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BPY-005: Indian Philosophy : Part II

BPY-005: Indian Philosophy : Part II

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: BPY-005/ASST/2021-22

Course Code: BPY-005

Assignment Name: Indian Philosophy- II

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Give Answer of all five questions.

All five questions carry equal marks

Answer to question no. 1 and 2 should be in about 400 words each.

If any question has more than one part, please attempt all parts.

Q1) Describe the characteristics of Bhakti, Ashram Movement and Reform Movement. 20

Ans) The characteristics of Bhakti Movement are as follows:

  1. One of the most important characteristics of the Bhakti Movement is the belief in a single God. Love and devotion could be used to worship God.

  2. The second feature of the Bhakti Movement was that it did not require the worship of idols or the performance of elaborate rituals in order to obtain God's grace.

  3. The equality of all castes was the third characteristic that the Bhakti Saints emphasised. When it came to devotion to God, there was no such thing as high or low.

  4. The fourth characteristic was that these saints placed a strong emphasis on Hindu-Muslim unity.

  5. All men, regardless of their religion, are equal in the eyes of God, according to these saints. The saints preached in ordinary people's language. They didn't speak Sanskrit, the language of the educated few. These saints emphasised the importance of maintaining a pure heart and practising virtues such as Truth, Honesty, Kindness, and Charity.

  6. Only virtuous men, according to these saints, are capable of realising God. God was considered Omnipresent and Omnipotent by these saints.

Characteristics of Ashram Movement

  1. A Catholic Ashrams bears witness to the Catholic Church's faith and promotes respect and obedience to the Church's hierarchy.

  2. A Catholic Ashrams confesses Christ as Lord and Saviour, God incarnate, and participates in the Risen Christ's experience.

  3. They prioritise prayer, meditation, and contemplation while also adhering to the Church's sacramental life.

  4. In the Ashram, the Holy Eucharist, Eucharistic worship, and contemplation take centre stage.

  5. The Ashram promotes Indian spirituality and worship practises. It assumes everything that can be inferred directly from Indian tradition, such as simplicity of life, poverty, and renunciation.

  6. A Catholic Ashrams is open to all religious traditions and is free of all forms of discrimination and caste. Everyone is treated as if they were a brother or sister.

  7. A Catholic Ashrams is a place where people of different faiths can come together in peace and harmony. Every religious tradition is held in high regard.

  8. Each Ashrams has a Guru who is revered for his or her authority.

  9. The Ashram's members form a single community with one heart and mind, a community that loves and cares for everyone, thus bearing witness to Christ's love.

Characteristics of Reform Movement

  1. By and large, each of these reform movements was confined to one region or the other. Despite having branches in various parts of the country, the Brahmo Samaj and the Arya Samaj were more popular in Bengal and Punjab, respectively, than anywhere else.

  2. These uprisings were limited to a single religion or caste.

  3. Another distinguishing feature of these movements was that they all arose at different times in different parts of the country. For example, reform efforts in Bengal began in the early nineteenth century, but in Kerala they did not begin until the late nineteenth century. Despite this, they had a lot in common in terms of goals and perspectives. Even if their methods differed, they were all concerned with the regeneration of society through social and educational reforms.

Q2) Discuss: 10+10= 20

a) Aurobindo’s idea of Supermind

Ans) The human mind is the universe's highest form of existence. This belief is the foundation of Aurobindo's philosophical system. He claims that the Ultimate Reality does not enter human consciousness or mind directly. A bond between the Absolute and Mind is required to connect them. According to Aurobindo, this connection is known as Supermind. Supermind is located in the higher hemisphere, but it is the culmination and ideal of mind—what mind will become. As a result, it needs to be completely aware of Saccidananda. It is also not mind in and of itself, but rather its culmination and fulfilment. Mind can only rise to the Absolute through the instrumentality of Supermind, and the Absolute can only descend to the mind through the instrumentality of Supermind. It's innovative and thorough.

