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BRL-012: Visual Merchandising and Store Management

BRL-012: Visual Merchandising and Store Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BRL-12/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BRL-12

Assignment Name: Visual Merchandising & Store Management

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Marks: 100


Q1) What is meant by brown goods? Discuss the display approach and presentation of brown goods in a retail store.

Ans) Brown goods are electrical items that are generally light in weight, such as televisions, radios, and computers. Fixtures used in Brown products come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The following are the details.

Gondolas: Gondolas are one of the most common characteristics in an electrical store, where they are used to form aisles. CD/DVD players, radios, portable DVD players, and other items are frequently displayed on these gondolas. The gondola can be made of a variety of materials, from wood to acrylic, according on the brand positioning. These fixtures can be constructed with any of the mechanisms, such as slat wall, grid wall, or peg board, or they can be specially made for specific products.

Wall Treatments: Good planning is essential for things that must be shown on a wall, including how to organise and display them. Different TV sizes will need to be organised on a particular wall in a way that allows for easy comparison.

Air conditioners must be set up in a similar fashion. Feature wall displays for the latest TV or technology are not commonplace; they are frequently accompanied by various add-on devices, such as entertainment systems, to demonstrate the product's benefits and features. The retailer can choose between using slat walls or simply mounting the TV on a plane wall. It is critical to remember that the display should be at eye level, not too high or too low, as this leads people to be inconvenienced.

Music Systems Display: The home entertainment system is usually exhibited next to and linked to the television so that salespeople can readily discuss and demonstrate the system's numerous features. However, some products may be shown on gondolas without a TV hook-up; these are usually the lower-end products.

Gadgets: Gadgets are displayed on gondolas or counters that have been built to create islands or aisles. The majority of the various gadgets are secured with a security device to prevent theft.

Impact Unit: It's a huge CD/DVD display fixture that can fit a lot of product units. They're commonly seen in stores with a large CD/DVD section.

  1. Two ways CD Flip & Browse: It's best for stores with a little selection. The CDs can be flipped to the front to peruse the rest of the collection in a single row. There are two ways to get to this fixture.

  2. Rotating CD Browser: They are spinning, floor-standing fixtures. Typically seen in low-end retailers.

  3. CD Locked -Flip Browser: These browsers can be either free-standing floor fixtures or wall-mounted. Although the customer is free to browse the display, the CD is locked in the fixture and cannot be removed. This type of fixture isn't very common.

Q2) Discuss the display approach and merchandise presentation for Cafes and Food Courts.

Ans) Display Approach and Merchandise Presentation for Cafes

Customers who come to a café to relax and catch up with friends and family over a cup of coffee and food make up the majority of the crowd. As a result, the major goal is to make a customer feel at ease and at home in the outlet so that he will spend time and money purchasing the products and services available. A customer's initial impression of a café is of the café itself. The café's appearance and atmosphere should be inviting. No matter how nice the products offered at the café are, if passers-by don't like the way the establishment looks from the outside and aren't enticed to enter, the café will quickly go out of business. The main goal in creating the storefront is to make the café appear pleasant and accessible.

Before you begin preparing the floor plan, you must first have a clear vision of your concept and theme for your coffee shop, as well as an overall plan and budget. The actual shop designing process can begin once the brand's theme and menu have been determined. By looking over the menu, you'll be able to compile a list of everything you'll need at the counter or in the kitchen. For example, if the store intends to sell bakery items such as breads and cakes, as well as other savoury items, a display case with defined sizes will be required.

Cookies and other sweets, such as chocolates, may require a designated display area. You can now start allocating the counter area and client dining space on the store floor design once you've determined how much counter and service space you'll need. Your staff rely on the counter space for logical equipment placement, practical work space, and suitable storage needs. Efficiency, labour expenses, speed of service, customer retention, and revenues suffer when employee areas are assigned last or with little or no planning.

The flow of the café and the flow of the staff are the two types of traffic flow to consider while planning the cafe floor plan. It is critical to maintain harmony while avoiding unpleasant disturbances. When planning for customer flow, it's critical to provide a clear path from start to finish, almost subconsciously instructing each customer where to go from the moment they come in the door. It's usual in badly designed cafés to find oneself at the pay register, ready to place an order, when you realise you've forgotten something important, such as a pastry or burger, but you ignore it because you think it's too late. You may increase what your consumer sees before they buy by strategically arranging menu boards, pastry cases, and information spots. Build your café with a client flow strategy in mind, and you'll be able to avoid such sales losses.

