mostly for the sake of convenience rather than for any other reason; perhaps a more fitting classification would be "psychology of Indian origin" rather than "Indian psychology" (Rao, 2008). Even though intellectual property has its origins in India, it has never been proposed as a psychological characteristic of the Indian people.

The fact that IP is concerned largely with the interior states of a person, with consciousness as the fundamental subject of research, is another essential characteristic of the discipline. As opposed to stressing the multiple dependent and non-contingent variations in acquired role-related behaviours, the emphasis is placed on the constant nature of one's identity. Consciousness as a state of being is not considered an object in the Upanishads, but rather as undifferentiated subjectivity (Chit) devoid of any content (Radhakrishnan, 1953). In the Indian tradition, consciousness is the fundamental condition of reality, without which no reality can be imagined. It is more than a light source for apprehending experiences; it is the side of the cosmos that is concerned with knowledge.

The application of intellectual property is based on its nature and aims. In addition to examining theoretical views and engaging in speculative metaphysical investigation, it is also concerned with other aspects of science. It raises crucial concerns regarding the ideal state of being and explores the various strategies that can be used to achieve that condition of existence. It explores the techniques that people can use to modify their own lives to achieve perfection, and in doing so, they can make a difference in the world they live in. Intellectual properties (IP) objective is to assist a person in transitioning from a conditioned state (mechanical, habitual thinking and behaving) to an unconditioned state of freedom and emancipation.

Q2) What are the implications of Indian psychology in psychological functioning?

Ans) In theory, attitudes, and opinions around intellectual property (IP) have altered in the last decade or two. According to the volume of research and professional activities in this area, intellectual property (IP) is gaining popularity among academic psychologists as well as practitioners. Three factors have been identified as having contributed to the shift in attitudes toward and perspectives of Indian psychology in the context of psychological functioning, and they are discussed here.

Unlike generally accepted Western psychological notions, IP has a unique viewpoint on the subject matter, the substance, and the method of teaching it. Even though consciousness, mind, and intuition are included as subject matter, IP is seen as a body of knowledge that is rooted and pursued with a wide set of ontological and epistemological grounds. A spiritual-growth viewpoint on human being is taken by IP rather than the materialistic-deterministic components of human being, which are more exclusive. As such, there is no obvious distinction between psychology, philosophy, and spirituality, as each of these disciplines makes significant contributions to a comprehensive and practical knowledge of human life. Also worth considering is that intellectual property developed and thrived throughout the Indian subcontinent's broader geographical territory and is congruent with the people's cultural and social lives; it has never been restricted to a specific location or region. It structured itself on an existential plane, aiming for the betterment of humanity rather than merely those of Indian descent. It was founded by a group of Indian immigrants.

Over the years, IP has tried to assist people in making decisions, discovering their own dharma (duty), and following their own evolutionary path within a broader time-space framework. It situates human functioning in a cosmic environment, within which personal, interpersonal, and community interactions are all considered in conjunction. In terms of ideas, such a stance has the potential to promote democracy. This environment encourages people to engage in a wide range of approaches of inquiry and involvement in a pluralistic setting. To be sure, intellectual property is founded on several different schools of thought, both materialist/realistic and idealistic. Their perspectives on life and the possibility for participatory growth and progress in a world of interconnectedness are as diverse as the people who hold them. The traditional definition of psychology, according to Menon, has been enlarged from "the science of human behaviour" to include "human potential and progress."

Continuity, interconnectivity, and connectivity have all been implanted in all living things because of this phenomenon. It emphasises the concept of field as inclusive, rather than the concept of the individual as the centre of reality, as the focal point of reality. It is not necessary to distinguish between the field knower (Kshetrajya) and the field (Kshetra) to distinguish between them. Since humans are positioned within a greater space–time continuum, this tradition offers a vast range of theories and notions that are packed with many fascinating speculations regarding human nature, life path, and ways of worldly encounters.

IP encourages an organic point of view, which is typically portrayed through the metaphor of the seed and the tree. This shows that the processes of life are characterised by both continuity and variation in their characteristics. Unlike linear thinking, this metaphor emphasises nonlinear or cyclical forms of life functioning, which is a substantial departure from the conventional wisdom. It also shows that the unobservable has a significant role to play in shaping one's existence. Intellectual property is founded on scientific ideas. Although it should go without saying that, as a human science of consciousness, its methodology should be distinct from those of natural, physical, and material sciences, this should be self-evident. This does not, however, imply that it is a less rigorous scientific discipline.

