If you are looking for BSOG-173 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Rethinking Development, you have come to the right place. BSOG-173 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAG, BAHIH, BAPSH, BAPCH, BAPAH, BAEGH, BAPFHMH, BAECH, BSCANH, BAHDH courses of IGNOU.
BSOG-173 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BSOG-173/ASST/TMA/July 2022-23
Course Code: BSOG-173
Assignment Name: Rethinking Development
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
Q1) Explain the intellectual sources of the world systems theory. 20
Ans) A different approach to the traditional understanding of economic development is offered by the world system theory. It emerged as a critique of the industrialization and modernization processes that constrained the conventional understanding of progress.
A Critique to the Modernization Paradigm of Development: Dependency Theory and Beyond
The modernization thesis was based on the premise that impoverished countries are still in the initial stage of history, which rich countries had long since passed through, and that development occurs in a succession of capitalist stages. It offered a highly upbeat view of growth and highlighted the fact that impoverished nations are falling behind since they are currently in a period of development that is earlier than the West, particularly Europe, was decades ago.
Similar to the dependence theory, the world-systems theory has a tendency to reify elements of the totality as if they were autonomous entities before comparing them. Similar to dependence theory, it now challenges how many conventional Marxists and liberal economists have understood the development process in terms of dual economies.
According to this theory, the world's undeveloped nations are made up of two distinct economies or parts, each with its own structure, history, and mode of production. The existence of pre-capitalist/traditional and capitalist/modern modes of production focused toward meeting local subsistence requirements and the global export/cash economy, respectively, is reflected by the two distinct sections in the impoverished countries. These distinct components are a reflection of various developmental and capitalist mode of production integration stages.
The world-systems theory as dependency perspective, on the other hand, emphasises that a country's or its region's underdevelopment and backwardness are to be regarded as a result of its membership in a single global capitalist system. The world-systems theory, like the dependency theory, looks at the capitalist system on a global scale as a whole, showing that the current underdevelopment is largely a historical by-product of past and ongoing relations between the underdeveloped and developed countries on the economic and other fronts. It challenges the modernization theory's assertion that developing nations can advance by absorbing the institutions and principles of capitalism from more established capitalist nations.
The dependency theory is categorically established as one of the most prominent predecessors to the modernization perspective in the world-systems theory's critique of it. The world-systems theory, on the other hand, offers a more sophisticated framework for comprehending development and underdevelopment as a globally integrated process. By arguing that the core exploits workers in all economic zones rather than just the periphery, Wallerstein went beyond the dependency theory's basic tenet that core countries and states exploit undeveloped poor countries. Instead of the outdated and oversimplified international division of labour proposed by dependency theorists, it provides a more pertinent understanding of capitalist expansion by adopting a historical perspective that recognises a change in the organisation of capitalism in terms of interregional and transnational division of labour.
Other Inspirations - Annales School
World systems theory's historiographical methodology and approach to comprehending capitalism are influenced by the Annales School tradition. In this regard, Fernand Braudel's influence on Wallerstein's thinking is crucial. Wallerstein was inspired to explore the history of global capitalism as a continuous process, encompassing the creation and destruction of geo-ecological zones, by Braudel's concept of the longue durée. This led him to focus on long-term structures, patterns, and trends rather than what is known as "histoire événementielle," the "eventual" and short time span as observed in traditional history, and to make a more comprehensive and macro examination of the history of the emergence of world capitalism.
Q2) Discuss briefly the approaches to social development. 20
Ans) The approaches to social development are as follows:
Development from the Top
The central or apex entities of administration would formulate and carry out development projects under the "development from the top" philosophy. The central organisations create initiatives, decide on their type and direction, and then impose them on the populace.
This strategy makes the implicit premise that those in need of development are unable to comprehend their requirements, come up with development plans, and carry those plans out on their own. Thus, the necessity for specialists and outside organisations. In actuality, this presumption is unfounded. The elite at the top have a personal stake in holding such beliefs. Their main objective is to maintain control over resources and use them for their own gain. Because they lack adequate resources of their own and any ability to manage the resources of the community, the people accept the growth plans. As a result, the majority of top-down directives fail to provide the expected outcomes.
Development from the Bottom
The proponents of the second approach to development from the bottom hold the capabilities and intentions of those in need of development in high regard. They are given the chance to describe their issues and potential solutions. They receive training, are empowered, and are equipped to assist themselves. The decision to use resources for development initiatives is made by the parties involved, either directly or through local representatives. As a result, plans are more decentralised and people participate more.
