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BPCG-175: Psychology for Living

BPCG-175: Psychology for Living

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BPCG-175 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Psychology for Living, you have come to the right place. BPCG-175 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BPCG-175/Asst/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BPCG-175

Assignment Name: Psychology for Living

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Total Marks: 100


NOTE: All questions are compulsory.


Assignment One


Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks. 2 x 20 = 40


Q1) What is identity? Discuss the socio structural factors influencing identity development.

Ans) Identity can be thought of as the definition of oneself, i.e., a constant feeling of oneself that gives instructions on what one can do, where one belongs, and what to value. The development of the self and identity is influenced by social and cultural variables.


The socio structural factors influencing identity development are as follows:


Socio-economic Status and Identity

Social behaviour is influenced by one's self-perception of their social class, which is defined by how they perceive their money, occupation, and level of education. People can figure out where they fit in the social ladder by comparing their money, educational attainment, and employment status to those of others. The way one thinks, feels, and behaves is significantly influenced by one's subjective social status. Variations in social capital, which takes the form of friendship networks, and cultural capital, which takes the shape of education and system knowledge, are linked to differences in income and wealth.


Gender and Identity

Gender socialisation is heavily influenced by society, particularly by family, peers, and the media. Gender roles refer to the many roles that society assigns to men and women. Additionally, society holds distinct standards for boys and girls. Girls must be quiet and clean whereas boys can be boisterous and dirty. These expectations manifest as gender stereotypes and guide decisions about professions, hobbies, and attire. Children learn about the various roles and expectations of men and women from their families first. Through various toys, outfits, vocabulary, tolerance levels, and behaviours, parents shape a gendered environment for their children.


Caste and Identity

Castes are divisions of society that are given varying social statuses (good or negative) depending on where they fall in the social system. In accordance with their historical rank and place within the caste hierarchy, certain caste groups are given derogatory occupational designations like "chamars" and "churhas," which badly impacts their self-esteem and fosters an identity of being undervalued and "spoilt." Caste essentialism makes sure that low caste groups are stigmatised even after they are disassociated from the humiliating professions. Both upper castes and low castes take great care to maintain caste borders.


Scheduled caste individuals have been observed in anthropological fieldwork to adopt a slumped stance, remove their towel from their shoulders and wrap it around their waist, and raise one or both hands in greeting, signifying their purported social inferiority. However, it would be inaccurate and simplistic to identify low caste identity as purely inferior.


Intersectionality of Identities

A wide range of cultural, social, and structural circumstances influence people differently. One has multiple identities as an individual, including gender, race/caste, ethnicity, nationality, class, and sexual orientation. Consider a gay Indian man from a high caste and class who experiences discrimination due to his sexual orientation but enjoys privileges due to his dominant caste, class, and gender identity. People's experiences and identities are dynamically shaped by interdependent social environments. These identities come in both privileged and underprivileged varieties. As a result of the interconnections between different identities, intersectional identity is more than the sum of its parts.


Q2) Explain intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Describe ways to enhance both types of motivation.

Ans) Extrinsic motivation is defined as "motivation that originates from without the individual and typically includes prizes and compliments." Extrinsic incentive examples include rewards, compliments, money, feedback, and so forth. As a result, it consists of something external to the person. Such motivators offer satisfaction and pleasure that the associated activities or jobs would not. As a result, these motivators persuade the person to act in a way that they might not have otherwise.


Extrinsic motivation provides a lot of benefits because it is associated with both an improvement in behaviour and performance. However, it also has a weakness in that the behaviour might change if, for example, the incentive is taken away. Additionally, if the reward does not change and instead stays the same, motivation will also drop.


Furthermore, simpler jobs may benefit more from extrinsic incentive than those that call for lateral and creative thinking. Additionally, it could have an impact on the person's intrinsic motivation to complete the work.


For instance, if a youngster likes to keep his or her room tidy and organised, but the parents start rewarding the child for doing so, the child will keep the room tidy not because of intrinsic motivation, or delight, but rather because of the reward the parents have provided.