Q3) According to Indian psychology, how can one understand reality?

Ans) Indian sages and philosophers were awestruck by the immensity of the planet and the never-ending wonder of human life. The heavenly characteristics of nature, as well as the human intellect, are depicted in the Vedic hymns. According to Vedic literature, the universe arose from a singularity. This is a somewhat uncommon starting point. It possesses neither positive nor bad characteristics. It is any attempt to define it that confines and binds the unboundedness of reality. It is critical to take a perspective that sees continuity and complementarity in many different manifestations of reality. It allows one to see the unity in diversity and the absence of conflict in opposites. As a result, while succeeding intellectuals drew inspiration from the Vedas, they did so with an open mind, allowing the texts to be interpreted and expanded in a variety of directions.

The Upanishads developed over time because of intellectual debates and meditative reflection. As a result of this shift in emphasis, the objective became subjective, and one's awareness of one's own unfathomable depths became the centre of the Upanishads. Ascension is a journey into one's own inner reality; this book depicts the inner journey towards ultimate reality. The spirituality of the Upanishadic seers was carried to the ultimate end of human existence through their visions. The passages of the Upanishads have impacted generations of philosophers and laid the groundwork for intellectual property.

The Upanishads describe in considerable detail the route of inner ascension, or the inside journey towards ultimate reality, which leads to enlightenment. The Upanishadic seers carried the ideas of spirituality to the very limits of human existence, which was unprecedented at the time. Years of thought have been inspired by the range of ideas, concepts, and visions encapsulated in the verses of the Upanishads, which has helped to lay the groundwork for intellectual property.

Our existence is shaped by the interplay of manifest and unmanifest components, which interact to create the reality we see. The ability to step beyond determinism and embrace the emergent aspect of reality is enabled by this. Uncertainty is explained using credible hypotheses. For example, the division of human conduct (Karma) into two categories: Sanchit (accumulated) and Prrabdha (unaccumulated) (in-action). As a result of this classification, human activity and behaviour are a dynamic process. Another important idea is the concept of distributed locus of control. IP has also broadened the concept of causation beyond the categories of self and other (internal and exterior), among other things. - The Bhagavad Gita is a sacred text (Ch. 18.14). The actor is one of them, and he contributes a tiny sum of money. In contrast to the conventional categories of internal and external attribution, which are classified as belonging to the egoistic self.

Consciousness, according to Indian philosophy, is the precondition for all reality. It is the knowledge side of the cosmos, rather than simply a light source for feeling events. There are four stages of awareness described in the Chandogya Upanishad: waking up, dreaming, deep sleep, and turia (illumined). Having reached the illumined level of consciousness, the mind has voluntarily withdrawn from sensory processes and cleared its thoughts of all information. When this occurs, direct knowledge arises, which is characterised by the presence of the subject. It comprises the concepts of existence and knowing. According to the Upanishad’s, knowing Brahman is the same as being Brahman. Buddhists believe that the stream of consciousness is the root of subjective continuity and identity, and that it has an impact on our impressions of our surroundings. The goal of Buddhism's five modes of knowing is inner transformation, which ultimately leads to liberation. Sensory, extrasensory, holistic, perceptual, and ethical modes of knowing are all discussed.

Aspects of the same reality can be found in transcendence and spirituality. IP, on the other hand, is just as descriptive and confirmatory as any other social science. It has devised a way for testing and describing real-world human scenarios. Complex intersubjective validation theories of mind and consciousness are present in this work. The ultimate knowledge develops from being aware of reality without the assistance of sensory inputs or the conditioned mind, as described above. The intuitive and experiential nature of this knowledge, according to IP, overcomes the prescriptive-descriptive split and any linguistic limits.

Q2. By now, you must have read the content of the course. You must be having a fair idea of the history of psychology, different schools of thought, differences in eastern and western perspectives, and how psychology parted ways with philosophy to become an independent discipline. Psychology per se, is a part of a larger culture.


Note: Please mention reference details of the articles/books, at the end of your write-up.

