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BSHF-101: Foundation Course in Humanities & Social Sciences

BSHF-101: Foundation Course in Humanities & Social Sciences

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BSHF-101 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Foundation Course in Humanities & Social Sciences, you have come to the right place. BSHF-101 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BTS, BDP, BCOMAF, BCOMCAA, BCOMFCA courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BSHF-101 /TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BSHF-101

Assignment Name: Foundation Course in Humanities and Social Sciences

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


DCQ: Answer any two in about 500 words each.


1. What do you understand by the term post-industrial society?Discuss.20

Ans) A stage of economic development known as the post-industrial society is labelled by a move from manufacturing-based industries to a service and information-based economy. In the middle of the 20th century, the phrase "post-industrial society" first appeared, and it became more common in the 1970s and 1980s.


Manufacturing and heavy industry lose relevance in post-industrial nations, while service sectors including banking, healthcare, education, and information technology gain prominence. The demand for a lot of blue-collar workers has decreased as a result of technology advancements that have made it possible to automate and streamline many manufacturing operations.


The nature of technology changes as a result in the post-industrial society. In essence, there is a shift from mechanical to intellectual technology. The components of coded programming, software, and other gadgets, which become the way in which we organise our stuff, are manifestations of this intellectual technology. The education needed for the age of intellectual technology is very different from the education needed for the period of mechanical technology. Several authors have noted that a revolution in material science is occurring at the same time, which has an impact on trade and manufacturing. Engineers won't refer to distinct metals like copper, tin, or zinc any longer. 'What kind of pipes do you want, they will ask? Do you prefer ductility over conductivity? What do you want something to do, in a sense? As noted by Bell, "they will infer from the mix of materials a reconstituent element exactly as now we may think of a recombinant DNA in the organisation of biological processes."


Bell clarifies that this process involves more than just computers and telephones. Underneath, there is a matrix that enables us to trace the dissemination of things and see how these things start to happen. In other words, if you want to think about a post-industrial society, diffusion, not creativity or creation, is what matters. According to Bell, the critical moment in today's society is the start of these diffusion processes, not necessarily that of invention or creativity. This is the time at which components of change begin to take root and spread across society.


The transition to a service-based economy is only one of many social and cultural shifts that post-industrial nations have undergone. a re-establish.

  1. An increase in the value of knowledge and information: In a post-industrial society, knowledge and information are essential resources that give those who can manage and use them well a competitive advantage.

  2. Growing creative class: There is an increasing need for professionals with creative and technical talents, such as software engineers, graphic designers, and marketing specialists, as the service sectors become more significant.

  3. A move in favour of a dispersed, more adaptable workforce: Many workers can now work from home or other remote areas because to advancements in communication technology, which has reduced the necessity for centralised offices.

  4. A growing movement towards sustainable and ecologically friendly practises has emerged in post-industrial cultures, which are frequently more conscious of the effects of their economic operations on the environment.

  5. Changes to social structures: As conventional industries lose prominence, social structures like the family and local groups may shift.


2. Discuss the role of Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian National Movement.20.

Ans) The Indian National Movement, which aimed to free the country from British colonial authority, was greatly influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, who is also referred to as the Father of the Nation in his own country. Gandhi's direction, outlook, and strategies had a crucial role in directing the movement and finally guiding India to independence in 1947. Gandhi saw racial injustice directly during his formative years in South Africa, when he practised law and was an activist. He created the satyagraha school of thought, which emphasises the superiority of truth and moral force above coercion and violence.


