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BTMC-133: History of Tourism – II

BTMC-133: History of Tourism – II

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BTMC-133 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject History of Tourism – II, you have come to the right place. BTMC-133 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAVTM courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BTMC-133/ASST/2021-22

Course Code: BTMC-133

Assignment Name: History of Tourism-II

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1) What are the different modes of Transportation? Discuss the role and importance of

transportation in Tourism. 20

Ans) As on date four major modes of transport are prevalent in India. They are:

  1. Road Transport

  2. Rail Transport

  3. Water Transport

  4. Air Transport

Tourism contributes to socio-economic and cultural progress by creating jobs, businesses, and infrastructure. Tourism necessitates the development of basic infrastructure, one of which is transportation. Transport is a key component of tourism and a key driver of socio-economic progress. It is vital because tourists cannot visit many tourist sites without it. It connects origin and destination points. It facilitates travel for tourists, business travellers, friends and family, and those seeking educational or health tourism. Tourism has grown significantly over time and is now one of the world's fastest growing economic sectors. Tourism growth and patterns are changing due to new transportation innovations. We require today a safe, convenient, and affordable mode of travel. A good transportation system is critical to a country's economic growth and development. People have less time nowadays and want to see more places in less time. Traveling by plane, train, or expressway from Delhi to Agra has revolutionised the tourism industry. Each mode of transport has its own travel and tourism characteristics.

Road Transportation

Road transport connects people and places. It also has benefits like flexibility, reliability, speed, and low cost. It is more accessible and efficient than other modes of transport. It can take tourists to their destination. National and state highways are both vital in the development of a good road network. Flyovers and good road conditions have increased travel and tourism activities globally. Road vehicles like cars, taxis, coaches, buses, and jeeps are used to connect rail, air, and water transportation.

Rail Transportation

Long-distance travel is best accomplished by rail. Compared to road transport, it is cheap and comfortable. Many people can travel together across the country for business, education, sightseeing, pilgrimage, or to see friends and family. Coaches are classified as General, Sleeper, AC Classes, AC Chair Car, etc. The railway connects nearly all parts of the country. High-speed trains with amenities like refreshment, berth, food, internet, and restrooms have become popular in recent years. It has increased the travel and tourism sector.

Water Transportation

Travel by ship was the main means to travel overseas until the middle of 20th century. The earliest type of boat was the raft, made of grasses, logs and other light material. Now the quality of boats and ships has improved a lot and most of the discoveries of the world were made through water transport. This is evident as tourism through cruises is increasing day by day and has an excellent potential. z Lakes, rivers, canals, Backwaters Sea are very important modes of water-based tourism all over the world.

Air Transportation

At the global level, air travel is the second most popular mode of transport after road. It is the fastest means of transport. One can reach the destination in hours covering the distance of thousands of kilometres. Air transportation has connected all nations of the world. It has transformed the whole world into a Global Village. This mode of transport is free from surface hindrances such as inaccessible mountains, dense forest, marshy land, flooded areas, hot and cold desert.

Q2) Discuss the salient features of National Tourism Policy 2002. 20

Ans) The second National Tourism Policy was formulated in 2002, twenty years after the first National Tourism Policy was formulated in 1982.

The National Tourism Policy of 2002 was created with the goal of positioning tourism as a major engine of economic growth and harnessing its direct and multiplier effects for job creation and poverty eradication while remaining environmentally sustainable. The policy was more important because, according to available statistics, tourism development was accelerating around the world, but there was little progress in India. India's share of global tourist traffic has remained stable at 0.38 percent for nearly a decade. "If India is to participate in this revolution in a meaningful way, it must change its strategies as well as the techniques and tools of its implementation machinery," according to NTP 2002.

The following were the main broad aims of NTP 2002:

  1. Position tourism as a major engine of economic growth.

  2. Harness the direct and multiplier effects of tourism for employment generation, economic development and providing impetus to rural tourism.

  3. Focus on Domestic Tourism as a way or driver of tourism growth.

  4. Position India as a global brand to take advantage of the burgeoning global travel and trade and the vast untapped potential of India as a destination.