In light of the above, can you identify the various factors that helped shape the past, present and future of the discipline of psychology?

(Hint: the prevailing intellectual climate, social, economic and political factors in the various parts of the world).

Ans) While modern psychology reflects the discipline's extensive history, the roots of psychology are vastly different. To fully comprehend psychology, one must first comprehend its origins and history. Psychology has always been plagued by questions. The initial definition question helped distinguish psychology from physiology and philosophy.

Philosophical Roots that later become the Field of Psychology

  1. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were early Greek philosophers who studied issues including pleasure, suffering, knowledge, motivation, rationality, and mental disease.

  2. René Descartes, a French mathematician and philosopher, proposed that the body and mind are distinct things. This idea became known as dualism.

  3. In contrast, they argued that sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings are physical processes occurring within the brain.

  4. In 1879, German scientist Wilhelm Wundt created the first laboratory specifically for psychological research.

  5. To comprehend the mind as a sum of various fundamental pieces, Edward B. Titchener built on Wundt's views.

  6. Functionalism, developed by William James in the late 19th century, focused on mental functions as an alternative to structuralism.

Unlike early philosophers who used observation and logic to investigate human mind and behaviour, modern psychologists use scientific approaches. Physiology also helped psychology develop as a scientific science. Early brain and behaviour research had a huge impact on psychology, allowing scientists to investigate human thought and behaviour.

Psychology Emerges as a Separate Discipline

Wilhelm Wundt, a German physiologist, studied reaction times in the mid-1800s. His 1873 work "Principles of Physiological Psychology," highlighted many of the major relationships between physiology and psychology. In 1879, he founded the world's first psychology lab at Leipzig University. This event is regarded the beginning of psychology as a distinct scientific subject.

The subject of psychology, according to Wundt, is the study of human awareness. His early work in psychology helped lay the stage for subsequent experimental procedures. Wundt taught psychology to around 17,000 pupils, and hundreds more studied psychology at his psychology lab. In spite of his declining importance, his impact on psychology is undeniable.

Social Factors Shapes Psychology

Psychology studies behaviour and mental processes. It has been around since ancient Egypt and Greece, but only became a separate scientific subject in the 1870s. More than ever, leading researchers are discovering new discoveries and uses for psychology. To keep people safe from emotional and physical damage while giving them mental space to deal with daily psychological issues. Therefore, modern psychology is so important in relationships, work stress, and financial concerns.

Sub-Disciplines of Psychology

Today, many sub-disciplines or areas of psychology are widely recognised and routinely used in a wide range of businesses. Psychology has many sub-disciplines:

  1. Family - Family psychology, often known as family therapy, focuses on the family's interpersonal dynamics.

  2. Athletic performance-Athletic performance is influenced by psychological aspects in sports psychology.

  3. Business - Business psychology studies individuals and their behaviour in the workplace to improve workplace efficiency.

  4. Media - Media psychology studies the impact of media on human behaviour.

  5. Forensic - Forensic psychology studies people involved in the judicial system, including expert witnesses or suspects.

Economic Factors Shapes Psychology

Adding psychological basis to economic theory increases its explanatory potential. Ecopsychology is a hybrid of psychology and in it, economic activity is examined psychologically. Economics and psychology are combined. A similar amount of work is done by non-economic psychologists. Finance and taxation are all covered by economic psychology. The effects of poverty and living in a tourism economy have been studied. Empirical models of economic behaviour are sought by economic psychology. This has been more successful than proving that rational choice economic theories are wrong.

Political Factors Shapes Psychology

Political psychology arose in France, as new fields and perspectives arose abroad. This emerged during the Franco-Prussian War and the Paris Commune's socialist revolution. Bastian used it in Man in History. In The Origins of Contemporary France, philosopher Hippolyte Taine incorporated Bastian's theories. Boutmy founded the Ecole Libre de Sciences Politiques. The American People: Political Psychology. Gustave Le Bon, a crowd theorist, says uncontrollable urges and emotions are crowd produced. He claimed that a disorderly crowd made individuals more susceptible to surrender.


  1. Very Well Mind – History and Biographies

  2. ResearchGate

  3. Science Direct

  4. Lumen Boundless Psychology

  5. Wikipedia

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page