Promotion material: A special promotion space in the display area can be assigned to the promotional content. For example, beside the menu board, where guests will be able to see what specials or new products are available. Another apparent and handy alternative for promotions is table top displays. On each table, a little triangle stand with the most recent promotions will draw attention to the offer and promotion. Ensure that all menus are current with the most recent promos and offers.

Food Display: Make sure that the savoury items are displayed separately for vegetarians and non-vegetarians, and that they are placed far apart from one another so that no one feels offended. Similar flavours should be shown around one another when displaying pastries and desserts. When it comes to cakes and muffins, or any other cuisine with vivid colours and decorations, colour blocking can help to make the presentation look more appealing. Bottles of soft drinks and water should be kept near the bottom of the display case. The size of the food item and its pricing are two other display approaches you can use in the display cases.

Lighting: The lighting in your coffee shop is equally crucial, as it has a significant impact on the atmosphere and environment of your establishment. Make a decision about the atmosphere you wish to create. Whether you have a large glass front or are completely closed off from the outside world, lighting will alter your customer's view of every facet of your café. People are extremely light sensitive, especially when they are trying to relax and get away from it all. Remember that you're looking for a happy balance and don't want the café to appear too dark from the outside. This will have a significant impact on the morale of your employees as well as the interest of potential customers. Invest in a dimmer switch for all café lighting and teach your workers how to change the dimmer switches to match the outside light.

Display Approach and Merchandise Presentation for Food Courts

A food court's core concept is to provide customers with a variety of food brand alternatives in one location. Customers can choose what they want to eat from a wide variety of foods and styles. Pizza, burgers, Indian street cuisine such as pav bhaji and Pani Puri, Indian or Chinese main courses, western snakes and sandwiches, ice creams, and more are all available at the same restaurant. As a result, when building a food court, keep in mind that the dining area will be shared by several restaurants/stalls.


A mall is a large, often enclosed shopping complex with a variety of stores, businesses, and restaurants connected by common passageways or a large retail complex with a variety of stores, restaurants, and other businesses housed in a series of connected or adjacent buildings or in a single large building.

Size: The correct size/area of the food court, as well as the right amount of food varieties, are critical for the food court's success. If there is a lot of space for customers to sit but not enough food to order, or if it is very small and doesn't have enough space for customers to sit but has a variety of food to eat, both scenarios can result in the food court failing. It's difficult to strike the perfect balance, and at peak hours on rush day, the food court may find itself in the category of "no enough places to sit." However, you should strive to prevent a situation where consumers don't have a large selection of meals to choose from because it will almost always result in a loss in the long term.

Design: The food court's architecture, decor, and theme must be consistent with the Mall's overall architecture, decor, and theme. Knowing who you're trying to reach is crucial. This is where the mall's location comes into play. If the mall is in a high-end neighbourhood, the target audience will be wealthy and sophisticated, and the mall's décor and food court should be tailored to their preferences. Customers in this neighbourhood cannot afford a modest food court where they must wait in line to obtain a set.

Customers will prefer to eat their cuisine from their favourite vendor in a cosy setting. The chairs, tables, and food court trays should all be chosen to reflect the mall's brand. To maintain the theme or feeling of luxury, a luxury mall may choose to add more expensive wooden chairs and tables with elaborate designs or modern contemporary designs in the food court. If the target audience is predominantly middle-class, a more modest and functional seating and table arrangement is appropriate to put clients at ease.

Layout: When planning the layout of a food court dining area, keep in mind that the room must have a clear flow. A consumer may place an order in one location and then take a seat at the opposite end of the dining room. As a result, having clear end-to-end visibility on the floor will benefit and make it easier for consumers to see when their purchase is ready. The importance of table arrangement cannot be overstated. This means that seating should be designed to accommodate various numerical groups of consumers, from couples to huge families.

It's a difficult estimate to make. Many couples prefer to sit alone, and if they do not request a two-seat table, they will take up a larger one, obstructing space for larger parties. Making seating arrangements that do not interfere with each other, such as a long table that can be accessed from different sides by different groups of people without feeling uncomfortable, is one way to address this issue to some extent. Similarly, tables that can be connected together to form a larger table will help to accommodate a larger gathering of customers.

