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BSHF-101: Foundation Course in Humanities & Social Sciences

BSHF-101: Foundation Course in Humanities & Social Sciences

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BSHF-101 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Foundation Course in Humanities & Social Sciences, you have come to the right place. BSHF-101 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BTS, BDP, BCOMAF, BCOMCAA, BCOMFCA courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BSHF-101 / TMA / 2021-22

Course Code: BSHF-101

Assignment Name: Foundation Course in Humanities and Social Sciences

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

DCQ: Answer any two in about 500 words each.

Q 2. Discuss the role of Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian National Movement.

Ans) Mahatma Gandhi is perhaps the most widely recognized figure of the Indian Nationalist Movement for his role in leading non-violent civil uprisings. He first employed the non-violent approach in South Africa where he was serving as an expatriate lawyer. He was hurt and angry when he witnessed the discrimination and exploitation of coloured people under Whites rule. He organizes non-violent protests in the country which gained him fame and support from the people of South Africa. Unforgettable is his services which gave us freedom, the same are enumerated below.

The Satyagraha Movement: One of his major achievements is in the year 1918 were the Champaran and Kheda agitations which are also called a movement against British landlords. The farmers and peasantry were forced to grow and cultivate Indigo and were even to force to sell them at fixed prices. Finally, these farmers pledged to Mahatma Gandhi which resulted in non-violent protest. Wherein Gandhiji won the battle. Kheda, in the year 1918 was hit by floods and farmers wanted relief from tax. Using non-cooperation as his main weapon Gandhiji used it in pledging the farmers for non-payment of taxes.

The Non-Cooperation Movement: The first of the Gandhi-led movements was the Non-Cooperation Movement lasting from September 1920 until February 1922. Gandhi, during this movement, believed that the British were only successful in maintaining control because the Indians were cooperative. If the residents of a country stop co-operating with the British, then the minority Britishers would be forced to give up. The movement gained popularity, and soon, millions of people were boycotting British-run or cooperative establishments. This meant that people left their jobs, removed their children from schools, and avoided government offices. The name Mahatma Gandhi became popular.

The Dandi March, Civil Disobedience, and Salt Satyagraha: The abrupt ending of the Non-Cooperation Movement did nothing to stop the quest for independence. On March 12, 1930, protesters took part in the Dandi March, a campaign designed to resist taxes and protest the British monopoly on salt. Gandhi began the 24-day, 240-mile march with 79 followers and ended with thousands. When the protesters reached the coastal town of Dandi, they produced salt from saltwater without paying the British tax. This act was accompanied by civil disobedience across the country. The Dandi group continued moving south along the coast, producing salt along the way.

The Quit India Movement: The Quit India Movement began on August 8, 1942, during World War II. The India Congress Committee, under the urging of Gandhi, called for a mass British withdrawal and Gandhi made a “Do or Die” speech. British officials acted immediately and arrested nearly every member of the Indian National Congress party. England, with a new Prime Minister, offered some concessions to the Indian demands such as the right to make independent Provincial constitutions, to be granted after the war; they were not accepted.

Q 4. What is the role of communication in modern governance? Discuss.

Ans) If good governance requires an inclusive public space based on informed dialogue and debate, a positive relationship between communication and governance seems plausible. However, communication can further poor governance (when used to protect the state rather than serve as a voice for the people, for example, or when subject to elite capture). In addition, it is difficult to establish a clear evidence base to support positive connections between communication and governance. There are also challenges relating to causality where the link between communication and governance is thought to be reciprocal; for example, communication may help to promote good governance, but freer government may also promote participation and communication.

  1. Empirical analysis comparing a number of countries reveals a clear link between better flows of information and the quality of governance.

  2. In Bosnia, the use of media tools helped to generate public pressure against corruption in state-owned enterprises. This led to a series of legislative reforms, which helped to fight corruption and improve government capacity, accountability, and transparency.

  3. E-government initiatives – such as the E-Procurement Marketplace in Andhra Pradesh, India – can help both to reduce corruption and improve state capacity.

  4. The use of citizen score cards as a formal means of communication led to significant improvements in governance and public service delivery in Bangalore. Enabling factors also played a role, including the willingness of citizens to take part in civic activism, the engagement of local authorities and the avoidance of elite capture.

  5. The role of communication in helping citizens to make demands on their governments and to influence decision-making can be seen especially clearly in public financial management and budget expenditure. Consultations in national PRSPs, civil society budget monitoring and analysis, and civil society advocacy can enable citizens to participate in deciding where money should be allocated, in checking that the money reaches its intended target and in holding government accountable and demanding change.

The benefit of communication is most evident when the basic preconditions for democracy and/or good governance exist – when there are established mechanisms for holding government to account, for example, and when the government is prepared to listen. Findings also suggest that donors need to:

  1. Vary communication programmes according to the existing level of communication in society and the form of governance. This may involve using the internet in repressive environments or formal citizen feedback systems in more open environments.

  2. Use a mix of communication strategies. For example, the differentiated approach suggested by Silvio Weisbord involves using: mass media to reach large populations; social marketing to target specific groups; social mobilisation to bolster participation; media advocacy to gain support from governments and donors; and popular folk media to generate dialogue and activate information networks.

  3. Recognise the challenges in identifying and using sound empirical data. These include difficulties in quantifying communication inputs and governance outputs, in attributing impact, and in identifying and measuring the impact of communication programmes subsumed in wider governance activities.

MCQ: Answer any four questions in about 250 words each.

Q 5. What do you understand by the term 'Reformation'? Discuss.

Ans) The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church. The Reformation was the start of Protestantism and the split of the Western Church into Protestantism and what is now the Roman Catholic Church. It is also considered to be one of the events that signify the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the early modern period in Europe.

