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BSW-124: Human Growth, Behaviour and Counselling

BSW-124: Human Growth, Behaviour and Counselling

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BSW-124 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Human Growth, Behaviour and Counselling, you have come to the right place. BSW-124 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BSWG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BSW-124/ASST/2021-22

Course Code: BSW-124

Assignment Name: Human Growth, Behaviour and Counselling

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


(i) Answer any five of the following questions in about 300 words each.

(ii) All questions carry equal marks.

Q1. Write a short note on hereditary endowment. (20)

Ans) The determination of the newly created individual's hereditary endowment is the first crucial factor at the time of conception. Hereditary endowment has an impact on later development. Individuals can only go so far because of their genetic makeup. People can develop their inherent physical and mental features to their full potential if prenatal and postnatal conditions are favourable, and they are highly driven, but they cannot go much further. Hereditary endowment occurs solely by chance.

The maturation of physical and mental qualities that make up an individual's hereditary endowment determines and is intimately related with the personality pattern. Although social and other contextual influences influence the shape of a personality pattern, it is not instilled or controlled from without; rather, it emerges from the individual's potentials. Heredity provides the primary raw materials for personality: physical appearance, intelligence, and temperament. The environmental influences in which a person grows determine how he or she develops.

Many academics have emphasised the importance of inherited endowment in defining personality pattern. The interaction of notable adults with the child is said to shape the youngster's personality. The child brings a biological constitution, a set of needs, and intellectual capacities to this connection, which define how a person is acted upon by major figures in her surroundings. The person picks from his surroundings what matches his needs and rejects what does not as a result of the combination of hereditary and environmental factors. As a result, personality patterns emerge as a result of interactions with the environment that an individual has begun.

One rationale for emphasising the importance of heredity in the development of personality is to acknowledge that personality patterns are limited. A person who inherits a low level of intellect, for example, cannot establish a personality pattern that will lead to acceptable personal and social adjustment, even under the most favourable environmental conditions, as a person with a high degree of intelligence may. As a result, a person's development is constrained by heredity.

Furthermore, acknowledging the restrictions imposed by genetics emphasises that people are not completely free to choose and develop the personality pattern they desire. Using intelligence as an example, it is possible to say that a person with a low-grade intellect cannot create the personality pattern of a leader, even if he wishes to do so and has a great desire to do so.

Q2. Explain the concept and meaning of youth. (20)

Ans) Every society's primary concern has always been young; so, empowering youth for the good of society is one of the most critical concerns facing any country. It would be reasonable for us to define youth for this purpose. The concept of youth can be interpreted in a variety of ways:

The Age Group of Youth

Youth has been described as an age group because it is the most easy, popular, and common-sense way to do so. It is considered that this category more accurately defines youth than any other. Because of the similar experience shared by all young people, they define themselves in certain ways as sharing the same fate.

Youth as a Stage of Transition Between Childhood and Adulthood

A social scientist, Mitteraeur, has identified four key events that signify the shift from infancy to adulthood. These transitional marks, he claims, have remained rather consistent over time. However, as Mitteraeur points out, these transitory marks have limitations in terms of defining who youth are. For young men and young women, the timing of these characteristics of transition, their meaning, and the order in which they occur differs, as does the sequence in which they occur. Some transitional marketplaces, for example, are usually only available to young men. Males were the only ones who could join the army in many countries or cultures until recently. Furthermore, the entire concept of youth is entwined with patriarchal behaviours —- the phrase "youth" conjures up images of a young man. As a result, we must really extend our horizons.

As a Social Construct, Youth

Every society has its own perspective on youth. These societal constructions aren't always accurate, and they don't always portray youngsters as they are. Studying how other countries build perspectives of young is one of the finest methods to understand how youth are socially constructed. These perspectives differ from one society to the next. A comparison of several points of view can assist us in better understanding our own.

In some communities, such as those where individuals subsist by hunting and gathering, youth can be an astonishingly brief era because the skills essential for survival are normally acquired during childhood. In adult roles, these abilities are normally required as soon as possible. The concept of youth, or at least young people, is being stretched more and further in other countries, particularly late capitalist economies like those of modern-day Europe and the United States of America. The explanation for this can be traced back to structural changes. People tend to stay in the category of youth for longer as structural adjustment continues to cause lengthy durations of unemployment, particularly for school leavers. In many Western countries today, the term "youth" appears to encompass adults in their early thirties.

Q6. List the determinants of abnormal behaviour and explain with the help of an example. (20)

Ans) The determinants of abnormal behaviour are as follows:

Infrequent Occurrence

The vast majority of people exhibit ordinary behaviour, according to societal norms as and when they are required. Statistically, a 'abnormal' value is one that deviates from the norm in terms of occurrence, frequency, or intensity. This means that, in theory, practically any behaviour in a person could become 'abnormal' if statistical deviation is substantial. Take, for example, anxiety. Anxiety, as well as its bodily manifestations such as heart palpitations and sweating, may be a common occurrence in a distressed person. However, if these characteristics are manifested more frequently than usual, it could indicate the presence of an aberrant condition. Another example is the habit of washing one's hands repeatedly and compulsively. However, frequency cannot be used as the primary criterion for abnormality; other factors must be examined as well.

Norms are being Broken

Social standards and cultural values guide human behaviour in a variety of contexts since humans are social animals. A person's behaviour might be classified as abnormal if it contradicts established and accepted social norms, threatens others, or causes them anxiety. In this context, abnormality is defined as a departure from recognised social norms. A word of caution about this method of classification: social norms differ among cultures.