  5. Acknowledges the critical role of private sector with government working as a pro-active facilitator and catalyst.

  6. Create and develop integrated tourism circuits based on India’s unique civilization, heritage and culture in partnership with states, private sector and other agencies.

  7. Ensure that the tourist to India gets physically invigorated, mentally rejuvenated, culturally enriched, spiritually elevated and “feel India from within”.

To provide the thrust to tourism development, seven key areas (7S) were identified. These are:

  1. Swagat (welcome)

  2. Soochna (information)

  3. Suvidha (facilitation)

  4. Suraksha (safety)

  5. Sahyog (cooperation)

  6. Sanrachana (infrastructure development)

  7. Safai (cleanliness)

The NPT of 2002 also emphasised the importance of tourism and its numerous benefits. A SWOT analysis of India as a tourism destination was also included in this report.

  1. The S-Strength of India is that it is a living civilization that is home to four of the world's major religions and philosophies; it has a rich natural and rural landscape; it is a blend of ancient and modernity; and, most importantly, it has a diverse cultural heritage.

  2. W-Weaknesses of India portrayed in terms of competitive constraints listed low priority given to the tourism sector by the government; undue focus on international tourism, especially at the expense of domestic tourism; security scenario affecting perception of India as a safe and secure destination; quality issues, whether it be facilities and services, transportation, infrastructure, or facilitation of tourists' entry into India; multiplicity and high rate of taxation; limited availability

  3. The first is the enormous potential of India's domestic urban population to develop rural tourism; the second is the strength of its rich and diverse heritage, which can increase India's share of the international travel market; and the third is its strength as one of the world's largest economies, which opens up opportunities for business-related travel and tourism activities.

  4. T-threats to India's tourism development point to a failure of India's tourism policies to effectively address the competitive constraints (weaknesses) listed above. External threats include failing to effectively address rising international competition; over-reliance on a few select travel markets; international tourism growth based on high volumes but low economic yield; regional conflicts; and a high level of adverse tourism development impacts.

Assignment B

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q3) What do you understand by Renaissance? What are the major impacts and achievements of Renaissance? 10

Ans) The term "Renaissance" means rebirth, in a narrow sense it is used to describe the revival of interest in the classical civilizations of Greece & Rome. Renaissance was marked by a series of new developments in the field of art, literature, religion, philosophy, science & politics. The period served as a bridge between medieval & modern western Europe. Renaissance began with the rediscovery of Greco-Roman civilization which had been neglected during the Middle Ages. It emphasized reason, a questioning attitude, experimentation & free inquiry.

Impact of Renaissance

Humanism: The Renaissance was characterised by humanism. Essentially, it meant a shift in focus from divine to human concerns. Man was ruled by humanism, which affirmed his inherent worth and dignity, believed in his limitless creative potential, and declared his freedom and inalienable rights. It defended man's right to pleasure and satisfaction of earthly desires and requirements and opposed religious asceticism.

Secularism: The humanist wants to make the most of his short life, whereas the mediaeval men saw it as a painful preparation for a happier life after death. The Renaissance marked the transition from religion to secularism.

Achievements of Renaissance

Painting, sculpture, and architecture were among the Renaissance's greatest achievements. These art forms brilliantly expressed Renaissance humanism. The Renaissance artists used biblical themes, but their interpretations had little to do with traditional religious beliefs. An independent activity gained a status unknown in the Middle Ages. Medieval art was meant to convey moral and religious teachings. The characters were not real people. The artists, mostly anonymous, were social outcasts. They were craftsmen who had no individuality. During the Renaissance, artists gained social prestige for their unique individuality and style. Patronage was sought by wealthy merchants, princes, and the Church. Absent religious or ritualistic overtones. Now artistic creations were accepted for their intrinsic aesthetic value and as evidence of individual artist achievements.

