If you are looking for BPCC-113 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Understanding and Dealing with Psychological Disorders, you have come to the right place. BPCC-113 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAPCH courses of IGNOU.
BPCC-113 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BPCC-113/Asst /TMA /January 2022
Course Code: BPCC-113
Assignment Name: Understanding and Dealing with Psychological Disorders
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks. 2 x 20 = 40
1. Explain schizophrenia with a focus in its symptoms.
Ans) Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were initially separated into two categories. Positive symptoms include feelings or actions that are typically absent, as well as an expansion or excess of the usual range of experiences and behaviours. Bizarre and odd behaviour is a hallmark of positive symptoms. Positive symptoms include delusions and hallucinations. Positive symptoms, as opposed to negative symptoms, are connected to acute episodes and sudden onset. Compared to negative symptoms, they are associated with relatively little cognitive impairment and neurochemical changes in the brain.
Thus, the prognosis for those with positive symptoms is generally better. Negative symptoms, on the other hand, refer to the absence or deficit of normal behaviour, that is, the lack of feelings or behaviours that are typically present. They are extremely damaging aspects of schizophrenia and are frequently harder to treat because they are not as dramatic as positive symptoms. Negative symptoms differ from positive symptoms in that they start slowly and are persistent. Poor speech, a flat affect, avolition, apathy, and a sociality are examples of negative symptoms. They are linked to significant cognitive impairment and structural brain changes that are not significantly affected by medication.
Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking, behaviour and emotions. Signs and symptoms may vary, but usually involve delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech, and reflect an impaired ability to function. Symptoms may include:
Delusions: These are false beliefs that are not based in reality. For example, you think that you're being harmed or harassed; certain gestures or comments are directed at you; you have exceptional ability or fame; another person is in love with you; or a major catastrophe is about to occur. Delusions occur in most people with schizophrenia.
Hallucinations: These usually involve seeing or hearing things that don't exist. Yet for the person with schizophrenia, they have the full force and impact of a normal experience. Hallucinations can be in any of the senses, but hearing voices is the most common hallucination.
Disorganized thinking: Disorganized thinking is inferred from disorganized speech. Effective communication can be impaired, and answers to questions may be partially or completely unrelated. Rarely, speech may include putting together meaningless words that can't be understood, sometimes known as word salad.
Extremely disorganized or abnormal motor behaviour: This may show in a number of ways, from childlike silliness to unpredictable agitation. Behaviour isn't focused on a goal, so it's hard to do tasks. Behaviour can include resistance to instructions, inappropriate or bizarre posture, a complete lack of response, or useless and excessive movement.
Negative symptoms: This refers to reduced or lack of ability to function normally. For example, the person may neglect personal hygiene or appear to lack emotion doesn't make eye contact, doesn't change facial expressions or speaks in a monotone. Also, the person may lose interest in everyday activities, socially withdraw or lack the ability to experience pleasure.
Symptoms can vary in type and severity over time, with periods of worsening and remission of symptoms. Some symptoms may always be present. In men, schizophrenia symptoms typically start in the early to mid-20s. In women, symptoms typically begin in the late 20s. It's uncommon for children to be diagnosed with schizophrenia and rare for those older than age 45.
2. Explain behaviour modification with a focus on its principles, procedure, techniques and limitations.
Ans) Behaviour modification is an approach to psychotherapy that is based on learning theory and tries to address the issues of the client by using methods to reinforce good behaviours and get rid of undesirable ones. By using techniques based on the learning and reinforcement principles, the behaviour modification strategy involves the formation and encouragement of desired behaviours as well as the elimination and reduction of undesirable behaviours.
Principles of Behaviour Modification
The principles and techniques of behaviour modification are used to help people change undesirable behaviours while acquiring new, more desirable ones. The two major tenets of behaviour modification are reinforcement and punishment. Punishment weakens a behaviour, whereas reinforcement strengthens it. Are possibilities both positive and negative. Unpleasant reinforcement explains desired behaviour that is rewarded by the elimination of a negative stimulus, whereas positive reinforcement describes desired behaviour that is rewarded with a pleasurable stimulus. When a bad behaviour results in the addition of a negative stimulus, it is called a positive punishment; when a bad behaviour results in the removal of a positive stimulus, it is called a negative punishment. As a result, both negative and positive reinforcement tend to strengthen or increase behaviour. Negative punishment, on the other hand, reduces or weakens the unwanted behaviour. When a youngster misbehaves and is given a time out, the behaviour of the child decreases.
