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BTMC-135: Concept and Impacts of Tourism

BTMC-135: Concept and Impacts of Tourism

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: BTMC-135/2021-22

Course Code: BTMC-135

Assignment Name: Concept and Impact of Tourism

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1) Discuss in detail the emergence of Modern Tourism in India. 20

Ans) As a result of the Industrial Revolution and the introduction of railways, automobiles, and airlines, the systematic development of tourism in India is also linked to the development of the nation's infrastructure and the development of the nation's economy. The development of air travel, which was supplemented by the development of railways, resulted in a significant shift in global movements, with India emerging as a major tourism partner. Much has been accomplished through the expansion of airline seat capacity, the expansion of trains and railway connectivity to important tourist destinations, and the expansion of lodging availability through the addition of heritage hotels to the hotel industry and the encouragement of paying guest accommodations. As a result of the attention paid by recent governments to road infrastructure, road travel in the country is becoming easier and more popular among the general public. An example of such efforts is the Golden Trapezium, a four-lane road connecting Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata that was built as a result of a government initiative.

During the British period, and particularly during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, India did not establish itself as a popular tourist destination for visitors from other countries. The majority of the visitors were from within the country, with a particular emphasis on pilgrimage tourism. That all changed when the middle class, aided by increased disposable income, began to travel for pleasure. Concessions were also extended to students, which resulted in more students travelling throughout the country. All of this, combined with improved infrastructure in terms of hotels, roads, and air connectivity to even the most remote parts of the country, has resulted in a significant increase in tourism in the country. As the introduction of the Leave Travel Concession (LTC) altered the earlier picture, the rise in disposable income of the Indian middle class, the explosion of the Internet, the ease with which people can travel, and the introduction of low-cost airlines altered the entire tourism industry.

The Indian tourism industry is now receiving special attention from the government at the national level. Several tourist trains have been introduced in various parts of the country to connect popular tourist destinations, thanks to the efforts of the Railway Ministry. The Nirvana Express, the Ramayana Express, and the Palace on Wheels are just a few examples of luxury transportation that caters to tourists' needs. In addition to these, the railway has introduced semi-high-speed trains such as the Vande Bharat, Gatiman, and Tejas, which reduce travel time between different tourist destinations by virtue of their high speed while also meeting the luxury and comfort requirements of the passengers. Many state governments, such as Rajasthan, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, have placed a high priority on tourism infrastructure. The state of Uttar Pradesh has built two world-class expressways, one connecting Delhi and Agra and the other connecting Agra and Lucknow. Following the liberalisation, globalisation, and privatisation of the country on a large scale, India has emerged as a top destination for business tourism, including MICE tourism, as well as cultural tourism, medical tourism, and wellness tourism, among other things.

Q2) What are the components of Tourism System? Highlight the major points of Leiper’s Tourism System Model. 20

Ans) Attraction, accessibility, accommodation, amenities, and activities are the five essential components of the tourism system. A tourist attraction system, according to Leiper, is defined as an empirical connection between tourist, nucleus, and marker, with tourists being travellers or visitors seeking leisure-related experiences involving nuclear and marker elements. Tourism, according to Leiper's model, is a system with five interconnected components that must occur in a sequential order for tourism to occur.

Human Component

Tourists make up the human element. "A temporary visitor, intending to spend overnight at a destination, away from his usual place of residence for purposes such as leisure, business, or recreation," according to the United Nations World Tourism Organization. A key distinction between a tourist and a visitor is that the former's stay cannot exceed a period of 12 months.

Industrial Component

Tourism industry is fundamentally a synergy between its four sectors:

  1. Transportation: The tourism industry relies heavily on transportation. Travel has been made possible thanks to transportation. It's also worth noting that transportation advancements have made travel more convenient and comfortable.

  2. Accommodation: The accommodation sector is made up of businesses that provide tourists with lodging at a set price. This includes hotels, B&B inns, motels, resorts, homestays, and similar establishments. The lodging differs in terms of amenities (budget hotel or resort), location (city centre or airport hotels), and many other factors.

  3. Ancillary Services: Activities and attractions are examples of ancillary services provided by a destination. Aside from that, shopping, food and beverage services, and Wi-Fi are all included.

  4. Sales and Distribution: Due to geographical constraints, the tourism product, like other products, is separated from its customers. To bridge the gap between the two, a sales distribution system was created. Tourism sales are distributed through service providers such as hotels, airlines, travel agents, and tour operators, just like their counterparts.

Geographical Component

Geographical component is composed of three elements:

  1. Traveller Generating Region: Traveller Generating Regions (TGR) are the parts of the tourism system from which people can travel to any other location they want. It is the tourism's generating market, acting as a driving force to stimulate and inspire travel.