Q4. What are the various components of Tourism? 10

Ans) Tourism is an industry made up of components or sectors. Thus, tourism components are those parts that make the tourism industry work. In fact, tourism is impossible without these elements. The tourism A's are:

  1. Attractions (Locale): Attractions are features that draw tourists to a destination. There is no easy way to count or analyse a place's attractions. We all know that what appeals to one may not appeal to others. We can still say that natural beauty, historical monuments, and other attractions draw tourists to a destination. Thus, it is the most important factor in attracting tourists.

  2. Accessibility (Reachability): Accessibility refers to how a tourist can reach a destination or site. Even if a destination has all the necessary attractions to be a popular destination, inaccessibility by road or other means forces tourists to avoid it. Accessibility includes all modes of transport, including road, rail, air, and water.

  3. Accommodation (Lodging): Accommodation is a place to stay. It is said that one can travel with food from home but not with shelter. Accommodations range from seven-star deluxe hotels to ordinary budget hotels, depending on the tourist's financial ability. In recent years, accommodation has become more than just a place to sleep, as in the case of specialty resorts.

  4. Amenities (Support services): In tourism, amenities are services and facilities needed by tourists and provided to them while visiting a destination. These services include public toilets, signage, retail shopping, restaurants and cafes, visitor centres, telecommunications, and emergency services.

  5. Activities: Activities are the various tourist attractions and services. Today's tourists want to do more than just look and observe. Tourists can go sight-seeing, shopping, sunbathing, rural tourism, adventure sports, golfing, dance classes, cooking classes, wine tasting, etc.

Q5) What is the difference between a Tourist Guide and a Tour Escort? How can we classify Tourist Guides? 10

Ans) Tourist Guide and Tour Escort are two terms often used in the similar vein. Yet there exists a subtle difference in the job description of both, as well as recognition by appropriate authority.

The difference between Tour Guide and Escorts:

  1. A Tourist Guide is a licensed professional; whereas a Tour Escort may or may not be a licensed professional. The licensing authority for Tourist Guides in India is the Ministry of Tourism, who issues regional guide licenses.

  2. A Tour Escort is the person who accompanies the Tourist / tour group all through the Tour whereas, a guide is someone who may or may not accompany the Tour Group / tourist throughout the tour depending upon his Tour Guide and Escorts speciality.

  3. A Tour guide can be a tour Escort, if required, but a Tour Escort cannot be a guide, without a license.

  4. Tourist guides are certified and licensed; and assist the guests/ visitors in seeing the place in an excellent, unique way.

Tourists Guides can be classified as:

  1. Site/ Local/ City Guides: Guides are selected and trained by local bodies and given license to operate as local guides. These licensed guides will be able to operate only in the monuments of ASI.

  2. State Level Guides: The State Tourism Development Corporation of all the states of India, conduct a process of selection of Tourist guides who are then trained and given license to operate as a Tourist Guide only within the border of that one state.

  3. Regional Level Guides: Ministry of Tourism (MoT), Government of India selects Regional Level Tourist Guides who can operate beyond one state. According to MoT, the five jurisdiction or area of operation of the Regional Level Guides would comprise the States / Union Territories, which are covered by the respective Regional Office of the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India.

Assignment C

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q6) Explain the concept of Tourism System. 6

Ans) Tourism system means conceptual approach which helps to identify the dynamic elements of tourism. The boundaries of tourism are flexible. At present tourism is being systematically viewed as a framework in which the theory and practice link up with each other to address the satisfaction of all those concerned with the functioning of the system. The important element of tourism system is its historical potential for development and resulting benefits. However, the system operates within a global economic environment along with national priorities. Tourism is being systematically viewed as a framework in which the theory and practice link up with each other to address the satisfaction of all those concerned with the functioning of the system.

Q7) Write a note on the status of women in the society over different periods of time till now 6

Ans) Historically, women's status in India was inferior to men. Scriptures gave them a higher status. They are the world's perfect housewife. Their unmatched mental calmness allows them to easily handle the most difficult situations. Indian women are completely family oriented. Traditionally, women were seen as homemakers. They had to take care of the family, manage the finances, care for the elderly in-laws, raise the child, etc. They were expected to obey their husband and the family elders but kept out of major family decisions. Historically, women were not well educated. As they would soon be married, they would not need to know much about their future in-laws.

