If you are looking for BPYG-171 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Applied Ethics, you have come to the right place. BPYG-171 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG courses of IGNOU.
BPYG-171 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BPYG-171/ASST/TMA/2021-22
Course Code: BPYG-171
Assignment Name: Applied Ethics
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
1. Give Answer of all five questions.
2. All five questions carry equal marks
3. Answer to question no. 1 and 2 should be in about 400 words each.
Q1. Write a note on, 10+10= 20
A) ‘is-ought’ gap.
Ans) Normative statements are assertions about what is good, right, bad, and what should be done, as opposed to descriptive statements, which are assertions about the physical world of senses (consisting of space, things, time, and causation) and laws controlling it. Our five sense organs can be used to verify descriptive statements by listening, touching, looking, smelling, or tasting them. Since normative statements include value judgments, prescriptions, and directives, it is obvious that the truth criteria, which applies to factual assertions, does not apply to them. This chasm is also known as the "is-ought gap," because a "ought" cannot be derived from a "is." It states that normative statements cannot be generated from any set of facts without the use of a previously accepted normative statement as a starting point.
B) The significance of Hippocratic school in the history of biomedical ethics.
Ans) The importance of medical ethics can be traced all the way back to ancient times. The code of Hammurabi of Babylonia, which goes back to 1750 B.C., is the oldest text that defines the professional standards of medical practitioners. In India, Ayurveda discusses the qualities of a good doctor in the Samhita of Athreya, Charaka, and Sushruta, which was written between 300 BCE and 500 CE. This might be said of other Unani, Arabic, and Chinese medical techniques as well.
Now we come to Hippocrates' teachings, which have had a significant impact on medical ethics and continue to do so. Hippocrates is known as the "Father of Medical Ethics" and the creator of the well-known "Hippocratic Oath." The Oath is thought to date from the 5th century BC and is considered the cornerstone of western medical ethics. Many different schools of medical practise coexisted around 500 BC. All of them, for the most part, reflected various religious, philosophical, and medical perspectives. The Hippocratic School created a substantial amount of medical, scientific, and ethical texts. In today's world, the Hippocratic oath is taken by the majority of medical school graduates (modernised version).
The following are some of the most important points:
To have a parental-like respect for the one who has taught the craft, and to pass on this respect to his children as his brother.
To avoid causing injury.
Whatever I see or hear in my patient's life, I shall keep private.
The Hippocratic Oath's principles against euthanasia, abortion, and surgery are the most contentious components. In later versions, all of these were removed. Even in today's world, maintaining patient confidentiality is a major tenet. The current version, however, contains several significant changes. Despite the passage of time, some fundamental elements such as "do no harm" and "patient confidentiality" have remained intact.
Tom Beauchamp and James Childress described four basic principles of biological ethics in 1979, based on the Hippocratic Oath. The four principles are applied to reflect ethical dilemmas in biological ethics and are non-hierarchical.
Principle of beneficence
Principle of non- maleficence
Principle of respect for autonomy
Principle of justice
Q2. Write a note on, 10+10= 20
A) the environmental consequences of terrorism.
Ans) Terrorist operations have the potential to paralyse the entire cosmos due to their sensitive nature. Every terrorist attack, it could be argued, is a manner of humiliating the entire universe. The cosmos, which is the home of life, has been desecrated and transformed into a place of death and doom. The fact that a human being is a cosmic reality immediately dehumanises him or her in the aftermath of any terrorist attack. Any action taken against the cosmic rta will have an impact on all living and non-living beings in the cosmos. A number of psychosomatics have taken to sowing the seeds of disorder, disharmony, and unhappiness.
B) the role of moral values in professions.
Ans) Professionals are guided by codes of ethics that encourage them to operate honestly, without discrimination, and for the greater benefit. These codes of ethics assist a company in resolving ethical dilemmas and decision-making in areas such as conflict of interest, workplace safety, and harassment. The moral standards in all professions are the same, but the decisions made in different situations in different professions would be based on the context, intricacies, and specifics of that circumstance.
The ultimate goal of a doctor in the medical field is to save the patient's life. However, in circumstances of euthanasia, where there is a moral conflict between saving the patient's life and releasing all of the patient's agony and sufferings, doctors transcend and think beyond this highest purpose. Ethical difficulties arise from a clash of values. With the expansion of our canvas of understanding and the development of our cognitive faculty of thinking and reflecting, our understanding of the need and value of these ethical standards steadily grows. This is the stage at which an individual, a society, or a profession might challenge the need, utility, and benefits of a certain rule.
Q3. Answer any two of the following questions in about 200 words each. 2*10= 20
a) Write a note on the key issues of bioethics. 10
Ans) Respect for human life is a value held in high regard by all people. This raises questions about abortion and euthanasia, among other topics. It's difficult to imagine how any ethics or concept could justify the slaughter of humans or unborn children.
In medical terms, abortion refers to the termination of a pregnancy. Is it justifiable to kill a human being because foetuses are human? This is the basic question that this practise raises.