Procedure involved in Behaviour Modification
Choosing the objective is just one step in the process of changing behaviour. First, using a behavioural evaluation technique, we must analyse the problematic behaviour. The process of behavioural evaluation enables us to comprehend the issue from several angles, within various contexts, and in a variety of settings/situations. The issue is carefully examined:
Frequency: the frequency of the behaviour, such as the number of times the child has used harsh language during a class period.
Duration: How long the negative behaviour persists, for instance, whether the youngster continues to use harsh words or only does so sometimes.
Intensity: Depending on how serious the behaviour is, a youngster may use extremely abusive language or only mildly abusive language.
Techniques of Behaviour Modification
A person's behaviour can be changed through a variety of approaches through behaviour modification. It is based on the application of a reward system that prioritises particular behaviours. Rewards are used to alter a person's motivations in order to get rid of bad behaviours and develop good ones. Aversive conditioning, token economies, and systematic desensitisation are three methods of behaviour change. Extinction and biofeedback are further methods. The next paragraphs provide a detailed explanation of the techniques.
1) Systematic desensitisation.
a) Constructing an anxiety hierarchy.
b) Training in relaxation.
c) Displaying fear-inducing items while in a relaxed condition.
2) Aversive Conditioning.
3) Token Economy.
Potentials and Limitations of Behaviour Modification
The goal of behaviour modification strategies is to replace harmful or unwanted behaviours with better, more desired ones. The behavioural approach to counselling has several benefits. When used correctly, the strategy can be useful when working with kids, adults, and even animals. In reality, it can be applied to alter any living thing's behaviour. To assist pet owners in changing undesirable habits into positive ones, animal trainers typically use behaviour modification strategies. As shown in animal and bird exhibitions, they also employ behaviour approaches to teach animals various new behaviours. The goal of behavioural modification is to give clients the power to control their behaviour. In a behavioural intervention, the subject or client actively participates in and owns the process of transformation.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks. 6 x 5 = 30
3. Describe the causal factors of unipolar mood disorders.
Ans) Numerous biological, psychological, and sociocultural causative elements have been researched in relation to the genesis of unipolar mood disorder. The biopsychosocial model, which is the interaction between various causative elements, is what researchers think.
Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the emergence of unipolar mood disorders can be done in a variety of ways. The likely involvement of genetics, neurochemistry, hormones, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, sleep, and circadian rhythms has been discovered by researchers.
There is just as much proof for psychosocial risk factors as there is for biological ones. The diathesis-stress model postulates that neurobiological variables are the hypotheses that interact with psychosocial stresses to cause unipolar depression to emerge. Despite the fact that many people encounter psychosocial stressors, not everybody experiences depression. Additionally, not all people who face psychosocial stressors develop depression. Only those who are biologically vulnerable can experience this. Stressful life events, interpersonal issues, and psychological dystrophy are examples of psychosocial influences.
4. Explain cluster C personality disorders.
Ans) Cluster C personality disorders are characterized by anxious, fearful thinking or behavior. They include avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Too sensitive to criticism or rejection
Feeling inadequate, inferior or unattractive
Avoidance of work activities that require interpersonal contact
Socially inhibited, timid and isolated, avoiding new activities or meeting strangers
Extreme shyness in social situations and personal relationships
Fear of disapproval, embarrassment or ridicule
Dependent Personality Disorder
Excessive dependence on others and feeling the need to be taken care of
Submissive or clingy behavior toward others
Fear of having to provide self-care or fend for yourself if left alone
Lack of self-confidence, requiring excessive advice and reassurance from others to make even small decisions
Difficulty starting or doing projects on your own due to lack of self-confidence
Difficulty disagreeing with others, fearing disapproval
Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment, even when other options are available