Without separating the three aspects of the Absolute or Saccidananda, the Supermind develops them. These are the following:

  1. It is aware of the One, but it is able to extract the One's hidden multitude.

  2. It expresses the Many without becoming lost in its differentiation.

  3. It contains and maintains the One's diffusion into the Many, preventing it from becoming a true disintegration.

b) Gandhi’s idea of Swaraj

Ans) Swaraj, which means "self-rule" or "self-control," denotes three things: first, freedom is primarily an individual quality, not a collective one. Second, it encompasses the traditional civil liberties of the press, speech, association, and religion, and third, it distinguishes between inner and outer forms of freedom, with inner freedom serving as a foundation for and sustained of outer freedom. The individual is the pillar of Swaraj for Gandhi, but this does not imply unbridled individualism; rather, it implies a balance between individual freedom and social restraint, as T. H. Green put it. Individuals must cultivate qualities of discipline, voluntary loyalty, and solidarity, as well as internal freedom, according to him, in order to have unimpeachable character and conduct.

He is adamant that inert and emasculated people will never be able to achieve freedom, and that individual consciousness alone will not be enough to free people from servitude. Gandhi saw cowardice, fear, and weakness as sins against the human spirit. He instilled in the Indians a fearless spirit. The foundation of swaraj is self-rule, self-restraint, self-discipline, and voluntary self-sacrifice, all of which are rooted in the concepts of individual autonomy and moral self-determinism. “When Gandhi sought swaraj (self-rule) as a political goal, he intended to teach himself and Indians that only those who could rule themselves in the sense of self-control could rule themselves in the sense of controlling their political universe.”

Q3) Answer any two of the following questions in about 200 words each. 2x10= 20

a) Write an essay on Nimbarka’s concept of God. 10

Ans) From his childhood, Niyamananda, the son of Arun Muni, a hermit, and Jayati Devi, showed signs of high intelligence and profound devotion. Lord Brahma came in disguise as a simple hermit seeking food and shelter from the family when young Niyamananda was at home with his mother. Niyamananda and his parents were very frugal, only gathering enough food for the day. There was no food left in the house for them to offer the hungry hermit as the day drew to a close.

Niyamananda could not imagine letting the hermit go hungry because guests are regarded as God himself. As a result, he asked the hermit to wait while he went in search of fruits and roots to offer to the visitor. The last rays of the sun were already fading in the distant horizon when he returned with the food, and hermits don't eat anything after sundown. Young Niyamananda, determined to feed his visitor, promised that he would not let the sun set before the hermit finished his meal. So, he prayed and invoked the sun-like Sudarshana Chakra and placed it on a Neem tree near his house, which lit up the sky like daytime and allowed the hermit to finish his meal. Lord Brahma blessed him and named him Sri Nimbarkacharya because of his kindness and devotion. Later, Sri Nimbarkacharya was taught Vaishnavism by Narda, who also indoctrinated him in the Gopala Mantra.

b) What is the relation between Satyagraha and ahimsa in Gandhi’s Philosophy? Discuss. 10

Ans) Satyagraha, according to Gandhi, encompasses three basic values: truth, nonviolence, and self-suffering. The goal of satyagraha is to put an end to injustice by changing the heart of the wrongdoer by awakening one's sense of justice through love and self-suffering. In the past, there were two options for dealing with injustice: either continue to be a victim or fight back with violence. Gandhi's ethical pacifist nature wouldn't let him be passive, and he believed that injustice corrupts the soul of both the victim and the perpetrator. As a result, doing nothing would be incorrect. Fighting back with violence is also ineffective because violence breeds more violence.

The original perpetrator of injustice would now feel victimised and thus justified in retaliating with violence in mutual violence. His alternative to both was Satyagraha. In both South Africa and India, he experimented with satyagraha. It begins with a thorough examination of all relevant facts, followed by negotiation and, possibly, arbitration. Because each side in a conflict has only a partial view, one must remain open to communication. To distinguish between truth and untruth, each side requires the critical perspective of the other. In the event that the arbitration fails, the satyagrahi prepares the group for nonviolent direct action. In the face of emotional and physical violence, one must respond with love. After announcing his direct planned action, the satyagrahi continues to act, despite all adversity, until the issue is resolved to mutual satisfaction. Only if one's opponent can say the same thing can one claim victory. Satyagraha, in this sense, is a new form of conflict resolution that can be used to resolve conflicts between nations, oppressed minorities and their governments, social groups, and even individuals.

