If you are looking for BPSC-104 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Political Process in India, you have come to the right place. BPSC-104 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAPSH courses of IGNOU.
BPSC-104 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BPSC-104/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: BPSC-104
Assignment Name: Political Process in India
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Assignment – I
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
Q1. Explain the relationship between political parties and democracy. 20
Ans) In a political system, a political party is an important part. A political party is an organisation with leaders, members, policies, and plans. People who support it may be official members of the party or they may just back it without being members. There are several sides. Parties can be told apart by their leaders, policies and programmes, ideologies, and how they work internally. Parties in government and democracy go hand in hand. Several indicators of democracy show how this relationship works: people's participation in making decisions, their political mobilisation, making them aware of politics, articulating their problems, and giving them a plan to meet their needs. Through political parties, people have a say in how the government makes decisions. And they do this by putting up candidates for elections. So, political parties and the candidates they put forward become a way for people to take part in making decisions. These people want to be members of Parliament or the state legislature and speak for other people.
Political parties are helpful tools that give people a say in how decisions are made. Because there are so many people, not everyone can vote directly. Indirectly, they do this by voting for candidates in elections who get tickets from political parties. People can choose as their representatives not only candidates from political parties, but also candidates who are not from political parties. These people are called "independent candidates." But political parties are more common and work better than independent candidates to represent people. In a democracy, political parties can also get people to move.
In a democracy, it's the job of the opposition parties to criticise the government's policies and how it runs. Independent candidates and elected members from different parties both take part in the legislative bodies and help to make democracy stronger. The policies of a government are decided by representatives of the people, who are usually chosen by political parties. Partly because of the parties, people learn more about democracy. For the good of the people, they told people about their ideas and plans. Studies show that since the 1990s, many parties have run candidates from different parts of society, including underrepresented groups like Dalits, OBCs, women, and others.
Jaffrelot and Sanjay Kumar say that the rise of "plebeians" is shown by the fact that more people are voting. Ashutosh Varshney says that India is becoming a more democratic country. Yogendra Yadav has also said that there has been a rise in democracy in India. These ideas are about how elections make democracy stronger. Since political parties are the main players in elections, it can be said that political parties and party systems have made democracy stronger in India. Things were different in the 1950s and 1960s than they were in the last 30 years. At that time, parties didn't do much for democracy because most elected leaders were from the elite parts of society, and the patron-client relationship was the most important factor in getting people to vote. In the last few decades, democracy has gotten stronger because party systems have changed, grown, and Dalit and Other Backward Classes (OBC) parties have become more popular. Also, people have become more aware, which has helped them understand their rights better.
Q2. Elaborate upon the reasons for the separate statehood movements in India. 20
Ans) Movements to change the way power is shared between administrative units in an area that is part of one or more states are also regional movements because they try to fix problems in that area. Most of the time, these movements take one of three forms: movements for statehood, movements for autonomy, or movements for secession. Movements for statehood want to make a new state out of a part of one or more existing states. Like movements for statehood, movements for autonomy want administrative freedom to run their own affairs. They don't want a separate state out of an existing state like the statehood movements did. Instead, they want independence within the state that is already there. Secessionist movements, on the other hand, are different from statehood and autonomy movements because they want to leave the Union of India and form their own independent state. It is important to remember that while the Indian constitution allows for the creation of separate states and autonomy within those states, it does not allow secession.
Article 3 of the Indian constitution says that one or more existing states can be used to make a new state. Constitutionally, it is up to the President to start the process for making a new state or states. He can do it on his own or with the help of the state from which the new state will be made. Such a state or states can ask the President if he or she is willing to cut off a new state from their current size. The state or states that are affected do this by passing a resolution in their state legislatures. In light of the resolution, the President could ask the Union government to bring a bill to Parliament for approval by both houses. If it passes both houses, it goes to the President to get his or her approval. Once the President agrees, the bill or decision is made public, and the process of making a new state starts. It's important to remember that Article 3 is often interpreted based on what's best for politics. Even though the President has the power to start the process of making new states, he only does so if the state government agrees.
Since calls for new states come from certain parts of one or more states, we can look to the problems in those parts to find out what's behind the growth of such movements. There are a lot of different things that lead to complaints. The factors have to do with language, culture, customs, religion, history, level of development, and other things. People who want new states say that their areas are treated unfairly or aren't given enough attention because of these things. Together, they form the basis for regional identities, which, in most cases, lead to a push to make separate states. It's important to remember that even though there are many things that cause movements in different states, some of these things are more important in some movements than others. In some movements, language is more important than in others. In some, it has to do with development, in others with ethnicity, and in others with religion. During different parts of movements and in different places, these factors have been more or less effective.
Assignment – II
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
Q1. Discuss the process of reorganization of states in Northeast India. 10
Ans) There are two types of movements in northeast India that want to change the way power is distributed within India's constitution. The first is the autonomy movement, and the second is the statehood movement. The State Reorganization did not call for the north-eastern states to be changed. The SRC was against the idea of making separate hill states out of Assam. They thought that reorganising the regions would make the hill region even more isolated, which was already happening because of the colonial policy of Inner Line Permit and drawing lines around "excluded" and "partially excluded" areas. Instead of making the hill regions into separate states, it was suggested that different cultural and linguistic groups should be given more freedom.