Urgent need to start a new relationship when a close one has ended
5. Elucidate drug use and dependence disorder.
Ans) The psychoactive substances that are most often associated with abuse and dependence, aside from alcohol, are narcotics like opiates or opioids, such as opium and heroin, sedatives like barbiturates, stimulants like cocaine and amphetamines, hallucinogens like LSD, and other random substances like inhalants, steroids, over-the-counter medications, prescription drugs, etc. The bulk of these medications, as was previously said, need to be used with a prescription from a doctor. The DSM-5 has however also recognised dependency on other substances that are easily accessible to adults, like nicotine and caffeine. Dependence, which can lead to a loss of control over drug use, and fatal dosage ratio, which shows the dose at which a specified percentage of people will die, are the two ways psychoactive drugs differ from one another. Heroin, morphine, nicotine, and cocaine are the substances having the highest potential for addiction. The likelihood of becoming dependent on ketamine, caffeine, or marijuana is moderately high. LSD and psilocybin are two more hallucinogens with a low likelihood of becoming addicted. Despite these differences, the heavy use and abuse of any of these drugs can have a number of detrimental impacts on a person and their family members and is classified as a substance use disorder in the DSM-5.
6. What is psychotherapy? Explain how psychotherapy is different from counselling and guidance.
Ans) Psychotherapy also psychological therapy, talk therapy, or talking therapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behaviour, increase happiness, and overcome problems. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual's well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviours, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. Numerous types of psychotherapy have been designed either for individual adults, families, or children and adolescents.
Psychotherapy different from Counselling and Guidance
Since psychotherapy is essentially a verbal treatment, it benefits people who are struggling emotionally. This method enables clients to recover from traumatic life events over the course of several months or even years of treatment sessions. This challenging but effective healing procedure has been beneficial for mental diseases including schizophrenia and depression.
When a client and a counsellor are working together therapeutically, the client's emotional issues are discussed in private. The counsellor facilitates the sessions to help the client address both present and past concerns.
Guidance is seen as advice from a specialist in a connected sector, such as schooling or the workplace. With the use of this method, they can assess their possibilities..
7. Describe the features and stages of short term psychotherapies.
Ans) Features of Short Term Psychotherapy:
Focus: In psychotherapy, patients are given clear, attainable goals to work toward throughout sessions.
Planning: Therapeutic interventions are designed beforehand and with early preparation sessions are structured having measurable goals.
Time constraints: Every psychotherapy session is scheduled according to a mutually agreed-upon contract, and it is time-limited.
Reframing: Psychotherapy aids in altering the client's perspective of their issues and reshaping their significance.
Therapeutic relationship: It is advised that both partners engage in an intense amount of collaborative, active therapy to address client difficulties.
Home-work assignments: Clients are expected to complete and practise agenda items from therapy sessions outside office and to work on the issues they relate to.
Providing Feedback: A sincere and accurate response can strengthen and improve the therapeutic relationship.
Evidence based practice: Time and effectiveness are two key considerations for evidence-based practise in psychotherapy.
Psychotherapy consists of three primary stages, each of which has an unique task that must be completed to advance the therapy sessions.
Initial phase: The process of developing rapport with the patient by the therapist.
Middle phase: Background and Immediate Psychotherapies derive their grasp of the issue from the beginning.
Last phase: It is advised that the therapist do a follow-up booster session.
8. Discuss the key concepts in gestalt therapy.
Ans) The following are the key concepts of Gestalt Therapy:
Wholeness and Integration: When we talk about wholeness, we mean that the individual's mind and body work together as a whole rather than as independent components. Integration describes how these components work together and how a person fits into their surroundings.
Awareness: Awareness is one of the most important elements in Gestalt Therapy as it is seen as a “hallmark of the healthy person and a goal of treatment”.
Energy and blocks to energy: Gestalt Therapists often focus on where energy is in the body, how it is used, and how it may be causing a blockage. Blocked energy is a form of resistance, for example, tension in a part of the body, not breathing deeply Gestalt Therapy is about finding and releasing the blockages that may be inhibiting awareness.
Growth Disorders: Growth disorders are emotional issues brought on by people who lack awareness and do not fully engage with their surroundings. By doing this, people are unable to adequately adjust to the changes in their lives and instead choose to approach the issues in a defensive way.
Unfinished business: Gestalt therapy places a strong emphasis on assisting clients in completing their unfinished business and achieving closure.
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