If you are looking for BSW-124 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Human Growth, Behaviour and Counselling, you have come to the right place. BSW-124 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BSWG courses of IGNOU.
BSW-124 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BSW-124/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: BSW-124
Assignment Name: Human Growth, Behaviour and Counselling
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer any five of the following questions in about 300 words each. 20x5
Q1) Briefly explain Babyhood and its various developmental aspects.
Ans) After a two-week infancy, babyhood lasts two years. Helplessness gradually decreases during babyhood. Babyhood is the cornerstone of life since it establishes many behaviour, attitude, and emotional expression patterns. Babies grow physically and psychologically, changing looks and abilities. Rapid body control development allows babies to sit, stand, walk, and manipulate objects, reducing dependency.
Developmental Tasks of Babyhood
Even though babies attain significant milestones at varying ages, the pattern of growth is predictable. Social expectations can be set as developmental tasks. Rapid neural system, bone, and muscular growth allow babies to master babyhood's developmental demands.
Babyhood is one of two periods of fast growth, the other being puberty. Growth continues at the prenatal pace for the first six months of life, then slows. Second year growth slows rapidly. First-year weight gain is greater than height gain. Two-year-olds grow taller.
Babyhood is when eating, sleeping, and eliminating habits are established. In a baby's first year, typical night sleep improves from 8.5 hours at 3 weeks to 10 hours at 12 weeks, then remains constant. In the first three months, day sleep declines but night sleep increases.
Emotional Behaviour in Babyhood
All of us know that the emotions of babies differ markedly from those of adolescents and adults, and also from those of older children. It has often been observed that the behaviour responses accompanying baby’s emotions are too great for the stimuli that give rise to them. This is especially true of anger and fear.
Beginning of Morality
Babies have no values and no conscience and so their behaviour is not guided by moral standards. This means that they are neither moral nor immoral. Gradually, babies learn moral codes from their parents, as well as the necessity of conforming to these codes.
Role of Discipline
The main purpose of discipline is to teach children what is regarded as right and wrong by the group with which they are identified. It is also important, then to make sure that they act in accordance with this knowledge.
We are all aware that the early environment of babies is limited primarily to the home. Therefore, family relationships play a dominant role in determining the future patterns of a baby’s attitudes towards others and behaviour in relationship with others. During the babyhood years, parent-child relationships are more important than any other family relationships.
Personality Development in Babyhood
Personality development begins at birth. Babyhood shapes personality. Since the baby's surroundings is limited to the home and the mother is the most constant companion, her personality and their relationship will shape the baby's personality.
Q2) Describe the concerns of adolescents.
Ans) The various aspects of adolescent development are interwoven and greatly impacted by experiences and circumstances. The normal developmental changes that take place during adolescence have been thoroughly described in freely available literature. Importantly, sociocultural, and environmental influences and experiences, as well as each domain of development physical, social, emotional, and cognitive are interwoven with one another.
The body experiences more developmental change in early adolescence than at any other stage, with the exception of birth to two years of age. The growth rate is quick and uneven, and each person experiences change at a different pace. Increases in height, weight, and internal organ size are examples of physical alterations, along with modifications to the skeletal and muscular systems. Early adolescence is when puberty takes place, which is brought on by the release of hormones that cause the development of primary and secondary sex traits. Growth of the skeleton, hair production, and skin changes are all impacted by the increased hormone production.
A sense of identity, as well as roles and purposes, are frequently described as being established during the process of adolescent social development. It is an external feeling of who one is. In particular for girls, the development of one's sense of self and identity is greatly influenced by one's body image. In order to help and encourage the teenager in assuming adult roles, both the family and increasingly peers play significant roles. A normal part of growing up is taking risks. As young individuals look for a sense of self and a personal identity, social and emotional development are strongly linked.
The internal thoughts and feelings that a person has about themselves and other people are crucial to their emotional growth. Due to the rapid changes going on, adolescence is a particularly important time for developing and displaying personal emotional assets including resilience, self-esteem, and coping mechanisms. Schools have created policies and programmes around student wellbeing, frequently with a focus on a strengths-based approach. Schools are crucial locations for social and emotional learning.
The process of thought, reasoning, and perception is known as cognition. Adolescence brings about physical changes in the brain that correspond to typical stages of cognitive development. They are distinguished by the development of higher-order cognitive abilities that are consistent with modifications in the structure and operation of the brain, notably in the prefrontal cortex area. The potential for improved memory and processing is impacted by anatomical and functional changes in the brain. Risk-taking and heightened sensitivity to mental illness are two further factors that may increase vulnerability.
Q3) Explain the role of heredity, learning and environment in personality development.
Ans) There are numerous definitions of personality offered by various psychologists. They incorporate motivational elements in their definition of personality along with other notable traits. The most widely acknowledged of them is Gordon W. Allport's concise yet comprehensive definition. He said that a person's "personality is the dynamic arrangement within him or her of those psychophysical processes that determine his particular adaption to his environment."
Role of Heredity in Personality Development
The development of an individual's physical and mental traits, which make up their hereditary endowment, strongly influence and shape their personality pattern. The shape that a personality pattern takes is influenced by social and other external circumstances, but this pattern is not ingrained or controlled from without; rather, it develops from the potentials that exist inside the individual. Heredity produces the main building blocks of personality, including physical make-up, mental capacity, and temperament. The environmental influences in which a person grows determine how they will develop.