The SRC also said that hill states made out of Assam would not be able to support their own economies. Nagaland became a state in 1963, Meghalaya, Manipur, and Tripura in 1972, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states from Union Territories in 1985, and Sikkim became part of India in 1975. When Indira Gandhi went to Shillong on January 11–13, 1967, she promised to get Assam back in order. So, on December 24, 1969, the Parliament passed the 22nd Constitutional Amendment, also known as the Assam Reorganization (Meghalaya) Bill, which made Meghalaya a "Autonomous State" within Assam. In 1971, the President of India signed some laws that led to the creation of many new states in northeast India, such as Manipur, Tripura, and Meghalaya, as well as the Union Territories of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
Q2. Define insurgency, and how does it differ from terrorism? 10
Ans) Insurgency is defined by the Indian Army's Doctrine for Non-Conventional Operations as "an organised armed struggle by a part of the local population against the state, usually with support from outside the country." Its goal could be to take power and get rid of the current government, or it could be to free a certain area.
Insurgency is often assumed as identical with terrorism, although there are differences between them. Most of the time, the insurgents use violence in the same way that terrorists do. But, unlike terrorism, insurgency movements usually involve or need material or moral support from some part of the population in order to justify their existence and weaken the legitimacy of the government. In this way, insurgent groups often use information and psychological warfare to spread propaganda and get a lot of people involved in politics. On the other hand, terrorist groups don't have the support of most people. The goal of an insurgency is to challenge the existing authority with an attempt to bring political change for the control of its territories or a part of it. But terrorist groups do not try to change the government. Instead, they used violence, even against civilians, to make people afraid and change how the public saw the government's power or legitimacy. Counterinsurgency is a term that is related to the idea of insurgency. It refers to the steps that the government takes to stop the uprising. It can be thought of as a group of civilian and military actions that work together to stop and defeat insurgency and deal with its root cause.
Q3. Explain the evolution of party systems in India 10
Ans) During the Indian national movement, the first political parties in India were formed. They were part of the Indian national movement at the time. They had also run for seats in legislative assemblies where only certain adults could vote. After India got its independence, the Congress became the most powerful party. In fact, the Congress was a movement during the Independence movement, but it turned into a party after Independence. It means that the Congress didn't have to be part of a movement like the national movement. Instead, its main goal was to run for office and form a government. After India got its independence, the party systems changed over time. But there was not a system with only one party. Instead, during the 1950s and 1960s, one party, the Congress, was the most powerful, even though there were other parties as well. The second group didn't have any support or presence in any of India's states. India has had three types of party systems since it became independent: the One Party Dominance System, the Two-Party and Bi-Polar Party System, and the Multiparty and Multi-Polar Party System.
For about 20 years, the Congress party was the most powerful party in India. Even though there were non-Congress parties at the time, the Congress was in charge of the government at the centre and in most of the states. India doesn't have a two-party system in the way that the term is usually used. Instead, it has a political system with two sides. In this system, three or more parties work together before or after an election to form an alliance, form a coalition government, or agree on a minimum set of policies. The Indian political system has changed since the 1967 elections. The Congress lost the election, and the party was also split up. This happened at the same time that regional parties were getting stronger. It led to the growth of more than one party in India.
Assignment - III
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.
Q1. Write a brief note on the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP). 6
Ans) In modern times, Anna Hazare's anti-corruption movement in 2011 brought together middle-class people of all castes, ethnicities, and languages. This was different from earlier movements. This movement led to the creation of the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP). As the founder of the AAP party, Arvind Kejriwal became the face of the fight against corruption. AAP is different from other state parties for two reasons: first, it is not based on a set of ideas, and second, it does not represent any social, cultural, or ethnic movements, which have been the most important factors in India when it comes to forming a party.
Q2. What are the important factors that impact the voting behaviour of tribes? 6
Ans) During every election, political parties, especially regional parties that support the tribal community, campaign on issues related to tribes' cultural identities, economies, and political independence. In particular, the most common things that affect how tribes vote are the protection of their cultural identity, the maintenance and protection of natural resources like forests, minerals, and other natural resources, the influx of outsiders, which often leads to the loss of their cultural identity and the exploitation of resources, regional development, and the guarantee of political autonomy through the V and VI Schedules. Most of the time, these issues are what make tribes vote the way they do.
Q3. What is the difference between two-party and multi-party systems? 6
Ans) Only the two main parties have a real chance of getting enough votes to form a government in a two-party system. In multi-party, there are more than two parties, but most of the time there are fewer than five.
In India, after Congress lost the elections in 1967, non-Congress SVD governments were set up in eight states. This is a major example of a two-party system. In the 1960s and 1970s, leaders like Charan Singh in Uttar Pradesh (UP), Rao Virendra Singh in Haryana (HR), Biju Patnaik in Odisha (Odisha), and Bal Thakre in Maharashtra (Maharashtra) rose to power and formed regional parties. This was one of the first signs of the growth of political parties in India.
Q4. What were the main causes of insurgency in Punjab? 6
Ans) To stop the violence from getting worse, Indira Gandhi's government at the centre ordered "Operation Blue Star" into the Golden Temple on June 6, 1984. The goal was to get militants out of the Golden Temple complex. During the operation, between 200 and 250 Khalistanis or militants, including Bhindranwale, were killed. The Sikhs were angry at the government led by Indira Gandhi because of "Operation Blue Star." Indira Gandhi was killed in 1984 by two of her Sikh bodyguards because of this. After a few years of ‘Operation Blue Star’, the insurgency came to virtual halt, especially by ‘Operation Black Thunder’ in 1991, an operation which was carried out K.P.S Gill, chief of Punjab police.
Q5. What are the features of autonomy movements? 6
Ans) The following describe autonomy movements:
These are brought up in places where people feel like they are being treated unfairly by places with more resources in economic, social, cultural, or political ways.
Most of the time, these demands come from the educated middle class, students, civil society organisations, and political parties.
Their region isn't well represented in the political institutions of the state, and decisions that affect them are made without their input.
Their language and culture are not given the attention they deserve, and in some cases, they are forced to speak the dominant language.
There is some political background to the autonomy movements.
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