Etymologically, euthanasia means "happy death." We, as humans, also believe that killing someone, even if it is a 'mercy killing,' is wrong. When a doctor supports a patient in killing himself or herself, it is sometimes referred to as 'physician assisted suicide.' The sanctity of life concept is the primary principle that confronts the act. Life is sacred in and of itself, according to this notion. This presents some severe ethical questions, including as whether or not a person has the right to die.
Do animals have any legal rights? This is another crucial bioethical issue that requires significant consideration. Should their suffering or anguish be taken into account morally when it comes to medical research and development? Is this reasonable or not?
Another significant issue necessitates bioethical consideration. This is the 'doctor-patient relationship' problem. To set the scene, the patient is the play's most vulnerable character, the layperson on the receiving end. The doctor is the expert and the most powerful person in the room. This relationship can also be viewed from the perspective of the recipient and the giver. Here, we'll look at the ethical dimensions of this relationship as well as the ethical dimensions of this problem.
The concept of 'consent and informed consent' is strongly tied to the doctor-patient interaction. Every patient has the right to know about their therapy, disease, and adverse effects, among other things. It is the doctor's responsibility to ensure that the patient is aware of and satisfied with the treatment plan. Any form of neglect or ignorance in this procedure necessitates an ethical assessment because it jeopardises the patient's autonomy.
b) What are the salient features of biocentric ethics? 10
Ans) Biocentrism encompasses all living things as a moral attitude. Plants, like humans and other animals, are regarded living organisms and so deserving of moral consideration. However, there must be a distinct criterion for including all living things. It can't be sentience because that would rule out a lot of non-animal life. (In general, environmental literature backs up the idea that plants aren't aware of their surroundings.) The struggle for survival and the ability to benefit or hurt is the criterion in biocentrism. As a result, the narrower criteria of sensibility, consciousness, and rationality are further enlarged. Paul Taylor is a well-known ethicist who believes in biocentrism.
Although a tree does not have the same level of consciousness as an animal or a human, it will take the necessary actions to ensure its survival. Placing a plant indoors in a shady part of a room away from windows is a popular experiment taught to pupils at school. They are instructed to keep an eye on the plant for the next several days and weeks. The plant's leaves have shifted to face the window that is exposed to sunlight, according to the children. Such traits can be recognised in almost all plants. Their roots may grow deeper in quest of water, or taller in search of sunlight. They react to their surroundings, both good and unpleasant, and adjust their behaviour to make the most of it. When biocentrism considers plants as moral ends, it takes into account their physical characteristics as well as their ability to survive. Even if they do not express conscious preferences or feelings and do not respond with happiness or joy, this capacity is not inactive.
Q4. Answer any four of the following questions in about 150 words each. 4*5= 20
a) What are the arguments given by Immanuel Kant to oppose the idea of suicide? 5
Ans) Suicide, according to Immanuel Kant, is wrong since man is God's property and has no right to end his or her own life. Suicide, he feels, ruins our inner world. Suicide is a betrayal of an agent's responsibility to himself. Suicide, according to Kant, is unethical because it is a breach of humanity.
As a result, self-preservation is our most important responsibility to ourselves, and everyone is free to treat their bodies whatever they want. "Not to commit suicide is a perfect obligation," Kant continues, and conduct must be motivated by self-preservation. As can be seen, philosophers have differing perspectives on suicide, and the reasons for their support or disapproval are not always the same. One thing to note is that philosophers who support suicide also cherish life. However, their support for ending life came when the person was in pain. Then and only then is suicide the sole way to put an end to one's suffering.
c) What is surrogacy? Present some arguments in the favour of surrogacy. 5
Ans) Surrogate Motherhood is a type of collaborative reproduction in which three people are involved: a married infertile pair (the parents), as well as a surrogate mother. It is true that there are more vehement opposition to commercial surrogacy (where money is involved) than there are to non-commercial surrogacy (like as altruistic surrogacy). Some couples may benefit from this approach because pregnancy is hazardous or impossible for them medically. In certain nations, it is permitted, while in others, it is prohibited. Surrogacy raises several ethical concerns, such as the child being commoditized, the emotional link between the mother and the child being harmed, and the natural process being disrupted.
A wealthy fertile lady, for example, may use another woman to bear the dangers and discomforts of pregnancy. Another concern emerges here: Is it morally immoral to use another person as a "means" to achieve the "goal" of having a child? According to the Deontological Approach in medical ethics, rational human beings should be viewed as "ends" in and of themselves, rather as "means" to something else. We all have equal intrinsic value and human rights just because we are people. Surrogate moms are exploited and objectified in the event of commercial surrogacy. Commercial surrogacy is outlawed in India on the grounds that a poor woman is compelled to become a victim of objectification in order to make money. Thus, commercial surrogacy appears to be a violation of a surrogate mother's human rights and autonomy, as well as an interference with nature.
e) Write a note on the relation between justice and morality. 5
Ans) Justice indicates a struggle. Doing justice entails correctly resolving a problem. The set of behavioural standards and ideals that each person embraces, which are used to determine the validity of deeds, is maybe an adequate description of morality. As a result, justice would be the application of the judge's personal morality to a real-life issue.