Another example: If a person is intrinsically motivated to utilise safety equipment to the extent that they do, and if their supervisor gives them extrinsic rewards for doing so, the employee will begin using the equipment for the extrinsic rewards and not for the intrinsic rewards. "Motivation that originates from within a person and encompasses the aspects of challenge, delight, mastery, and autonomy" is how intrinsic motivation is described. As an illustration, a person can have a favourite activity.


There are four components of intrinsic motivation as given below:

  1. Challenge: It has to do with how much a person takes pleasure in the anticipation that comes with a fresh challenge.

  2. Enjoyment: It has to do with the enjoyment a person might experience from doing the work.

  3. Mastery: It has to do with the sense of pride and success that someone could feel after completing a challenging activity.

  4. Autonomy and Self-determination: It pertains to the autonomy that a person experiences while performing the activity, i.e., the freedom with which they can choose what has to be done and how.


Intrinsic motivation plays an important role in enhancing the productivity as well as creativity in the individuals.

Assignment Two


Answer the following middle category questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks. 3 x 10 = 30


Q3) Describe the steps and techniques in modifying dysfunctional attitudes.

Ans) The steps and techniques in modifying dysfunctional attitudes are as follows:


Steps in Modifying Beliefs

  1. Awareness: recognizing and recording the thoughts when it occurs (thought diary)

  2. Reappraisal: logical analysis of the thoughts/beliefs (examining the evidence for the thoughts) and generating adaptive thoughts/beliefs.

  3. Adapting alternative/helpful ways of thinking.

  4. Evaluating the effects/results in light of feelings, actions, and outcomes in the context of interpersonal relationships.


Techniques of Modifying Dysfunctional Beliefs

Pie chart: This strategy is employed when a person feels overly responsible, such as when they blame themselves for all of the family's problems. Instead, than placing blame on oneself or viewing a single element as to blame, the person is forced to analyse a number of things that may have led to a specific outcome in this situation.


Perspective-taking: Considering things from many angles to see things more broadly. People who are distressed may not be able to think critically, which causes them to narrowly focus on one or a small number of items.


Thinking in Shades of Grey: Assess circumstances on a scale of 0 to 100 rather than thinking in terms of all or nothing extremes. Consider using the phrase partial success rather than success or failure.


The Double-standard Method: People frequently compare themselves to others using different standards. When it comes to themselves or others, they could be stricter or more judgmental. Being more empathetic toward oneself and others is facilitated by this technique.


The Semantic Method: Use less emotive and vivid language as a replacement. For instance, you could say, "It would have been better if I hadn't made that error," as opposed to telling yourself, "I shouldn't have made that mistake."


Analysis of Benefits/Disadvantages of the Belief: Outlining the pros and drawbacks of having a particular belief, e.g., ‘I am inadequate.’ As a result, the individual would become aware of the harmful effects of the idea and give it less weight, as well as stop acting in accordance with it.


Socratic Questioning: This technique of inquiry aids the person in challenging faulty, irrational thinking. Examples of queries are, "Is this thought realistic?" "Am I relying on facts or feelings when I make decisions?" What support does this idea have? Can I be interpreting the evidence incorrectly?, etc.


The behavioural techniques for changing beliefs include role playing, exposing/facing scenarios to change dysfunctional/unrealistic ideas about certain circumstances, people, and events, as well as behavioural tests to assess the beliefs.


Logical Disputation: Asking the person whether or whether the idea they hold is reasonable, seeking proof of the belief, and determining whether the belief is beneficial (consequences of the belief).


Q4) Describe the types of mood disorders.

Ans) The types of mood disorders are as follows:


Bipolar and Related Disorder


Bipolar I Disorder: Manic episodes that continue at least seven days or manic symptoms that are so severe and disruptive that the person needs emergency hospital care are both signs of bipolar I disease. Additionally, the depressive episode could last for at least two weeks in a row. This group also includes episodes of depression with mixed features, which include both manic and depressed symptoms in one episode.