Brands/Food Courts

It's defined as a space containing fast-food vendors surrounded by tables and chairs for public use, similar to what you'd see in a shopping mall. Let's take a look at some of the things to think about when planning a food court.

Façade: Unlike a restaurant, where the food brand/chain can choose the environment that best suits its image, such as décor, seating, lighting, and so on, a food court can only entice guests with its façade and menu. The stall area has been pre-determined, and the brand must alter its cooking and serving equipment to fit within the confines. Similarly, the mall has a set of standards and specifications that the brand must adhere to while displaying its façade design, which includes the business name, logos, menus, and a list of materials that can be used on the rear wall and facade.

Before beginning to build the food court stall facade, these set of design standards and limits should be carefully studied. The mall should carefully design and approve the sizing of the brand logo, the restaurant menu, their positioning on the specified façade area, and the materials specifications.

The brand will be granted a specific place with specific proportions to show their brand names. Because malls need to make the food court more cohesive and the stalls look comparable within the mall design, this is the case. This could be a disadvantage for the brand because they will have to stray from their typical design approach, which could be showy otherwise. They also won't be able to use size as a means of attracting attention.

Some brands, such as an ice cream or pastry stall, or stores like Subway, require a display case at the front of the stall to exhibit the products offered, such as an ice cream or pastry stall, or stores like Subway where the sandwich is made in front of the client. In any event, make sure that the space used does not extend beyond the leased area.

Layout: Mall food court stall designs can either provide a floor space where the brand can determine how they want to allocate kitchen and counter space, or they can be pre-divided into cooking and counter areas to preserve consistency, requiring the brands to alter within the allotted space. In any case, the brand must adhere to some mall health and safety regulations.

The Customer Service Area, also known as the counter, is open to the public. Because of its great exposure, the Customer Service Area's design should be given special consideration. The mall's Customer Service Area standards must be met in terms of service spaces, furniture, display cookery, food prep and cooking stations visible from the mall common area.

Support and storage areas should be hidden from public view. Some shopping malls may object to the presentation of the cooking area or process. While some firms prefer that their consumers be able to view the chefs at work, others do not. As a result, the separating wall that divided the two spaces should be handled with caution. The windows in the wall that deliver the food to the consumers should be designed to mix in with the overall style and design of the stall, or else it will appear tacky and abrupt.

Menus: The display menu list should ideally be set at eye level, but if not, it should be bold and easily visible to customers. The font should be readable and consistent with the brand's identity, and the font size will be determined by the font style and the distance between the displayed menu and the customer service area. Because some people find it difficult to read text written at a distance, having a hand-held menu for consumers to handle on their own is always a good idea.

You have the option of using a paper menu card that you distribute to your customers or a more cost-effective reusable card. It's important to remember that reusable menu cards get dirty and ripped over time and need to be replaced right away, as it's not a good look to provide a customer a damaged menu card. The menu card and menu display board should have a design that is similar to or an adaption of the brand image and graphics.

Q3) Discuss various types of retail formats with suitable examples.

Ans) In today's retail environment, several types or outlets compete with one another and with one another to capture the attention of the shopper and make a sale. The following are the various sorts of retail formats:

Malls: Typically, a closed structure that houses a variety of retail establishments under one roof. For the customer, this is one of the most convenient formats. As a combination of several retailers selling various categories of items such as clothing, footwear, furniture, and so on, all in one location. This saves the customer time that would have otherwise been spent travelling.

Similarly, because there numerous stores that sell the same merchandise, the buyer has a larger selection of items to choose from. However, this generates a fierce competition among the stores to draw customers inside. This is where visual merchandising plays a crucial role. Every day, the number of malls in India grows. There are luxury malls such as DHL in Delhi and Palladium in Mumbai, as well as other malls like as Korum in Thane, Forum Mall in Bangalore, and many others.

Departmental Stores: A department store is a huge store that sells a wide range of products in a large selection. They offer various departments within the store that are dedicated to various categories, such as home goods, footwear, and timepieces, among others. They have a variety of brands in stock and sell them. Within the department, each brand has its own section. L’Oréal, Lakme, and other cosmetic companies, for example, have their own counters. Lifestyle, Shoppers Stop, Westside, and other well-known department stores in India.