Three strategies—sectoral development, area development, and target group development—are envisioned based on the "unit" of development. The term "sectoral development approach" refers to the creation and implementation of plans for the growth of a certain economic sector, such as agriculture or industry. They therefore devised plans to create technology or acquire it from other nations. Education in technology was emphasised. On the other hand, money was made available for large businesses like cement, steel, and textiles. Later, when the nation experienced a food crisis in the early 1960s, the planners considered expanding the agricultural industry.
Numerous agricultural universities were established as a result, aiding in the development of high yielding crop types, insecticides, herbicides, and farm equipment like threshers. Loans were extended to farmers rather generously, and extension services were made available to educate and persuade farmers to use new agricultural technologies.
Regions that are underdeveloped lack infrastructure improvements such as roads, railroads, electrification, etc. or are plagued by flood and drought issues. We refer to plans developed for a region's or area's infrastructure development as area development approaches.
Target Group Development
A strategy known as the target group focuses on a specific group of individuals, such as small farmers, women, and agricultural labourers. The target group strategy is exemplified by programmes like the Small Farmers Development Agency and the reservation of seats in schools, colleges, and jobs for members of the scheduled caste.
There is another kind of development that places emphasis on the general well-being of the inhabitants of a village or town. A community development method is what this is. This strategy emphasises the growth of institutions of higher learning, healthcare facilities, social and economic activities, and other infrastructure amenities.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
Q3) What is urbanism? How is it different from urbanization. 10
Ans) “Urbanism is that complex of traits that makes up the characteristic mode of life in cities.”
Urbanization describes a situation where citizens change from agricultural to industrial type of occupation. By so doing, residence characteristics change from rural to urban. Due to the migration from rural areas to urban areas, urbanization can also describe the rate at which people move from to the cities. Urbanism on the other hand defines the way people live and conduct themselves in the cities. Thus, for urbanism to occur there need not be any form of permanent migration to the cities or formation of cities.
Urbanization involves a physical movement of people to cities as well change in the physical appearance of the land through emergence of industrial building and facilities. The occupations of the individuals change due to the change in the environment. Urbanism is a process that is not reversible. The change in social values arising from the influence of city life is permanent. Once the ideas are absorbed, there no way society can revert to the old state of mind and conduct. However, urbanization is a reversible process.
In urbanization, an individual or a group of individuals can decide to move into the city to search for work and reside there. Most of the individuals will still reside in the rural areas. If the entire village moves to the city, the opportunity cost will be too high. However, urbanism is a force that affects the whole population without discrimination. The influence is either absorbed or detested, but its impact has already been felt.
The influences of urbanization are experienced in the proximity of the city or urban area involved. The increased congestion, increased pollution and other effects are only experienced within the town in question. However, urbanism stretches everywhere. The influences of an overseas city could have impact on a local location. This occurs due to the mobility of individuals on the global arena.
Q4) Describe Paul Baran’s dependency theory of development? 10
Ans) According to the dependency theory, the developed affluent countries' control and imperialist assertion over the less developed ones is the cause of the latter's underdevelopment. The hypothesis of underdevelopment was invented by Paul Baran.
He believed that capitalism exploited the Third World because of its fundamental qualities. In order to extract the economic surplus, the capitalist world retains the developing world as an essential hinterland. According to Baran, historical interactions between underdeveloped and developed nations prevented industrialization from occurring, conditioned class formation, and skewed the development process to meet the demands of the developed nations. This contact also accelerated the breakdown of pre-capitalist structures in underdeveloped nations.
According to Baran, the biggest obstacle to the formation of the "classical" conditions for growth in impoverished nations is not a lack of economic surplus caused by low levels of production and income. Instead, it is the way in which the economic surplus is used. In addition to other barriers preventing the entry of mercantile accumulations into the realm of industrial production, the excess is taken by merchants, moneylenders, and middlemen of all types. Capital also exits the sphere of circulation and enters the sphere of production.
According to Baran, the Third World countries' current class structures are also to blame for their dependent state. If the undeveloped nations had been able to grow independently, they would have started using their natural resources on their own initiative and at more favourable conditions than those obtained from international investors. Baran is just as unrealistic as Marx because of his concern with the socialist paradigm of economic growth.
Q5) Analyse social perspective on human development. 10
Ans) Human growth is influenced by social development because social institutions have a significant impact on how individuals use their abilities. According to Khalid Malik, social institutions have an impact on both human capability and behaviour, influencing both. Social institutions are non-profit and non-state organisations including neighbourhood groups, sports teams, and non-governmental organisations. Both the state and the market have an impact on and are impacted by these social structures. The importance of social institutions and civil society in communicating public concerns and supporting governmental policies was highlighted in the 2014 Human Development Report.
