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BPSE-145: Democracy and Development in Northeast India

BPSE-145: Democracy and Development in Northeast India

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BPSE-145 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Democracy and Development in Northeast India, you have come to the right place. BPSE-145 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BAPSH, BAG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BPSE-145/ASST/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: BPSE-145

Assignment Name: Democracy and Development in Northeast India

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment - I

Answer the following in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks.

Q1) Explain special provisions in the Constitution of India for the Northeast region.

Ans) The Northeast region of India, comprising eight states often referred to as the "Seven Sisters" along with Sikkim, is marked by its diverse cultures, ethnicities, and geographical challenges. To address the unique needs and historical circumstances of this region, the Indian Constitution incorporates several special provisions:

a) Article 371:

1) Article 371 (A): It provides special provisions for Nagaland. The state has a separate constitution, and its residents enjoy special privileges concerning property rights and governance. It aims to protect the Naga way of life.

2) Article 371 (B): Assam is covered by this provision, which provides for a legislative assembly committee to address regional imbalances in educational and economic development.

3) Article 371 (C): It grants special powers to the autonomous district councils in the hill areas of Manipur, safeguarding the rights and interests of tribal populations.

4) Article 371 (F): Sikkim's merger with India is recognized under this article, protecting the existing special status and autonomy enjoyed by the state.

b) Inner Line Permit (ILP):

1) Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and Mizoram: These states have ILP systems under the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873. ILP is a travel document required by outsiders to enter these states, helping regulate and restrict the inflow of non-residents to protect the indigenous populations.

c) Sixth Schedule:

1) Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram: Areas with tribal populations in these states fall under the Sixth Schedule, providing for autonomous district councils with legislative and executive powers. This arrangement aims to safeguard the cultural, social, and economic interests of the tribal communities.

d) Article 275(1):

1) Special Grants: Article 275(1) allows the Centre to provide special grants-in-aid to states with tribal populations, addressing their unique developmental needs. This provision aids in reducing regional disparities.

e) North Eastern Council (NEC):

1) The North Eastern Council Act, 1971: The NEC was established to promote economic and social development in the Northeast region. It facilitates interstate cooperation and acts as a platform for addressing common challenges.

f) Special Industrial Policy:

The government has implemented special industrial policies to attract investments and promote economic development in the region. Tax incentives and subsidies are provided to encourage businesses to set up industries in the Northeast.

g) Peace Accords and Agreements:

Several states in the Northeast, including Assam, Mizoram, and Nagaland, have witnessed armed conflicts and insurgencies. Peace accords and agreements with various insurgent groups have been formulated, incorporating special provisions for autonomy and development to address underlying issues.

h) National Register of Citizens (NRC):

The implementation of the NRC in Assam is a special provision aimed at identifying and deporting illegal immigrants. However, the process has been complex and has generated concerns about exclusion and potential human rights issues.

i) Bodoland Territorial Region (BTR) Accord:

The Bodoland Territorial Region Accord was signed in 2020, leading to the creation of a separate territorial region in Assam for the Bodo community. It includes special provisions for political representation and cultural preservation.

These special provisions recognize the unique historical, cultural, and geographical aspects of the Northeast region, aiming to foster development while preserving the distinct identities of the diverse communities. While some provisions address historical grievances, others focus on economic development, autonomy, and protection of indigenous cultures. The intent is to balance the region's integration with the nation while respecting its unique characteristics.

Q2) Analyse the reasons for the rise of autonomy movements in Northeast India.

Ans) It is the numerous historical, socio-economic, and political circumstances that have contributed to the region's distinctiveness and aspirations for more self-governance that have led to the rise of autonomy movements in Northeast India.

a) Ethnic Diversity and Identity Concerns:

1) Ethnic Mosaic: There are various indigenous communities and tribes in the Northeast, each of which has its own unique cultural identity and historical history. The Northeast is home to a broad selection of ethnic groups.

2) Identity Assertion: Communities seek autonomy to preserve and protect their unique identities, languages, customs, and traditional ways of life amid concerns of cultural assimilation and marginalization.

b) Historical Grievances and Marginalization:

1) Colonial Legacy: Indigenous populations were subjected to a legacy of neglect, exploitation, and alienation during the colonial era, which resulted in socioeconomic inequities and a sense of historical injustice.