Because of their families' support, there were women in the past who were well educated and achieved success in many areas. These women paved the way for change in the way society viewed women. Women's situation has slowly changed recently. Women are steadily rising in all fields of importance. Women today must not only cook and care for their families, but also step out of their comfort zones to create their own image in the world. This is referred to as women empowerment. Due to women's achievements in all areas of life, society has changed its stance and perception of them. Men today are more understanding of women, but there are still many cases of female harassment.

Q8. What is the difference between Imperialism and Socialism? 6

Ans) Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending the rule over peoples and other countries,[2] for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power, especially military force, but also soft power. While related to the concepts of colonialism and empire, imperialism is a distinct concept that can apply to other forms of expansion and many forms of government.

Socialism is a political, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production. It includes the political theories and movements associated with such systems. Social ownership can be public, collective, cooperative, or of equity. While no single definition encapsulates the many types of socialism, social ownership is the one common element. Socialisms vary based on the role of markets and planning in resource allocation, on the structure of management in organizations, and from below or from above approaches, with some socialists favouring a party, state, or technocratic-driven approach.

Q9) What are the objectives and agendas of IATO? 6

Ans) IATO is a large tourism organization in India. It is the association of tour operators. IATO helps in the development and promotion of travel and tourism in India.

The main objectives of IATO are:

  1. To promote national integration, international welfare, and goodwill.

  2. To take necessary steps in the promotion, encouragements, and development of tourism in the country.

  3. To develop, promote, and encourage friendly feelings among the tour operators and travel agents/agencies.

  4. To protect the interest of the members.

  5. To set up and maintain high ethical standards.

  6. To settle the disputes of the members.

  7. To communicate and negotiate with chambers of commerce, IATA, DoT, Ministry of Tourism, and other organizations in other countries.

  8. To organize the promotional tour with DoT, Airlines, and International Tourism bodies.

  9. To institute awards for excellence in the travel trade.

  10. To assist students with the scholarship to pursue higher education or research for the development of tourism.

  11. To undertake such welfare activities as the members cannot take individually.

  12. To print and publish information material for the benefit of members.

Some of the common agenda of these tourism organisations are to:

  1. Present a common platform for the various tourism professionals and industry

  2. Members to interact;

  3. Help travel and tourism companies operate with a common set of standards;

  4. Provide a body that can address their concerns and needs to the government Collectively;

  5. Encourage international as well as domestic travel;

  6. Identify new trends and emerging destinations in travel and tourism; and

  7. Highlight the benefits that travel industry brings to various destinations.

Q10. Write short notes on any two of the followings. (2 X3 =6)


Ans) The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism. As the leading international organization in the field of tourism, UNWTO promotes tourism as a driver of economic growth, inclusive development and environmental sustainability and offers leadership and support to the sector in advancing knowledge and tourism policies worldwide.

UNWTO encourages the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, to maximize tourism’s socio-economic contribution while minimizing its possible negative impacts and is committed to promoting tourism as an instrument in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, geared towards reducing poverty and fostering sustainable development worldwide. UNWTO generates market knowledge, promotes competitive and sustainable tourism policies and instruments, fosters tourism education and training, and works to make tourism an effective tool for development through technical assistance projects in over 100 countries around the world.

b) Globalization

Ans) Globalization is the spread of products, technology, information, and jobs across national borders and cultures. In economic terms, it describes an interdependence of nations around the globe fostered through free trade.

Main Points

  1. Globalization is the spread of products, technology, information, and jobs across nations.

  2. Corporations in developed nations can gain a competitive edge through globalization.

  3. Developing countries also benefit through globalization as they tend to be more cost-effective and therefore attract jobs.

  4. The benefits of globalization have been questioned as the positive effects are not necessarily distributed equally.

  5. One clear result of globalization is that an economic downturn in one country can create a domino effect through its trade partners.

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