Supermarkets: They have a good selection of groceries and other household supplies. They have a wide range of things, including fresh vegetables, packaged goods, bath items, and even kitchen utensils and plastic items. Supermarkets are larger than the grocery store down the street, but smaller than a hypermarket. For instance, Relincefresh, Spencer's, and so on.

Hypermarkets: It is larger than a supermarket since it contains a wider range of products. The variety of items available is considerably more diverse, ranging from food to clothing. It resembles a combination of a supermarket and a department store. Customers like the ease of being able to obtain everything they need for their home in one location. Big Bazaar, Hyper City, Shop rite Hyper, and others are examples.

Specialty Stores: These are stores that specialise in a single type of product, such as electronics, cosmetics, or sports and fitness equipment. Customers can usually find all of the brands within a category in specialty stores, giving them a wide range of options in terms of brands and merchandise. Croma, Total shorts, Crossword, and so on are some examples.

Exclusive Stores: Exclusive stores, such as Rebook, Levi's, and others, sell just one brand's items. They are the brand's or brand franchises' flagship outlets.

Kirana/Mom and Pop Stores: These are locally owned and operated enterprises. Due to severe competition from big, organised merchants, the number of these community establishments is rapidly dwindling. Clothing, shoes, groceries, and other items could be sold in these businesses. They are most well-known in the area in which they operate.

Discount Stores: These are the stores that sell their goods at a reduced price than what is normally charged in other stores. This is done to entice bargain-hunting customers. In their business, discount stores use a high volume, low profit margin strategy. The cheap store sells products from a number of well-known brands. The Brand Factory, Megamart, Promart, the Loot, and others are examples.

Variety Stores: These stores offer a wide range of products at a single fixed price. They are not the same as a discount store in that they have a single fixed price for everything they sell. The stuff is typically home items such as cleaning supplies, bath products, cookies, and chocolates, and so forth, all of which are priced similarly. MyDollarStore is an example.

Kiosk: They are small, open-air stores that sell low-cost items. They do not have a typical shop wall, but rather a little designated location in a mall or market. A kiosk can be opened to sell a range of items such as flowers, balloons, newspapers, food, beverages, and so on. Florist is a floral kiosk that may be found in many malls. Another example is a Nescafe vending machine.

Street Vendors: They are the vendors who set up shop on the major street's pavements, which is very frequent in India. The goods are low-cost and of poor quality. This is the unorganised retail sector in India.

Q4) What is meant by store ambience? Explain in detail the elements to be taken care while finalizing a store ambience.

Ans) Along with window displays and in-store goods presentation, the store's overall attractiveness is influenced by the store's atmosphere. The atmosphere should be imbued with the brand's identity. A visual merchandiser has various tools at their disposal to create the perfect kind of atmosphere that complements the brand image, merchandise, and consumer profile.

Visual Communication: Any type of visual signs employed in the store is referred to as visual communication or graphics. Each poster, banner, or piece of store signage tells something about the business; thus it should be carefully chosen to match the brand image.

Lighting: Lighting is an important part of the interior and external design of the store since it generates a positive first impression of the merchandise and its surroundings. Lighting is an important design component in and of itself, but it is also an important part of the marketing display. Lighting is crucial in creating the ideal atmosphere to emphasise and sell the item. A restaurant or a high-end store would benefit from dim or yellow lighting. Yellow lights make things appear more expensive by making it appear richer. Bright lighting are appropriate for a low-cost store.

Colours: Colours have an impact on one's emotions and physical movement. Warm colours (red, orange, yellow) energise and stimulate activity, whilst cool colours (blue, green, violet) are soothing and relaxing. The colours you choose for your store's interior, fixtures, graphics, and other elements can have a big influence. Black, white, and blue have a sophisticated and mature appearance; pink has a feminine appearance; orange and yellow have a fun and youthful appearance. As a result, the colour combination should be carefully considered.

Music: Many establishments, from the local inexpensive hardware store to the supermarket, play music. Relaxing music, or even something different from what customers are used to, encourages them to stay and linger near the exhibit, resulting in increased exposure and purchases. People respond to various types of music in different ways. As a result, it should be chosen after careful consideration of the customer profile.