Q4) Answer any four of the following questions in about 150 words each. 4x5= 20

a) Discuss the concept of ‘Samadhi’ in Yoga Philosophy. 5

Ans) Samadhi is the eighth and final step of yoga. This is where yoga reaches its pinnacle. The aspirant negates the distinctions between subject and object at this stage, realising the true nature of the chitta and how it achieves the form of the object. The concentration process and the object become one and the same at this point. The cessation of chitta modification is the name for this stage.

The aspirant becomes aware of his or her concentration in this form of samadhi. When the citta is focused on a single object, the citta undergoes similar kinds of modifications. This is known as samprajnat or conscious samadhi. Concentrating on a single object allows you to control your distracted mind, which is prone to attaching itself to various objects around you. As a result, focusing on one object is said to imply dissociation from other objects. Because attachment to worldly pleasures causes suffering, focusing attention on a specific object alleviates klesas (worldly sufferings) and passion for worldly pleasures. This aids in receiving true knowledge of an object while also freeing oneself from the law of karma or karmic influx.

b) What is the idea of Democratic Secularism of Jawahar Lal Nehru? Discuss. 5

Ans) The idea of democratic secularism by Jawaharlal Nehru is as follows:

The emphasis on scientific analysis of the mundane order strengthened Nehru's secularism. This order will not be able to last for a long time unless it is founded on certain pillars. Nehru discovered that the only response to communal forces was secularism as a result of his dissection of communalism. Its pragmatic foundation was a scientific way of life. No other political system could be established when secularism was to be practised than a functional democracy.

As a result, democracy and secularism are twins. Nehru's gift of the twin siblings to the nation is yet another outstanding contribution. This is what distinguishes him as a unique figure in human history. Other philosophical pillars of human civilisation are linked to secularism. The universal values of equality and liberty are these. He understood that no secular order can last unless people of all faiths enjoy the highest levels of equality and liberty. In the development of the human spirit and nation, Nehru used secularism. He never solicited votes based on his religious beliefs. He expressed the humanistic values that religious equality entails. His secular ideas are rooted in the great Indian tradition; as a result, they are not anti-religious, but rather grounded in humanism and universal ethics.

c) Analyse social philosophy of Bhimrao Ambedkar. 5

Ans) The social philosophy of Bhimrao Ambedkar is as follows:

Dr. Ambedkar's social philosophy arose from his strong social desire and unwavering fight for the emancipation of India's servile classes, the Shudras and 'Untouchables.' Social amelioration, political enlightenment, and spiritual awakening were all central themes in his philosophy. In fact, his social philosophy can be divided into two categories: negative and positive.

Every human being, he believes, should have his or her own philosophy of life. In order for one's thoughts and deeds to lead to true happiness in life, everyone should practise some good principles in their social lives. He called for the caste system in Hindu society to be abolished. These three principles are the ethical norms or standards that we use to assess what a man does, what a society believes, and what a nation aspires to be. "Philosophy is nothing but a standard to measure," Ambedkar said. A man who ignores and mocks them may be anything else, but he is not a good man, according to his philosophy. A society founded on these ideals is also a just and open society. It is, without a doubt, a good society. The Hindu social life, on the other hand, does not meet these ethical standards, so Ambedkar rejected Hindu social philosophy.

d) Evaluate Epistemological idea of S. Radhakrishna. 5

Ans) The epistemological idea of S. Radhakrishna are as follows:

Sense experience, intellectual cognition (discursive reasoning), and intuitive apprehension are the three sources of knowledge accepted by Radhakrishnan. Sense experience acquaints us with the external world's outer characteristics. We learn about the objects' sensible qualities. Natural science is concerned with the data elicited by sensory experience. The analysis and synthesis of perception data is required for discursive reason, or what Radhakrishnan refers to as logical knowledge. Indirect and symbolic knowledge is what he refers to as logical knowledge. With such knowledge, we are able to handle and control natural objects. We are capable of practical purposes and control over our environment through logical knowledge and sense-experience.