For example, members of a Native American community may consider hearing voices from a deceased relative to be natural, whereas a European might consider this to be hallucination. In certain cultures, a social standard may be considered a violation of the norm in others. Even within a culture, this idea is too wide to serve as a defining criterion on its own, as there are multiple exceptions. Criminals and prostitutes, for example, defy social norms, yet they aren't always examined in the context of abnormal psychology.

The Amount of Distress

When a specific behaviour causes stress in the individual experiencing it as well as others around them, it is called abnormal. For example, an alcoholic who consumes alcohol on a regular basis may realise that his habit is unhealthy and seek to stop. This is a symptom of abnormal behaviour. Because people decide and report on how much they are experiencing, the personal distress model is likewise insufficient. Also, various people's levels of distress varied.


When a person's emotions, actions, or thoughts interfere with his capacity to live a regular life in society, this is referred to as dysfunction or impairment. Substance addiction disorders, for example, which are caused by inappropriate drug use, can have a negative impact on a person's ability to work.


This attribute considers the recurrence of a specific behaviour in an unexpected manner.

Q7. Write the characteristics of a good counsellor with regard to communication skills. (20)

Ans) Counseling is an interpersonal process, so solid communication skills are needed for a successful counsellor. In terms of communication skills, the following are the traits of a good counsellor:

  1. A skilled counsellor is aware of his own body language and how it affects the client. He maintains eye contact with the client, nods to express his interest, and avoids showing indicators of weariness (e.g., yawning) or restlessness (e.g. fidgeting).

  2. A skilled counsellor spends significantly more time listening than speaking. He engages in reflective listening, which entails occasionally saying a few words that reflect the gist of what the client has just expressed. Unless it's absolutely necessary, he doesn't interrupt.

  3. An excellent counsellor is pleasant, tactful, and polite. He is sensitive to the client's needs. He never makes his client feel bad about prior mistakes. He communicates his ideas to the client in a timely manner.

  4. A skilled counsellor communicates in a straightforward and plain manner. He keeps things simple, focusing on one problem (and only one) at a time. His statements are timely and insightful.

  5. A good counsellor is upbeat and optimistic. He speaks to his customer in a helpful and grateful tone, and he delivers praise when it is due.

  6. To estimate what is unsaid and correctly understand nuances in communication, a skilled therapist must be proficient in his client's language.

  7. A skilled counsellor must be aware of the client's cultural background. Without this awareness, the counsellor may misread the client's diverse behaviours.

  8. An excellent counsellor should have a lot of personality and charisma. His client should have faith in him and appreciate him.

  9. A good counsellor should have a diverse range of life experiences. It's difficult to put the client's problems and behaviour into context without such knowledge, and to deliver the best advice without it.

  10. To grasp the client's difficulties, devise a suitable management strategy, and carry it out, a good counsellor must be reasonably mature and intelligent. A counsellor who lacks maturity and knowledge may make poor decisions when counselling clients.

  11. ]he counsellor's values usually seep down to the client throughout therapy. As a result, a good therapist must possess a sound set of values.

Q8. List important supportive techniques in counselling. (20)

Ans) The important supportive techniques in counselling are given below:


Allowing the client to speak freely about his or her concerns is referred to as ventilation. Ventilation is a crucial component of therapy, especially in the early stages.


The explosive expressing of emotions, or blowing off steam, is referred to as catharsis. This is most commonly shown through tears, but it can also involve expressions of hatred and anger. Catharsis can be beneficial at any point throughout therapy, but it may be most beneficial in the beginning. Most people feel better after having a good cry or letting off steam in a healthy way. The releasing of bottled-up emotions can be beneficial in and of itself.


Clarification is the process of sorting out the client's jumbled thoughts so that he may better grasp the "why" and "how" of his or her feelings and reactions. Clarification occurs naturally to some extent during ventilation. The counsellor next assists the client in further clarifying his or her feelings and thoughts. Throughout all levels of therapy, clarification is a continuous process.


Information or understanding of a subject can frequently have a therapeutic effect on a client.


In counselling, the role of guidance is primarily to offer clients with confidence of and access to advice during times of uncertainty, as well as to discourage clients from engaging in any unwise behaviour.

Suggestion for Prestige

The majority of individuals who attend treatment have low self-esteem and lack confidence. The counsellor must consistently remind these clients of their excellent qualities, accomplishments, and talents. Clients are better prepared to deal with challenges when they recognise that there is plenty to admire about their personality and behaviour.

Environmental Tampering

Frequently, some part of the client's surroundings is to blame for the problem. Changes to the environment can then be beneficial.

Interests are being Externalised

Counseling clients are frequently overwhelmed by their problems. These issues, as well as their dysfunctional reactions and resulting misery, have taken over their life. It is beneficial if a client learns to divert his or her attention away from his or her troubles, even if just for a short time. Externalization of interests aims to distract the client's focus away from burdensome thoughts in his or her head by pursuing a hobby or pastime.

The Pursuit of Pleasure on Purpose

When clients are unhappy, especially when the difficulties they are experiencing are real and unavoidable, the counsellor may suggest that they pursue pleasure deliberately.

Taking Advantage of Social Support

An increase in social networks can help many people who are in despair.

Physical Activity

Physical activity is well-known for its ability to improve physical health. What's less commonly understood is that vigorous physical activity can help with mental wellness as well. Exercise increases the release of good chemicals in the brain, particularly serotonin, and relaxes the body. Individual exercise has fewer benefits than group exercise. Volleyball, table tennis, and badminton are some of the most thrilling sports to play.

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