A youthful buyer shopping for denim may be enticed by cheerful music, but a middle-aged woman shopping for furniture may be turned off by the same music. Slow music has been shown to improve sales by establishing a relaxing environment in which to browse the collection. Similarly, rapid music during peak sales hours in the evening will help move or circulate clients by stimulating them to browse more quickly.

Scent: Scent is possibly one of the more subtle and covert strategies by which retailers manage their clients. Most people are drawn to the aroma of freshly baked bread. Whether we are aware of it or not, aroma has an impact on our mental state. According to research, a pleasant odour puts us in a good mood, which influences how we view things. Vanilla or cookie scents take us back to our youth.

The aroma of fresh bread gives us the impression that the thing is new. The scent of lily is soothing. A terrible store odder might turn off a customer, resulting in a sale being lost. It's important to keep the store smelling fresh and clean at all times, especially in the area of fresh foods, where there's a risk of spoilage and poor odour. To encourage sales, retailers are now using artificial smell dispensers to create an atmosphere based on the nature of the goods.

Textures: The textures and materials utilised in the store's interior and fixtures have a significant impact on how we view a brand. A store with completely hardwood furniture or fittings gives off a luxurious vibe. Metal fixtures give the impression of being cool and inexpensive. A textured brick or stone wall can give a store an aged and rustic appearance. Fur has a pricey appearance and feel to it. The textures and materials utilised throughout the store, from the entryway to the changing rooms, should all be consistent with the brand image.

Q5) Write down the difference between Department Store, specialty home ware store, and Hypermarkets.

Ans) Department Store: Depending on the size and scope of the shop, a department store's home ware department can house a wide range of product lines. Because of the magnitude and variety of products available, most stores allocate an entire floor to the home wear category. Though the store provides shoppers with ease by housing various departments under one roof, It's worth noting that this trend, particularly in large cities, is progressively shifting. Home Center, for example, is a home fashion and furnishings department of the Lifestyle department store.

Clothing, furniture, home appliances, toys, cosmetics, gardening, toiletries, sporting goods, paint, and hardware are among the products sold in department stores. They also sell food, books, jewellery, electronics, stationery, photographic equipment, and infant and pet necessities. Discount stores are subclassified within department stores. Discount department stores frequently include central client checkout sections, which are usually located in the store's front area. Department stores are frequently part of a larger retail chain with multiple locations throughout a country or multiple countries.

Exclusive/Speciality Homeware Store: Small stores that concentrate in a specific range of merchandise and associated items are known as specialty stores. Most stores have a large inventory of the item they specialise in and offer excellent customer service and expertise. Pricing is often in the mid to high range, based on elements such as merchandise kind and exclusivity, as well as ownership. Whether they are independently owned or part of a chain, they benefit from bulk purchasing and a centralised storage infrastructure. Some premium home fashion stores sell everything from tableware to furniture, while others specialise in one sub-category of home fashion, such as tableware (e.g. Magpie) or bed ware (e.g. Tempura), and so on. Exclusive/specialty Home fashion boutiques are preferred by many Indian buyers.

Hypermarkets: Consumers in India are unfamiliar with the concept of hypermarkets. Actually, Supermarkets were created by the British colonial authority to provide its officers with access to all home items under one roof. As a result, the supermarket, sometimes known as a modern supermarket or a hypermarket, was born. In India, hypermarkets house a variety of shops selling a variety of necessities as well as luxury items. These hypermarkets are primarily found in urban areas. In India, hypermarkets often have a heterogeneous mix of large and small individual businesses. The majority of these hypermarkets sell both domestic and international branded merchandise.

Hypermarkets, like every other product category they sell, can provide a wide range of choices in the home fashion sector. Depending on the philosophy and strategy of the store/company, they can provide a broad or limited choice of products in this area. Hypermarket products are usually of low or middling grade and are less expensive than those found at departmental or specialised stores. Electronics, household items, consumer durables, dress materials, and furniture are among the commodities sold in India's hypermarkets.

Q6) What are the elements of visual merchandising? Discuss the steps to be followed in effective visual merchandising.

Ans) Elements of Visual Merchandising

A visual merchandiser must deal with numerous aspects of VM to get clients to take the intended action (buy) and reaction (satisfaction, return for another purchase at a later date). These are the components:

  • Front of the Store: The following elements make up a company's exterior:

  • Marquee: It's a sign that displays the name of the store.