  2. Transit Route Region: There is clearly a difference between the TGR and the TDR. The Transit Route Region is the name given to this area. It includes lodging, food and beverage services (restaurants), and other amenities. It could also include intermediate attractions that can be seen on the way to the final destination.

  3. Tourist Destination Region: The tourist destination region is the final destination of a traveller’s journey. It attracts tourists by providing a wide range of attractions, rejuvenation, and leisure opportunities. The ultimate impact of tourism is felt in the Tourist Destination Region. As a result, a systematic approach to tourism development is required.

The Environmental Component:

The environment component, which is primarily surrounded by three geographical regions, is the final element/component in Leiper's tourism system model. Because tourism is an open system, there is interaction between it and the outside world. The environment has an impact on tourism, and vice versa. These forces have a positive or negative impact on the tourism industry. The external environment is likely to have an impact on the elements listed above (environmental, social, legal and political).

Assignment B

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q3) Define Alternative Tourism. Describe new paradigms of Alternative Tourism.10

Ans) Alternative tourism is defined as ‘forms of tourism that aim to be consistent with natural, social, and community values. It involves visiting remote natural areas to admire, study, and enjoy the scenery, wild plants and animals, and cultural aspects. It also considers environmental preservation, food security, and community well-being. Clients are also expected to be unique. Locally owned and operated accommodations. Alternative tourism is a philosophy and attitude that opposes mass tourism. Alternative forms of tourism differ from mass tourism in terms of supply, organisation, and human resource.

Alternative Tourism is classified as follows:

  1. Nature-based Tourism is tourism that takes place in natural settings or outdoors. Nature-based tourism includes ecotourism and adventure tourism.

  2. Culture Tourism: This type of tourism includes ethnic, religious, cuisine, music, arts, and crafts.

  3. Responsible Travel: Responsible travel is tourism that is culturally and economically conscious. The tourists who choose this type of tourism ensure that their activities do not harm the environment or the local traditions and customs.

  4. Geotourism: This is a new form of tourism that promotes the preservation and enhancement of a place's unique geographical character, heritage, culture, and residents' well-being.

  5. Voluntourism: This type of tourism involves volunteers working in a developing or disaster area. Voluntourism is more popular among teens and young adults and is also known as “volunteer vacations”.

The availability of destinations, accommodations, attractions, products, and services for all people, especially those with physical or mental disabilities, is ensured by accessible tourism.

  1. Disaster Tourism involves tourists visiting areas affected by natural disasters, civil unrest, or warfare.

  2. Ethnotourism: This type of tourism explores indigenous cultures and traditions. Locals commercialise their culture to gain from tourists.

  3. Dark Tourism: People visit places with a dark history, like battlefields or prison camps. It's also called black or grief tourism.

  4. Doom Tourism: Doom tourism is usually tourism in places near extinction or at risk of extinction. People want to see destinations that are nearing completion for various natural and/or man-made reasons.

Q4) What are push and pull factors in tourism motivation? Discuss S.C. Plog’s Psychographic Model. 10

Ans) Derrick Dann explains this theory using two levels of sociopsychological motivation The first level, or push factors, are the reasons why people leave home.

Push Factors

Push factors are intrinsic or internal motivations for travel. Push factors are socio-psychological in nature and are associated with factors like yearning for rest, leisure, recreation, time with family and friends, or even a weekend getaway. People are motivated by psychological and physiological imbalances. The second level being pull factors which are the motives that attract tourists towards a destination.

Pull Factors

Pull factors, on the other hand, are based on a destination's appeal, specifically the services and amenities it provides to tourists, such as accommodations, restaurants, and entertainment. Pull factors are externally induced and destination specific, but they can help trigger push factors.

S.C. Plog’s Psychographic Model

In Plog's psychographic model, tourists are classified based on personality traits, from allocentric to psychocentric. The mid-centric is in the gamut's middle. Aside from these three extremes, tourists can be near-allocentric or near-psychocentric. Due to its popularity in the tourism industry, Plog's model excels at describing a destination's daily evolution.

Plog’s Psychographic Classification of Tourists and Travel Motivation are given below:

Tourism is an intangible product, where service providers sell dreams and tourists buy experiences. Since tourist goods and services are inputs into the process of creating the experience, demand for them is derived from tourism demand. Given the increasing spatial and characteristic diversity of destinations, it is vital to classify them in order to grasp the concepts of tourism psychology and travel motivation.