Bipolar II Disorder: Bipolar II illness is characterised by the occurrence of depressed and hypomanic episodes. But there shouldn't be any full-blown manic episodes, which are typical of Bipolar I Disorder. A hypomanic episode must last for at least four days and have symptoms that are less severe than those associated with manic episodes. Hospitalization is typically not necessary for bipolar II disorder due to the lesser form of mania.


Cyclothymic Disorder (Cyclothymia): Hypomanic episodes and periods of prolonged depression symptoms lasting at least two years are also characteristics of cyclothymia.


Depressive Disorder

Over 264 million individuals worldwide are affected by the illness known as depression. Low or irritable mood, along with physical and cognitive changes that have a major impact on a person's everyday functioning, are the signs of depression. Depression makes life seem hopeless and the future seem bleak. Additionally, the person would display emotions of worthlessness and lose interest in almost everything, including past-pleasurable pursuits. Depression is frequently accompanied by thoughts of suicide, difficulties sleeping, social disengagement, and changes in eating. As a result, it frequently has an impact on weight due to either a decrease of appetite or the potential for feeling excessively hungry and putting on weight.


The following list of depressive illnesses is taken from the DSM-5:

Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is commonly found among children consulting in paediatric mental health clinics. The primary symptom of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is chronic and persistent irritation. Two clinical signs that are seen in children include frequent temper outbursts and a persistently irritable or angry mood that exists between the acute temper outbursts.


Major depressive disorder (including major depressive episode): The symptoms of major depressive disorder must be present for at least two weeks in a row in order to be diagnosed. Either a severely sad mood or a marked loss of interest in enjoyable activities are among the symptoms.


Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia) is usually mild to moderate intensity depressive disorder and its core feature is its chronicity. A person must experience a persistently depressed mood for the majority of the day for at least two years in order to be diagnosed with persistent depression disorder. Dysthymic disorder can also cause the sporadic normal mood.


Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: It is a type of depression that is comparable to PMS in some ways. Both PMS and PMDD are prone to mood swings, but PMDD's are more severe and interfere with daily activities.


Substance/Medication-induced Depressive Disorder: Injection or inhalation of a chemical, along with certain medical conditions, can potentially cause depressive illness. The term "substance/medication-induced depressive disorder" refers to these classifications.


Q5) Explain the concept of emotional intelligence and its components.

Ans) Being knowledgeable about emotions is referred to as emotional intelligence. It refers to the capacity to comprehend one's own and other people's emotions and use them as a direction for action and behaviour. Emotions are regarded by EI as a significant data source that offers information that may be used to control and manage our responses and behaviours. According to Goleman, "Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognise our own feelings and those of others, to inspire ourselves, and to manage emotions in ourselves and in our relationships well."


Knowing one's own and others' emotions, as well as being able to control or regulate them, are all components of emotional intelligence. Similar to how intelligence is evaluated using the Intelligence Quotient, emotional intelligence is tested using the Emotional Quotient (EQ) (IQ). According to studies, EQ is more crucial than IQ for a person's overall success in life. The capacity to recognise emotions and understand how others feel makes social interaction easier. Emotion control is aided by awareness of one's own emotions. Success in both the classroom and in one's personal and social life depends on these socioemotional skills. EI is significant in the workplace because it promotes positive interpersonal relationships and aids in stress management, conflict avoidance, and conflict management.


Components of Emotional Intelligence


Self-awareness: It alludes to being conscious of one's emotions and feelings. It entails being able to detect the emotions involved as well as the physiological effects of those emotions. The first step toward managing emotions is taking this action.


Self-regulation: One can control or manage their emotions once they have been acknowledged. By considering one's emotions and their effects on oneself in the past, it aids in choosing the proper actions. As a result, one can control their emotions to create a positive outcome or consequence.


Motivation: It entails looking ahead and maintaining a goal-oriented mindset. Thus, it entails self-control as well as considering others as well as long-term objectives, both of which aid in postponing the fulfilment of present desires and requirements.