  • Entrances: These have been created with the ease of the client and the security of the store in mind. There are various types of entrances, each of which conveys a distinct impression.

  • Upscale revolving stores

  • Full-service stores with beautiful handles are known as push-pull.

  • Electronic — Stores with self-serve carts, such as Wal-Mart and Kroger.

  • Shopping centres with climate control.

  • Window Display: The store's window decorations serve as a prelude to what will be found inside. Given that a pedestrian only looks at a store window for a few seconds, a window display should be well-planned to create the most impact. The main goal should be to attract passers-attention. It starts the selling process even before the customer walks into the store and suggests what kind of item is available.

  • Store Layout: The overall look and feel of a retail store's interior, including the positioning of fixtures and merchandise, is referred to as store layout. It's a vital aspect of putting a retail shop plan into action. Effective layouts aim to expose customers to as many products as feasible given the available floor space. It relates to the distribution of floor space. There are four different types of it.

  • Selling Space: Interior displays, sales demonstration rooms, and sales transaction sections are all included (wrap desk)

  • Merchandise Space: It is allotted to inventory items, the selling floor, and the stock room area.

  • Personnel Space: Employee space, break rooms, lockers, and restrooms are all included.

  • Customer Space: It refers to the area designed for consumer comfort and ease. Restaurants, dressing rooms, lounges, restrooms, and a children's recreation area are all included.

  • Store Interior: In terms of theme and props, in-store displays should match the window display. In-store displays are further divided into the following categories:

  1. High Points: A high point is when a display is put above eye level to be visible from a distance. They're normally on the top shelf of the wall fittings, where the merchandise is stacked or hung. They are used to demonstrate how to use the product and to generate fashion trends. They can also be used to transport goods..

  2. Focal Points: Focal points are designated display spots within the store. They display products from many departments that is heaped around that location. They're a wonderful place to start if you want to encourage cross-merchandising. It comprises items like as floor and wall coverings, lighting, colours, and fixtures, and has an impact on the store's image. It is critical to provide a peaceful and comfortable environment for customers to shop.

  • Interior Display: This is a section of the general store's interior. It assists the customer in making a decision without the need for personal guidance. Fixtures and props are used to highlight items in interior displays. The majority of props are either aesthetic or useful. Decorative props are used to enhance merchandise goods such as trees, tables, and cars, while functional props are used to carry merchandise such as mannequins and shirt forms. Different sorts of interior displays are possible.

  1. Closed Display: Look but don't touch, need salesperson assistance, expensive or fragile products, and jewellery cases are some examples.

  2. Open Display: Examples are to handle merchandise without a salesperson, Self-service, etc.

  3. Architectural Display: Examples are: Actual room setting and Furniture.

  4. Store Decorations: It refers to festive decorations like Christmas, Halloween, and Valentine's Day.

Q7) Describe the different types of errors that may generally occur while planning to display the merchandise in a retail store.

Ans) Display is a well-planned and well-organized activity that should not be left to the last minute. While planning a show, every inch of the exhibit area should be thought of and considered. However, when planning a display, one should aim to avoid some of the most typical display mistakes. There are several sorts of display errors that can occur:

1)      Overflowing Displays: It is critical that the exhibit does not appear overloaded, both in terms of props and merchandise. Too many props will divert attention away from the item, defeating the goal of the display and threatening the budget. Similarly, unless the goal is to show a discount or clearance sale, too many products would dilute the message of the display. It's vital to remember that while determining how many things to show, the cost of the merchandise should be factored in. When high-value items are shown in a crowded environment, they lose their credibility.

2)     Vacant Displays: A barren exhibit, in contrast to an overcrowded display, gives the impression to customers that the store is going out of business or is about to close. It could imply that the store doesn't have enough stock to sell. The correct combination of props and goods can make all the difference.

3)     Inappropriate Use/Placement of Props: Using props that are unrelated to the merchandise or the theme of the displays might make the displays appear haphazardly put together. Similarly, props should be placed and used correctly to draw buyers' attention to the desired merchandise.

4)     Display Life: For the visual merchandising department to run well, it is critical to have a well-defined VM calendar. Display props are an investment, and their lifespan should be carefully considered. When the display isn't changed on a regular basis, it becomes monotonous and sends the message that the store doesn't have enough merchandise to display.