2) Post-Independence Issues: Post-independence, the region faced neglect in developmental policies, leading to feelings of neglect and marginalization compared to other parts of India.

c) Geopolitical Location and Isolation:

1) Geopolitical Sensitivity: The region's strategic location, bordering countries like China, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Bhutan, has made it prone to security challenges, affecting local sentiments and demands for autonomy.

2) Geographical Isolation: The Northeast's geographical isolation due to difficult terrain and inadequate connectivity has led to a sense of detachment from mainstream Indian governance, fostering calls for autonomy to address local needs.

d) Insurgency and Armed Movements:

1) Historical Insurgencies: Prolonged insurgencies by groups like the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA), National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), and others have sought autonomy or independence, fuelled by grievances over socio-economic disparities, cultural identity, and perceived neglect.

2) Demand for Self-Determination: The primary aim of these movements was for secession; however, as time went on, the focus turned to demands for increased autonomy, political representation, and respect for cultural identity.

e) Resource Control and Economic Disparities:

1) Natural Resource Richness: As a result of the region's richness of natural resources, which include oil, wood, and minerals, as well as the absence of local sovereignty over these resources, there is a growing demand for autonomy and control over the usage of these resources.

2) Economic Development Disparities: In spite of the abundance of resources, underdevelopment and economic imbalances continue to exist, which has led to calls for autonomy in order to guarantee local authority and an equitable allocation of resources for development.

f) Governance and Political Dynamics:

1) Governance Deficits: Issues of corruption, bureaucratic inefficiencies, and inadequate governance structures have hindered the region's development, fostering sentiments for self-governance and autonomy.

2) Political Marginalization: Perceptions of political marginalization and lack of representation in central decision-making processes have contributed to calls for greater autonomy to have a more significant say in regional affairs.

The complexities of autonomy movements in Northeast India arise from a confluence of historical grievances, cultural identities, economic disparities, security concerns, and governance issues. Resolving these demands necessitates addressing socio-economic disparities, ensuring inclusive governance, and accommodating the region's diverse cultural identities within the framework of the Indian Constitution. Achieving sustainable peace and development in the region requires concerted efforts to address the root causes driving autonomy movements and fostering inclusive and equitable growth.

Assignment - II

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks.

Q1) Examine the relationship between ethnicity and the politics of recognition in the Northeast region.

Ans) The Northeast region of India exhibits a complex relationship between ethnicity and the politics of recognition, shaping socio-political dynamics and demands for identity-based rights:

a) Ethnic Diversity and Identity Politics:

1) Ethnic Plurality: The Northeast is characterized by its diverse ethnic communities, each with its distinct cultural, linguistic, and historical background.

2) Identity Assertion: Various ethnic groups seek recognition and protection of their distinct identities, customs, languages, and traditions, viewing these as essential aspects of their existence and seeking political recognition for their cultural uniqueness.

b) Politics of Recognition:

1) Demand for Autonomy: Many ethnic communities demand recognition of their unique identity through measures like autonomy, preservation of cultural heritage, and protection of land and resources.

2) Reservation and Representation: There are calls for reservations in political institutions, educational systems, and employment sectors to ensure adequate representation and safeguard the interests of marginalized ethnic groups.

c) Challenges and Conflicts:

1) Inter-ethnic Rivalries: Competing claims for recognition and resources sometimes lead to inter-ethnic tensions and conflicts over issues like land, resources, and political representation.

2) Hierarchy of Recognition: Certain dominant ethnic groups may receive more recognition and benefits than marginalized or smaller ethnic communities, leading to feelings of exclusion and inequality.

d) State Response and Policies:

1) Constitutional Safeguards: Special provisions in the Constitution recognize the unique identity of certain ethnic groups, providing autonomy, administrative powers, and cultural protection under Article 371 and the Sixth Schedule.

2) Peace Initiatives: Governments have engaged in peace talks and negotiations with various insurgent groups to address ethnic grievances, attempting to resolve conflicts and accommodate demands for recognition.

e) Challenges in Implementation:

1) Implementation Gaps: Despite constitutional provisions, the actual implementation of recognition-based policies often faces hurdles due to bureaucratic inefficiencies, lack of political will, and complexities in accommodating diverse demands.

f) Transformation of Political Landscape:

1) Shifts in Political Dynamics: Ethnicity-based politics have reshaped the political landscape of the Northeast, with parties often aligning along ethnic lines and advocating for the rights and recognition of specific ethnic communities.