Additionally, social development refers to the expansion of peoples' access to social possibilities. Economic and social factors work best together. Individuals and their possibilities should be seen in the context of society, according to Jean Dreze and Amartya Sen. The opportunities of individuals are impacted by the state and various societal institutions. The options that may be open to a person in an egalitarian society are different from those that may be available to a person in a caste society, for example.
Social opportunity is also influenced by governmental policies and social factors. We can look at how state policies affected Indian farmers during COVID 19 to demonstrate this. The March 2020 national lockdown, which India imposed to protect the health of its citizens, had a negative effect on Indian farmers because they were unable to sell their winter harvest. Due to a labour shortage in the rural areas, there were transportation bottlenecks. A supply chain breakdown and a lack of buyers in the wholesale marketplaces were also present. Therefore, throughout this national health crisis, state policy had a direct impact on the social opportunities for Indian farmers. Social and economic words should be used in conjunction with one another.
Write a note on the following in about 100 words each.
Q6) Progress 6
Ans) To make progress is to move forward, according to this definition. The progression toward a desired outcome is the basic definition of progress. As there are desirable ends, there might be as many different sorts of development. It is a notion with a lot of value. The improvement of the human situation from a state of nature to ever-higher degrees of culture, economic organisation, and political structure is a continuous process (towards an ideal state). The growing complexity of society and the need to increase knowledge via the advancement of the sciences and arts are linked to progress. This process entails change and conflict; thus, it must be appropriately managed.
Q7) Poverty 6
Ans) Being in a condition or situation of poverty refers to not having enough money or the necessities of life for oneself or a group of others. A person is considered to be in poverty if their income from employment is insufficient to cover their basic requirements. Poor individuals and families might not have access to a decent home, clean water, wholesome food, or medical treatment. The number of poor people can be determined using the rules that each nation has developed.
One of the traditional metrics for evaluating the state of development in a given civilization has been the degree of poverty in a given nation. The spread of poverty, particularly in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, has been significantly attributed to developing countries' lower Gross National Product and stark economic disparities. Due to the widespread poverty in emerging nations, it is more difficult to provide a minimal quality of living in terms of nutrition, access to necessities, health, and education, among other things.
Q8) Entitlements 6
Ans) Sen sees entitlement as a type of capacity that enables a person to create control and ownership over particular goods through predetermined rules of legitimacy. He cites malnutrition, hunger, and starvation as examples of unfreedom in this context, all of which can be grouped together under the heading of famine. He claims that these issues may include entitlement issues that affect people's capacity to obtain enough food as well as agricultural whims that generate a scarcity in food production as their root causes.
A person's entitlement as a capability is influenced by a variety of factors, including:
The possession of resources that are useful or endowed with assets.
Possessing production-related technical knowledge
A market's ability to exchange commodities and services.
The social security program's existence or absence.
By giving the poor enough entitlement protection, starvation and hunger may be reduced.
Q9) Welfare approach to development 6
Ans) Up to the 1970s, development initiatives only looked at women's needs in the context of their reproductive responsibilities. As a result, only nutrition, child care, and mother and child health received any attention from development policies. Later, when the connection between population growth and poverty came to be understood more widely, family planning and population control also began to play a significant role in such policies.
The welfare approach prioritises people as the recipients or targets of all development initiatives. It encourages state and non-state organisations to fund social sector spending and provide welfare goods for growth. It emphasises determining what people's basic needs are in terms of food, clothing, shelter, and water, among other things, and taking direct public provisioning action to meet those needs. As a result, this strategy emphasises people as passive recipients of growth.
Q10) Social environment
Ans) Abiotic and biotic factors are essential to human existence, just as societal structure and relationships shape the social environment. Political, economic, and religious organisations as well as cultural norms and values are all part of the social environment. These institutions all play important roles in the social environment and control how it uses environmental resources for its survival.
A family is one of the main institutions of social organisation in the sociocultural environment and serves a variety of purposes, including socialisation, reproduction, passing down cultural traditions from one generation to the next, and many others. Culture is the component of the environment that was created by humans, and it also influences the social context and behaviour of others. The cultural environment is always influenced by social standards, economic activity, political institutions, and religious institutions. Another significant aspect that affects how resources are obtained and put to use in economic activity is the state of the economy.
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