5)     Cleanliness: At all times, the display area should be kept clean. It reflects badly on the store if the props, mannequins, display space, and items begin to collect dust.

6)     Lack of Underlining Theme: The theme for the show will be mirrored in the display if it is not carefully thought out. The purpose of a display is to send a clear message to potential customers. Placing items with such disparate objectives does not accomplish the goal.


Q8) What is harmony? What are its different forms? Describe the elements of design one should keep in mind while creating harmony.

Ans) Harmony is a coordinating umbrella principle that encompasses and includes all other principles. Harmony is constancy in mood and agreement in feeling, i.e., the feeling that all sections of a display are connected to one another and to the total display. The observer will be uneasy if there is no harmony, and they will not be encouraged to buy anything.

Harmony is established when varied items displayed in a selling environment function well together and look appealing. Distinct musical instruments make different sounds in an orchestra, but when played correctly, they produce harmonious music. To make the most impression, these items should be combined with appropriate props and images. One essential rule to follow in order to maintain harmony is to keep the visual weight in the design balanced.

The following are three types of harmony that are discussed:

  1. Functional Harmony: It is concerned with how something functions physically, thus it must be realistic and functional. A kitchen counter used in a display that has the right height and depth for working is an example.

  2. Structural Harmony: All of the elements are carefully assembled; items should not be out of place in the display. An electrical appliance, for example, is not structurally separate from cookware, fishing gear, and outdoor furniture, which are all mixed together because these goods would be utilised on a camping trip; thus, a camping motif is maintained. As part of the trip, all of the merchandise is brought together, and harmony or a mood is established.

  3. Decorative Harmony: It contains the parts of a display that are merely there to look pretty. Butterflies and/or flowers can be employed as props to create a spring-like ambiance. These products are appealing and fit in well with the overall motif.

When developing harmony, keep the following design factors in mind:

  1. Vertical Lines: Makes thing/space look taller, uptight, stretched

  2. Horizontal Lines: Makes thing/space look wider, more relaxed

  3. Diagonal Line: Makes thing/space suggest movement and direction

  4. Curved Lines: They show movement yet have grace and calming quality.

  5. Size: The presence of a large size tends to dominate the space. It's important to make sure that the larger elements don't overwhelm the smaller ones.

  6. Texture: Smooth texture reflects light, attracting attention and making the object appear larger. Light is absorbed by textured objects, making them look smaller and heavier.

Q9) What do you understand by macro space Planogram? Discuss the important steps while setting up a new store.

Ans) A macro space planogram is a store layout diagram with clearly defined spaces for each department and/or goods category. It gives a general idea of how products should be placed on a sales floor. It is the first and most important stage in presenting items when opening a new store. In order to create a macro space planogram, you must first decide on the product categories' adjacencies and placement.

Before we begin arranging products on the sale floor, we must first comprehend the arrangement. You should think about which portions of the store can act as hot spots, which will draw the customer's attention, and so on. These are the actions to take:

Landing: After entering the store, it refers to the first 6 to 7 feet inside. The customer is still adjusting to the store's ambience in this region. As a result, any sales message displayed in front of him may be lost on him. Any item or signage exhibited in this location will not serve its intended purpose and will be misunderstood.

Zone 1: This is the first location that the consumer will notice, making it a prime sales area. It should be stocked with the most profitable items. This is where you should put clearance or discount stuff, as well as promotional items.

Zone 2: This area has the most foot traffic and should be stocked with the most popular items and brands. It's a high-turnover zone.

Zone 3: This is a crucial region. The products stacked and presented as we progress deeper into the store should be more fashion forward and current.

Zone 4: It is expected to experience limited foot traffic due to its location near the end of the store.

As a result, the most attractive merchandise (destination items) should be put in this zone to persuade visitors to walk all the way to the end of the store in order to get to these items. Customers will be exposed to a wider range of products in the store, which they might not have seen otherwise.

High Points: The focal points should be visually appealing and inviting. They should have the most appealing products in that sector that represents what that region has because they can be seen from the entrance. They can be used as anchors to draw customers into the store.

The principal shop sites are always a source of discussion and dispute, as certain well-known brands may have troubles if they are not given these coveted places. Smaller brands, on the other hand, will do well if they are placed among the more well-known brands that their customers aspire to. As a result, a thorough understanding of brand positioning and client profiles is critical.

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