Of course, when it comes to legal justice, the judge is expected to put his own morality aside and apply only the laws, which we might refer to as mandated morality. Morality and justice are closely linked concepts, but there is a significant distinction between them. Both are connected in the sense that they are immaterial visions of how the world should be and how individuals should act. While morality is universal and so transcends civilization, justice is endemic to a certain culture and is defined by its superstructure of laws and norms that define what is acceptable and unacceptable in its realm. In addition, justice establishes the bounds of retribution for transgressors, so redressing wrongs and attempting to deter morally unacceptable behaviour in the future.
f) Explain briefly the arguments against capital punishment. 5
Ans) To buttress their arguments for capital punishment, the retentionists use a consequentialist and retributive approach. The consequentialist argument is that death is a more effective deterrent than other forms of punishment. According to the retributive argument, the death sentence is the only punishment harsh enough to be adequate retribution for the most terrible offences. The abolitionists, on the other hand, refute both of the retentionists' arguments, claiming that there is insufficient evidence to show that the death penalty or capital punishment works as a deterrent in avoiding future homicides. They even claim that life imprisonment is more effective than the death penalty. Another reason to doubt capital punishment is that it is racially prejudiced, targeted at the socioeconomically vulnerable, and prone to errors.
The following are some of the arguments against execution punishment:
It's brutal and unethical. It is a breach of the individual's right to life, and thus a breach of human rights.
Furthermore, there has been little evidence that capital punishment reduces crime or related behaviours.
There is no way to correct a great injustice if a mistaken verdict is given and an innocent person is executed.
Furthermore, it has been found that capital punishment is prejudiced in its application, as people are punished based on racial bias, religious bias, socioeconomic status, and other reasons.
Q5. Write short notes on any five of the following in about 100 words each. 5*4= 20
a) Doctrine of Double effect 4
Ans) The idea of double impact holds that if doing something morally desirable has a morally terrible side consequence, it is ethically appropriate to do so as long as the adverse effect isn't intentional. This is true even if it was obvious that the negative consequence would occur. The doctrine of the Double Effect is based on the following factors:
The good result must be obtained regardless of the unfavourable outcome. In other words, a poor outcome cannot be used to get a good outcome.
The action must be proportional to the cause, or it must produce a positive outcome.
When it comes to giving the right drug to the patient, the activity must be appropriate.
The patient's illness must be fatal.
b) Moderate anthropocentrism 4
Ans) Though judgments are focused on human interests in this anthropocentrism, the interests of others are reasonably considered in most circumstances by justifying that their well-being is inextricably linked. As a result, moderate anthropocentrism is linked to enlightened self-interest. This type of anthropocentrism has grown in favour among individuals who believe that ignoring anthropocentrism completely is unwise since it denies human identity. It tries to achieve a balance by recognising individual interests while also understanding how the interests of others are intertwined with these interests. Furthermore, anthropocentrism recognises that human beings bring a variety of values to the table that can help to safeguard the environment.
c) Reflective morality 4
Ans) Reflective morality does not deny conventional morality principles, but ethical issues in real world scenarios are significantly more complicated, making it impossible to answer these dilemmas with a single conventional principle. Applied ethics is concerned with real-life circumstances in which we attempt to determine the moral permissibility of specific actions. Before making any choice concerning the rightness or wrongness of an action, it appears to be necessary to analyse the context and circumstances under which it was performed or is about to be performed. It necessitates consideration and reflection of the entire circumstance.
f) Utilitarian position on suicide 4
Ans) "Prevention of suicide is never justifiable after an initial attempt to establish the cause," writes J.S. Mill, a utilitarian philosopher. A individual has the freedom to do whatever he wants. Mill recommends briefly interfering to ensure that the suicide decision is deliberate and done with sufficient knowledge. There is no purpose in intervening once the intention, as well as the individual's logic, is evident regarding the circumstance. Mill claims that a person can do whatever he wants, even if it is suicide. The two most important rights that society must strive to safeguard are independence and personal liberty. Suicide attempters measure the agony and harm of their actions against the satisfaction of terminating their lives. The person must act in accordance with the enjoyable results of his actions. Mill's perspective on suicide is based on the utilitarian principle, which states that pleasure or happiness is the only thing with true intrinsic value.
g) Digital Divide 4
Ans) Policy aimed at closing the digital divide aims to give technology tools and establish community groups in response to a perceived lack of access or information among the technologically disadvantaged. Many digital divide programmes, despite their creators' best intentions, actually work to limit the scope of the high-tech equity agenda by relying on a difficult orientation that labels neighbourhoods as "poor" or "undeserved," and thus undervalues the considerable resources, skills, and experiences of these communities. These programmes may hide how powerful institutions like the criminal justice system, social welfare system, and low-wage workplace work to organise people's relationships with technology. They also individualise and privatise high-tech equality challenges as access issues, reducing social mobilisation prospects.
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