Role of Environment in Personality Development
Earth's inhabitants must adapt to a wide range of climatic, geographical, and natural resource situations. Some people dwell in deep jungles, others in desolate deserts, some on tall mountains, still others on plains. Some people live in climates that are severely cold while others are oppressively hot; some people live where it rains most of the time while others are plagued by long-term drought. Food and other resources are sometimes in great plenty, while in other locations they are so limited that a person must spend the most of their life just getting by. Some regions are largely devoid of disease and danger, while others are infected with dangers to physical safety.
Role of Learning in Personality Development
Learning plays a significant role in the formation of personality patterns in all of its forms, particularly conditioning, imitation, and training, or learning under the supervision and leadership of another. Attitudes toward oneself, distinctive ways of reacting to other people and circumstances, attitudes toward assuming socially acceptable roles, and techniques for adjusting to one's environment, including the use of defence mechanisms, are all learned through repetition and reinforced by the pleasure they bring.
The self-concept grows through time, and the taught behaviours become ingrained, forming the "traits" that make up the person's personality pattern. What characteristics will be included in the pattern is decided by social forces both inside and outside the home. A kid will learn to respond to people and situations in an aggressive manner if he is encouraged to be aggressive, for instance because aggression is viewed as a sex-appropriate quality for males.
Q4) Highlight the system of needs in Maslow’s scheme.
Ans) Maslow was a humanist who believed that man could work out a better world for mankind as well as for himself. Maslow consistently argued that lower order needs must at least be satisfied before an individual can become aware of the higher order needs. He developed his own system of needs and categorized them into two categories Deficit Needs and Growth Needs.
The deficit needs include sex, sleep, protection from extreme temperature and sensory stimulation. These needs are most basic, powerful, and obvious of all human beings for their physical survival. In the second category come the needs for safety, needs of belongingness and love, the esteem needs and the need for self-actualization.
Physiological Needs: These are directly concerned with the biological maintenance of the organism and must be gratified at some minimal level. An individual who fails to satisfy this set of basic needs won’t be able to move upwards to satisfy the higher-level needs.
Safety Needs: When the physiological needs are successfully fulfilled, the need for safety becomes the dominant force in the personality of the individual. Safety needs are many and are mainly concerned with maintaining order and security. The primary motivating force here is to ensure a reasonable degree of certainty, order, structure, and predictability in one’s environment.
Belongingness and Love Needs: These needs constitute the third ladder in the Maslow’s scheme of human needs and emerge only when the first ladder and second ladder needs are satisfied. These needs emphasize the basic psychological nature of human beings to identify with group life. These are the needs of making intimate relationships with other members of society, being an accepted member of an organization and to have a family. In the absence of group membership, a person will have a feeling of loneliness, social ostracism, friendlessness, and rejection.
Self-Esteem Needs: When one’s needs for being loved and loving others have been reasonably satisfied, the need for self-esteem emerges. The first group includes desire for competence, confidence, personal strength, adequacy, achievement, independence, and freedom. An individual needs to discern that he or she is worthwhile capable of mastering tasks and challenges in life. The second group includes prestige, recognition, acceptance, attention, status, fame, reputation, and appreciation.
Self-Actualization Needs: Finally, if all the foregoing needs are sufficiently satisfied, the need for self-actualization comes to the fore. Maslow characterized self-actualization as the desire to become everything that one is capable of becoming. One wants to attain perfection. It is to reach the peak of one’s potential. Self-actualization is only possible if the basic needs at lower levels are met to the degree that they neither distract nor consume all the available energy.
Q5) Write briefly the usefulness of psychology to social work practice.
Ans) The foundational concepts of psychology are cognition, learning, and memory. The study of psychology is necessary to understand the socialisation process. Psychology teaches us about social processes. The basis for the person's behaviours and reactions is, to a large extent, a psychological phenomenon called projections. Psychology investigates how heredity and environment interact and helps us understand why people differ in their physical and mental characteristics and aptitudes.
In our daily activity as social workers, we turn to psychology to better understand and analyse human behaviour. A social worker must turn to psychology for support when attempting to alter a person's personality through functional or behavioural modification. Psychology aids social work in overcoming adjustment-related issues. The practise of social work uses a social case technique that is influenced by psychology. Psychology is a source of many social and psychological components of group work that can be used in practise to enhance and improve groups.
Social psychology focuses on topics like group cohesiveness, leadership propensities, audience behaviour, and crowd dynamics that are relevant to both group work and, to a lesser extent, community organising. The practise of social work benefits greatly from psychology. Many of the relevant contexts include:
Dealing with problems in the individual and the family; case work aids in personality change.
Diagnosis and treatment planning for kids with academic problems.
Addressing the adjustment of a person to primary and secondary groups.
Dealing with the medical requirements of patients and their social integration.
Aids in establishing leadership skills and analysing, diagnosing, and changing group behaviour.
Analysis of the ego, ego development, and comprehension of personal defence mechanisms
Counselling and direction to improve functioning, encourage healthy adjustment, and meet the demands of the person and society.
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