The relationship between ethnicity and the politics of recognition in the Northeast reflects the complexities of identity-based movements, aspirations for autonomy, and the challenges in balancing diverse demands within the framework of a pluralistic society. Balancing recognition with inclusivity and addressing inter-ethnic tensions remains pivotal for fostering social harmony and equitable development in the region.

Q2) Explain the importance of students’ movements in Northeast India.

Ans) Students' movements in Northeast India hold significant importance in shaping the socio-political landscape of the region, contributing to various aspects of social change, identity assertion, and political activism:

a) Voice for Socio-Political Issues:

1) Advocacy for Rights: Students' movements have been pivotal in advocating for the rights and interests of the indigenous communities in the Northeast, including demands for autonomy, preservation of cultural heritage, and protection of land and resources.

2) Protests against Injustice: These movements have historically protested against injustices, social discrimination, and state policies perceived as detrimental to the region's socio-economic development and cultural identity.

b) Catalysts for Political Awakening:

1) Political Mobilization: Student bodies have played a crucial role in mobilizing youth and communities towards political awareness, encouraging participation in democratic processes, and nurturing leadership among the younger generation.

2) Demands for Governance Reforms: Students' movements have often raised concerns about governance deficits, corruption, and bureaucratic inefficiencies, urging for better governance structures and administrative reforms.

c) Promoters of Ethnic and Cultural Identity:

1) Preservation of Culture: These movements advocate for the preservation and promotion of indigenous cultures, languages, and traditions, resisting cultural assimilation and promoting a sense of pride in ethnic identities.

2) Cultural and Educational Revival: Student movements have worked towards reviving traditional arts, folklore, and educational systems to safeguard and propagate the cultural heritage of the region.

d) Agents of Change and Progressive Ideas:

1) Agents of Social Change: Students' activism has been instrumental in initiating debates, discussions, and awareness campaigns on various social issues, including gender equality, environmental conservation, and human rights.

2) Innovative Solutions: These movements often foster innovative solutions to local challenges, advocating sustainable development, environmental conservation, and inclusive growth.

e) Challenges and Transformations:

1) Challenges to the Establishment: Students' movements, while serving as agents of change, have at times posed challenges to established political norms, creating tensions between student bodies and authorities.

2) Evolution of Movements: Over time, the nature and objectives of student movements have evolved, adapting to changing socio-political contexts and embracing broader agendas beyond immediate campus concerns.

Q3) Analyse the economic features of the Northeast region.

Ans) The Northeast region of India possesses unique economic features shaped by its diverse topography, rich natural resources, and historical factors, while also facing challenges related to connectivity and developmental disparities:

a) Natural Resource Endowment:

1) Abundance of Natural Resources: The region is rich in natural resources like oil, natural gas, coal, limestone, and forests, providing opportunities for resource-based industries.

2) Agricultural Potential: The region's fertile soil and favourable climatic conditions support agriculture, with crops like rice, tea, fruits, and spices contributing significantly to the economy.

b) Industrial Potential and Opportunities:

1) Hydropower Potential: The Northeast has immense hydropower potential due to its numerous rivers and hilly terrain, offering opportunities for hydroelectric power generation.

2) Handicrafts and Handloom: The region boasts a rich tradition of handloom and handicrafts, contributing to the local economy and providing livelihoods.

c) Connectivity and Infrastructure Challenges:

1) Geographical Isolation: The region's challenging terrain and inadequate connectivity, including limited road and rail networks, have hindered seamless connectivity within the region and with the rest of India.

2) Lack of Industrial Development: Despite potential, industrial growth remains limited due to infrastructural deficiencies, logistical challenges, and the absence of a robust manufacturing base.

d) Economic Disparities and Developmental Issues:

1) Developmental Disparities: Certain parts of the Northeast face developmental disparities, with rural-urban divides, uneven access to basic amenities, and socio-economic disparities among different states.