The term Reformation implies two major developments in the history of Europe towards the latter part of Renaissance. First, the Protestant Revolution which resulted in a split in Christian Dom and secondly, the secession of a large number of countries from the Roman Catholic Church by establishing separate Churches in those countries, generally along national lines. This triggered reforms within the Roman Catholic Church, generally referred to as the Catholic Reformation or Counter Reformation. But Reformation was not merely a religious movement. It was intimately connected with, and was in fact, a part of the social and political movements of the period which brought about the end of the medieval period and the emergence of the modem world. As in the case of Renaissance, Reformation must be seen in the context of the social, economic, and political changes in Europe.

Q 6. What do you understand by the term 'Human Security'. Briefly discuss.

Ans) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the UN in 1948 states that that "everyone has the right to life, liberty and the security of person ..." However, the concept of human security now encompasses economic, health, and environmental concerns as well. Human security emphasises the need to strengthen empowerment of the citizens. Achievement of human security requires a global political culture that is founded on shared values of human dignity and human rights. Hence important issues in human security like children in war, landmine, and ethnic conflicts should be discussed from a broad human rights perspective. In essence, human security means freedom from pervasive threats to people's rights, their safety or even their lives.

A human security perspective asserts that the security of the state is not an end in itself. Rather, it is a means of ensuing security for its people. In this context, state security and human security are mutually supportive. Building an effective, democratic state that values its own people and protects minorities is a central strategy for promoting human security. The term "human security recognises the linkages between environment and society. It also recognises two other features of the link between environment and security. Human security provides an enabling environment for human development. Where violence or the threat of violence makes meaningless progress on the development agenda impossible, enhancing safety for people is a prerequisite. Civil wars and riots depict such situations. Promoting human development can also be an important strategy for Mering human security. By addressing inequalities that are often the root causes of violent conflict, strengthening governance structures, complementing political, economic, and legal initiatives, can enhance human security.

Q 8. Is Planning relevant in India today? Discuss.

Ans) Today, India is among the top most developed countries in the world, because of India's planning and Management. Planning and Management is very necessary in the terms of Country's development and progression. And, in country like India, where about 1.37 Billion people lives, The planning and taking decisions is very important. India is having the large poverty. Due to this several threats and problems are formed day by day. Planning is very necessary in order to bring the country in a right way.

Not for only development but also for poor people, Government should plan about the things. Once the condition of a country will become very critical, then the country's role from the world will be no more. So, Government should plan about the various poor people and also about the unemployment rate in India. Various disasters and calamities are occurred in India every year. This causes the serious harm of people and economy. India should plan the situation in such a way that, no people should have problems with this kind of disasters. 

When India got Independent, Indian Prime Minister Dr. Jawaharlal Nehru started the 5 years schemes. After the 5 year plan, Indian government started the project called as "Niti Ayog". The main motive of this plan was to transform the India in a developed way such that, every citizen of country should get the education for free. Today in 2020, Digital India is among those economic development plan. This project started by our honourable prime minister Narendra Modi aims to make the services given in India digital, Make india electronic and more developed in the fields of science and technology.

Q 12. What do you understand by the term 'Directive Principles' as given in our constitution?

Ans) The Directive Principles of State Policy are guidelines to the central and state governments of India, to be kept in mind while framing laws and policies. These provisions, contained in Part IV of the Constitution of India, are not enforceable by any court, but the principles laid down therein are considered fundamental in the governance of the country, making it the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws to establish a just society in the country. The principles have been inspired by the Directive Principles given in the Constitution of Ireland and also by the principles of Gandhism; and relate to social justice, economic welfare, foreign policy, and legal and administrative matters.

They aim at achieving social and economic democracy for establishing a welfare state. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian, economic, and socialistic, political, and administrative, justice and legal, environmental, protection of monuments and peace and security. Directive Principles are guidelines to the  government for just and effective governance. The Constitution lists a series of  them; for instance, provision of equal pay for equal work, prohibition of all  intoxicants, especially alcohol, promotion of small and cottage industries etc.  Though the Directive Principles are not legally enforceable, this in no way means  that they are unimportant. Over the years, in post-independent India, the government  of the day has enacted suitable legislation based on various Directive Principles.  So, we can say that over time, many of these Principles have become legally  enforceable also.  It may interest you to know that the Directive Principles of State Policy are an  influence of the Irish Constitution.

SCQ: Write short notes on any two in about 100 words each: 6+6

Q 13. (ii) Juvenile Justice Act

Ans) The Juvenile Justice (JJ) Act was launched in 1986 with a view to provide uniform pattern of justice to the juveniles throughout the length and breadth of the country. The Act makes provision for the protection and rehabilitation of neglected children and ensures that legally no child is lodged in jail or detained in police lock-up. It also seeks to provide facilities of education, training and rehabilitation of children who have become delinquents or are in distress. The JJ Act categorises children into, (i) those who are neglected, destitute, orphaned and in dire need of care and protection. They are lodged in orphanage, observation homes or remand homes, and (ii) delinquent children who await correctional measures. A juvenile delinquent is one who commits an act which, if he or she was an adult would be a crime.

Q13. (iii) Social Structure

Ans) Social structure is a patterned set of rules. These rules and frameworks to be considered a social structure must continue and endure over a time. Since social structure is a set of rules which are made by human beings they are liable to change in the long run. Social structures reflect some dimensions of interaction such as power, economic resources, prestige, values, etc. Social structure is that enduring aspect of society which has a pattern and which is basically a set of rules that govern actual behaviour. To understand how this behaviour happens, we explored the associated concepts of status and role. We touched upon the various aspects nuances of status and roles.

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