Empathy: An empathetic attitude is produced by the capacity to consider what others are experiencing and thinking, and it aids in the development of healthier interpersonal connections. As a result, it is a crucial component of interpersonal intelligence since it enables awareness of the emotions and sentiments of others. Conflicts and stress in relationships are brought on by a lack of empathy, and this has an impact on everyone's mental health.


Social Skills: This is also a component of interpersonal intelligence, which aids in managing others' emotions to establish successful relationships. Once you have empathy, which is the awareness of another person's feelings and emotions, you must learn how to use this understanding of another person's emotions to accomplish goals, establish satisfying relationships, prevent interpersonal conflicts, and move toward mutual benefit and peace. Therefore, it requires the capacity to cooperate and work in a team as well as to communicate and negotiate.


Self-awareness, self-regulation, and motivation can be categorised as personal competencies because they are concerned with an individual's personal development and well-being, whereas empathy and social skills are social competencies because they are concerned with achieving social well-being. The last two components are referred to as interpersonal intelligences, whereas the first three are also known as intrapersonal intelligence.

Assignment Three

Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks. 5 x 6 = 30


Q6) Psychosomatic and Somato-psychological factors

Ans) Any sickness that is wholly or partially aggravated or perpetuated by psychological variables, which lack a sufficient medical explanation and result in severe suffering or functional impairment, is referred to as a psychosomatic illness. There are two scenarios here: psychological factors that cause or worsen physical diseases are referred to as psychosomatic factors (e.g., performing on stage causes stomach upset due to anxiety), and physical factors that cause or worsen mental disorders are referred to as somato-psychological factors (e.g., chronic illness can lead to depression). Both show how the mind and body interact dynamically and have an impact on our health. Both somatic and psychological elements have an impact on symptoms and play a role in both physical and mental health issues.

Q7) Varieties of self

Ans) Different approaches exist to conceptualise the self. Triandis established the distinction between an individual's private, public, and collective selves.

  1. The private self involves beliefs about one's own characteristics, attitudes, or behaviours (for example, "I am compassionate," "I love to read," etc.). It is a self-evaluation of one's "self."

  2. The collective self includes evaluations of oneself made by a particular group, such as family, caste, colleagues, peers, etc. ("My family teases me about my soft heart," "My friends think I'm dull," etc.).

  3. The public self contains self-perceptions from generic others, such as "Others think I'm easily bullied" and "People usually think I'm an introvert."


Q8) Motivational interviewing

Ans) A counselling technique called motivational interviewing aids individuals in overcoming ambivalence and fears to discover the inner drive required to alter their behaviour. It is a realistic, sympathetic, and temporary procedure that recognises how challenging it is to make life adjustments. Addiction and the management of physical health disorders like diabetes, heart disease, and asthma are two areas where motivational interviewing is frequently employed. Through this intervention, people are given the motivation to alter the habits that are keeping them from making healthy decisions. Additionally, it can get people ready for other, more focused kinds of therapy. The use of motivational interviewing can be effective with hostile or irate individuals. Although they might not be prepared to make a change, motivational interviewing can assist them in navigating the emotional changes they must make in order to find their motivation.


Q9) Aspects of mindfulness

Ans) The aspects of mindfulness are as follows:


  1. Non-judging: As a result, we are unable to view objects as they actually are, our perception is divided into more specific categories, and problem-solving creativity is hampered.

  2. Patience: Our health has always been harmed by impulsive behaviour. On the other side, patience creates possibilities and fresh approaches to moving forward and resolving issues. It aids in maintaining present-moment awareness.

  3. Beginner’s Mind: Being mindful can help you develop a new outlook and perspective as well as uncover new opportunities.

  4. Trust: Being trustworthy or true to oneself, or taking responsibility for one's own thoughts, feelings, and attitudes, is a crucial aspect of mindfulness.

  5. Non-striving: This is a reference to letting go of expectations for mindfulness meditation's results.


Q10) Key attributes of positive youth development

Ans) The key attributes of positive youth development are as follows:


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