By 1907, the Swadeshi Movement was in decline. Additionally, the Congress split in 1907, and Tilak was jailed and deported in 1908. Lala Lajpat Rai briefly departed India, Aurobindo Ghosh and Bipin Chandra Pal withdrew from politics. The nationalist movement decreased as a result of all these developments. After going dormant for a while, it was reactivated during World War One. The Home Rule-Leagues were founded by Annie Besant and Tilak, and the two wings of the Congress merged in 1916. The Ghadar Movement, which was launched in the United States by some Indian revolutionaries and attempted to end British authority in India, also took place during the War. However, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's arrival from South Africa, who would later become known as Mahatma Gandhi, was the most significant development. Gandhi had challenged the apartheid government in South Africa for Indian rights. Gandhi was the leading figure in the national struggle from 1919 till India gained its independence in 1947. Gandhi promptly joined the Indian National Congress, the major political group for Indian independence, after his return to India in 1915. Many Indians who were dissatisfied with the glacial pace of their country's march toward independence connected with Gandhi's message of nonviolence and civil disobedience.


Gandhi's first significant campaign was a nonviolent one against the Rowlatt Act, which gave the British colonial authorities broad authority to repress opposition and was implemented in 1919. In some regions of the nation, the protests got violent, but Gandhi pushed his followers to maintain order and discipline, which boosted support for the campaign. Gandhi started the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 as a way of protesting the British salt levy. Gandhi organised a 24-day march to the Arabian Sea, where he and his supporters ceremonially evaporated saltwater to create salt. The movement led to significant civil disobedience and protests across the nation, which put pressure on the British government to hold talks with the leaders of India. Gandhi's methods for organising big crowds and applying pressure to the British administration were successful. Gandhi's plan for a free India was not without opposition, though. Some viewed his call for a decentralised, agrarian society based on ancient Indian values as backwards and unworkable.


Gandhi's legacy as the founder of the Indian National Movement is undeniable, despite these accusations. Many other movements throughout the world, including as the American Civil Rights Movement and the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa, were influenced by his idea of nonviolence and civil disobedience. Gandhi's moral authority and inspiring leadership continue to motivate people today to fight for justice, freedom, and human rights.


MCQ: Answer any four questions in about 250 words each.


5. What do you understand by the term 'Renaissance'? Discuss.12.

Ans) From the 14th to the 17th century, Europe underwent the Renaissance, which was characterised by a resurgence of classical art, literature, and knowledge. The word "Renaissance," which is French for "rebirth" or "revival," describes the period's resurgence of interest in classical Greek and Roman literature, philosophy, art, and science. Scholars and artists worked to push the limits of human knowledge and creativity during the Renaissance, which was a time of immense intellectual and artistic achievement. The most important Renaissance artists include Galileo Galilei, Michelangelo, Raphael, William Shakespeare, and Leonardo da Vinci.


Many facets of human activity underwent significant transformation and invention throughout the Renaissance. Perspective and realism were two new artistic approaches and styles that emerged throughout the Renaissance and completely changed how artists depicted their surroundings. During this time, new literary forms like the sonnet and the novel emerged, contributing to the flourishing of literature as a whole.  Science and technology made major strides during the Renaissance as researchers and creators attempted to comprehend how the natural world functioned. For instance, Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press altered how information was shared, while Galileo Galilei produced important discoveries in astronomy.


The Renaissance had a significant influence on European culture and society, opening the door for several innovations that helped to create the modern world. A humanistic spirit that placed a high importance on individual success and creativity defined the time period. As academics and thinkers started to challenge conventional wisdom and cast doubt on long-held ideas, the Renaissance also served as the start of the modern period.

6. What do you understand by the term 'Human Security’. Briefly discuss.12.

Ans) Human security is a notion that encompasses individual safety and wellbeing as opposed to only state security or the defence of national interests. It highlights how crucial it is to address the different risks and difficulties that might have an impact on people's life, such as poverty, disease, environmental degradation, political instability, and violence. The foundation of human security is the belief that everyone should have access to the opportunities and resources they require to lead happy and secure lives. This covers having access to both more abstract requirements like personal safety, social relationships, a sense of purpose and belonging as well as more practical necessities like food, water, housing, and healthcare.