Despite his acceptance of the two modes of knowledge, he believes they fall short of revealing the "original integrity of the perceived object." Perceived realities cannot be represented by intellectual symbols as they are. Furthermore, the entire life of feeling and emotion, referred to as "the delights and pains of the flesh, the agonies and raptures of the soul," is kept separate from thought. Third, intuition is essential in the sense that the experience's outcomes are integrated into the individual's life. Intuition, according to Radhakrishnan, manifests itself in the world of action and social relations.

Finally, Radhakrishnan claims that intuition is ineffable. It defies language and logic's limitations, and there is "no conception by which we can define it." In such encounters, thought and reality collide, resulting in a creative fusion of subject and object.” While the experience itself is beyond words, it does provoke them. For Radhakrishnan, the provocation of expression is evidence of intuition's creative impulse. Intuition is the source of all creativity and, by extension, all progress in all areas of life.

Q5) Write short notes on any five of the following in about 100 words each. 5x4= 20

a) Divine Life 4

Ans) That is truly divine life: to shed the animal in man and sublimate the human in him into the divine, and to express this sublimation in his daily, hourly life in thought, word, and deed. If you want to be a devotee of the Lord, you must also be aware of the dangers of living a life that is not divine. Repetition of the Lord's Names will purify the mind, and this will undoubtedly save you. However, you must also practise vichara in addition to these. Remember the consequences of unholy thoughts, such as pain, disease, and death, when the mind entertains them. Consider the benefits of living a pure lifestyle. Consider the lives of saints and be inspired by them. Pray to God for ever-increasing strength. Study the Ramayana, Bhagavata, and Gita. All that is lovely and pleasurable appears to be so because of the lovely, blissful God who is behind it all. Only God, who lives eternally in your heart, can provide true beauty and joy.

b) Oriental Renaissance 4

Ans) The Orientalists' work aided in the revival of Hinduism in the nineteenth century. Anquetil du Peron, Jones William, Charles Wilkins, and Henry Colebrooke were among the most notable. They began translating Sanskrit scriptures into English after studying them. This marks the start of the so-called "Oriental Renaissance." Sir William Jones, known for his linguistic prowess (he spoke 28 languages), embarked on a serious study of Indian scriptures, translating Hitopadesha, a collection of fables and stories about a perfect society. He was the translator of Kalidas' drama "Shakuntala," which became so popular in England that it was often compared to Shakespeare's works.

c) Comparison (Upaman) 4

Ans) The Mimansikas recognise Upamana as a pramana that is similar to Nyayika viewpoints. Upamana determines an object's knowledge by comparing it to other objects of the same type. As a result, it's treated as an analogy. Consider the case of a man who has never seen a gavaya or a wild cow and has no idea what it is. According to a forester, a wild cow is similar to a country cow, but she is more ferocious and has a large horn on her forehead. Later, he comes across a wild cow in a forest and recognises it as the same wild cow by comparing the forester's descriptions. Because of the upamana, or comparison, this knowledge is possible. As a result, upamana is the understanding of the relationship between a name and the object it denotes.

d) Hetu 4

Ans) In Aristotelian logic, the term 'hetu' corresponds to the middle term. It's also known as a 'Linga,' a ‘mark,' or a ‘sign.' It's mentioned twice, once in relation to sâdhya and once in relation to paksa. Finally, it assists in the establishment of sâdhya in paksa. On the inferential argument above, ‘smoke' is regarded as ‘hetu.' Inference is a technique for gaining inferential knowledge. The knowledge of invariable concomitance produces inferential knowledge (vyapti). The intermediate operation is the latent impression of the invariable concomitance (vyapara). When one sees smoke (hetu) in a hill (paksha), the latent impression of the invariable concomitance ‘where there is smoke, there is fire' arises, and one gains the inferential knowledge that the hill has fire (sadhya).

e) Astanga Yoga

Ans) K. Pattabhi Jois popularised Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga as a form of exercise in the twentieth century, and it is often promoted as a modern-day form of classical Indian yoga. He claimed to have learned the system from Tirumalai Krishnamacharya, his teacher. The movement and breath are synchronised in this energetic style. Flowing movements connect the individual poses (asanas) (vinyasas). In 1948, Jois founded the Ashtanga Yoga Research Institute. The current teaching method is known as Mysore style, after the Indian city where the practise was first taught. Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga has spawned a slew of Power Yoga variations.

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