2) Insurgency and Conflict: Persistent insurgencies and conflicts have affected economic activities, deterring investment, and hindering socio-economic progress in certain areas.

e) Tourism and Potential Growth Sectors:

1) Tourism Potential: The region's natural beauty, diverse culture, and eco-tourism potential present opportunities for tourism development, contributing to economic growth and employment generation.

2) Education and Healthcare: The region's potential in education and healthcare sectors is being recognized, leading to initiatives to develop these sectors as growth drivers.

f) Government Initiatives and Policy Support:

1) Special Incentives: Various government initiatives like the Northeast Industrial Development Scheme (NEIDS), special tax incentives, and subsidies aim to promote industrial growth and investment in the region.

2) Focus on Connectivity: Projects like the Act East Policy and infrastructure development initiatives seek to improve connectivity with Southeast Asian countries, potentially enhancing trade and economic ties.

Assignment - III

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks.

Q1) Write a brief note on District and Regional Councils

Ans) District and Regional Councils are administrative bodies established in certain areas of Northeast India, particularly in states like Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram, under the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution.

a) District Councils: These councils are formed in tribal-dominated areas, aiming to preserve and protect the social, cultural, and customary practices of indigenous communities. They have legislative powers over specific areas like land, forests, and local governance within their jurisdiction.

b) Regional Councils: These are a higher tier of administration covering a group of districts. They oversee matters that transcend district boundaries, coordinating and supervising the functions of District Councils within their respective regions.

Both councils play a pivotal role in preserving tribal autonomy, fostering socio-economic development, and ensuring self-governance among tribal communities in these regions.

Q2) Write a brief note on Mizo National Front (MNF) politics.

Ans) The Mizo National Front (MNF) is a prominent political party in Mizoram, India, known for its role in the region's political landscape.

a) Formation and Ideology: Established in 1959, the MNF initially sought secession from India to create an independent state for the Mizos. Over time, it shifted its stance towards seeking greater autonomy and statehood within the Indian Union.

b) Armed Insurgency: The party led a significant armed insurgency in the 1960s and 1970s, advocating for Mizo nationalism and autonomy. It signed the Mizoram Accord in 1986, leading to the cessation of armed conflict and the establishment of peace.

c) Electoral Success: The MNF transitioned from a rebel group to a mainstream political party, winning several state elections and forming governments in Mizoram. It has been instrumental in the state's socio-economic development and infrastructure initiatives.

Q3) What is Inner Line Permit?

Ans) The Inner Line Permit, often known as the ILP, is a document that is necessary for non-residents to possess in order to access specific protected areas within India. The primary purpose of this document is to limit migration and safeguard indigenous cultures. In the Northeast area, states such as Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and Mizoram are particularly notable for their enforcement of this law. Before travelling to these regions, non-residents, including Indian citizens from neighbouring states, are required to obtain an Indian Language Passport (ILP). Through the process of restricting and monitoring the admission of outsiders into the designated territories, the ILP system seeks to accomplish the goals of preserving the socio-cultural fabric, preventing demographic changes, and maintaining the different identities of indigenous groups.

Q4) Examine the role of the Naga Mothers’ Association (NMA).

Ans) The Naga Mothers' Association (NMA) holds a pivotal role in Naga society and conflict resolution in the Northeast:

a) Peace Initiatives: The NMA played a significant role in peacebuilding and conflict resolution during Naga insurgencies, advocating for dialogue between Naga groups and the Indian government.

b) Social Activism: The organisation takes an active role in addressing social issues, including lobbying for the rights of women, education, healthcare, and the preservation of Naga culture and traditions.

c) Advocacy for Peace and Human Rights: The NMA continues to advocate for peace, human rights, and the cessation of violence in the region, promoting a culture of non-violence and inclusivity.

Q5) What is the National Register of Citizens?

Ans) A record of lawful Indian citizens who are currently resident in the state of Assam is kept in the National Register of Citizens (NRC), which is an official document. In accordance with the Assam Accord, it seeks to identify genuine citizens while simultaneously detecting and rejecting illegal immigrants. In particular, it focuses on individuals who entered the state after March 24, 1971. There have been discussions regarding the implementation of the National Registration Commission (NRC), which involves a stringent process of verifying citizenship through documentation. These discussions have led to concerns regarding the possibility of exclusion as well as the complex socio-political ramifications, particularly in the diverse demographic landscape of Assam.

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