Human security is a multidisciplinary term that relies on a range of academic disciplines and fields, including international relations, development studies, human rights, and environmental studies. The interconnectedness of the numerous risks and difficulties people face around the world must be addressed, it emphasises. In recent years, as the globe has gotten more interconnected and as people have faced more complicated and multidimensional difficulties, the idea of human security has become increasingly important. The United Nations has been instrumental in advancing the idea of human security because it understands how crucial it is to protect and care for people in order to achieve sustainable development and advance peace and stability.


7. Is the Indian economy now integrated with the global economy? Comment.12.

Ans) Yes, there is a great degree of economic integration between the Indian and the rest of the world nowadays. India has significantly opened up its economy, accepted globalisation, and deepened its integration into the world economy over the previous few decades. This integration has been facilitated by a number of variables. The liberalisation of trade and investment regulations, which has made it simpler for foreign corporations to invest in India and for Indian companies to conduct business overseas, has been one of the most significant. A number of free trade agreements that India has struck with various nations and areas have helped to facilitate trade and investment flows.


Other facets of the Indian economy have also merged more deeply with the global economy, in addition to trade and investment. For instance, Indian businesses have established themselves as key players in the global technology and services industries, with many of them offering outsourcing services to businesses abroad. A significant source of foreign direct investment (FDI), with businesses from all over the world investing in industries including manufacturing, services, and infrastructure, is India. Nevertheless, despite this integration, India still has certain difficulties in completely reaping the rewards of globalisation. Since many Indians have yet to gain from the nation's economic growth and absorption into the global economy, inequality is one of the main challenges. Concerns have also been raised regarding how globalisation may affect India's ecology, natural resources, and social and cultural fabric.


8. Is Planning relevant in India today?Discuss.12.

Ans) In spite of the fact that the type and extent of planning have changed over time, it is still important in India today. Indian economic planning has a long history that dates back to the year of the nation's independence, 1947. Early planning efforts were concentrated on achieving self-sufficiency and fostering domestic industries. The nation's first Five-Year Plan, which was introduced in 1951, mirrored this.


The emphasis of planning has changed over time to take into account shifting economic interests and global trends. In recent years, there has been a focus on encouraging equitable and sustainable growth, with a focus on lowering poverty and inequality, fostering rural development, and spending money on infrastructure and human resources. The sector of infrastructure development is one of the main areas in India where planning is still important. India's infrastructure still needs major investment in areas like highways, trains, airports, and ports because it is deficient in many ways. Planning may guarantee that these investments are done strategically and in a coordinated manner, and that they are in line with more general economic and social goals.


Planning is important in fields like education and healthcare where it's important to make sure that funds are distributed in a way that encourages equity and access for everyone. Planning can assist in identifying the areas of highest need and in developing strategies for fully meeting these requirements. Effective planning in India has a number of obstacles, including red tape, political meddling, and weak data and information infrastructure. A realistic awareness of the nation's strengths and limitations is also required in order for planning to be responsive to shifting economic and social conditions.


SCQ: Write short notes on any two in about 100 words each: 6+6


13. (i) Directive Principles in the Indian Constitution

Ans) The Indian Constitution contains a collection of rules and principles known as the Directive Principles of State Policy, which command the government to take certain acts to advance the welfare of the populace and create a just and equitable society. Despite not being legally binding, they are seen as essential to the nation's governance. The social, economic, and political challenges are just a few of the many topics that the Directive Principles address. They cover things like safeguards for minorities', women's, and children's rights; advancing health and education; ensuring that everyone has access to enough food and shelter; and safeguarding the environment.


13. (ii) Juvenile Justice Act

Ans) The treatment of children who have run afoul of the law in India is governed by the Juvenile Justice Act (JJA). The Act was first proposed in 1986, and since then, various revisions have been made; the most recent was approved in 2015. The JJA's primary goal is to guarantee that children who interact with the legal system are treated in a way that respects their rights and needs as children. The Act outlines a number of actions that can be taken to encourage the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders and to stop them from engaging in more criminal behaviour.

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