Q5) Differentiate between traveller and tourist. Discuss the typology of tourists.10

Ans) Described below is the difference between traveller and tourist:


Generally, a traveller will try to blend in with the local culture rather than stand out. If you're a tourist, you might try to go to places where tourism isn't the main source of income. You'll meet locals. Your travel goals will be to learn and experience new things, not to relax and unwind. A trip may be a journey rather than a vacation.


Locals can usually spot a tourist among them. A tourist may always carry a camera, a guidebook, and a map, and dress normally. Tourists tend to stay in their comfort zones, speak only English instead of learning phrases in the local language, visit major cities rather than smaller towns or off-the-beaten-path locations, and stay in areas with similar amenities as at home.

Typologies of Tourist

The typology are as follows:

  1. Explorer: Few tourists seek out new places and engage with locals. These tourists easily adapt to local norms in housing, food, and lifestyle.

  2. Elite: Tourists who travel for pleasure and entertainment want to maintain their influence at their destination. Elite and self-motivated tourists seeking traditional culture and exotic locations. This includes custom-made trips to exotic locations.

  3. Offbeat: An offbeat tourist is someone who wants to escape the crowds or spice up their vacation by doing something unusual.

  4. Odd: They come with odd activities like physical danger or isolation. The group is interested in primitive culture, but they are much happier with their “safe lunch” and bottled water from home.

  5. Incipient Mass: Tourists visit places for different activities but pay separately.

  6. Mass: Mass tourists travel to different destinations for fun. Mass tourism is based on middle-class values and has a high impact.

  7. Charter: mass travel to relaxation destinations with as many standardised western facilities as possible.

Assignment C

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q6) What are various linkages in tourism industry? 6

Ans) Tourism is now one of the most dynamic economic sectors. That area's overall development is aided by the significant contribution it makes to foreign exchange earnings, job creation, income generation, and regional development Traveling is a part of socio-economic development. Tourism is a major export for many countries. Globally, tourism is believed to have surpassed oil sales. Despite its rich cultural, civilisation, heritage, and natural beauty, it still lags behind many developing countries. It seems that almost every developing country's tourism infrastructure is under-utilised during peak season. Infrastructure investment discourages most private investors, and the government is unable to invest due to a lack of funds. Many of these countries have begun copying global tourism trends. MICE is one of the ideas that allows the tourism industry to expand its business and reach.

Q7) What do you understand by Destination Life Cycle? 6

Ans) A person or thing travels to a destination, which is defined as a location. As a result, it is typically a country, state, region, city, or town that is marketed or markets itself as a tourist destination. With that definition, depending on how it's marketed, any location can be considered a destination. The term "life cycle" comes from biological science, which states that each living organism goes through distinct phases throughout his lifetime, with birth and death indicating the beginning and end of each phase, respectively. Butler proposed the tourist destination life cycle concept to explain how a tourist destination evolves over time. To calculate progress, the number of tourists who visit a destination and their opinions about it are used. Tourist numbers to a particular destination are initially low, but as time passes, they rise, and the destination eventually loses its appeal, prompting tourists to seek out a close substitute.

Q8) Write short notes on the following: 2x3=6

a) Ancillary Services in Tourism

Ans) In the tourism industry, ancillary services are facilities and secondary services that support the primary amenities. These are critical to the tourism industry's success. These are the 'Extras' that are a part of the tourist experience and make it more comfortable and enjoyable for everyone." These are the services that are required to make a trip complete. Apart from making regular hotel or resort reservations, these ancillary services are required to make the vacation a success, as these are the small but important details that must be considered while on the road. These services may go unnoticed at first, but they are necessary for a comfortable trip and to feel secure and safe while travelling outside of one's hometown.

b) Tourism Satellite Account

Ans) The Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) is a method for calculating the direct economic contributions of tourism to a country's economy. Its unique approach stems from the fact that it measures the direct economic impact of tourism using the principles and structure of the internationally accepted System of National Accounts. It is made up of a unique set of interconnected tables that show the size and distribution of various types of tourism consumption in a country, as well as their contributions to GDP, national income, employment, and other macroeconomic measures. The goal of a TSA is to examine the aspects of demand for goods and services associated with visitor activity, as well as how that supply interacts with other economic activities.

Q9) Explain the importance of tourism demand and supply for planning and development of a destination. 6

Ans) This data is gathered early in the planning process. The next step is to assess the current situation and its tourism potential. We must thoroughly research any potential tourism plans before making any decisions. The attractions will help determine the country's development plan. The physical, historical, and cultural attractions of a country must be thoroughly researched.

Some of the principles on which assessment must be based are:

  1. All attractions should be developed gradually across the country to maximise tourism.

  2. Specially developed areas and attractions should be marketed to the broadest possible tourist base for the longest possible season.

  3. The most easily developed attractions and areas should be prioritised. Those with good infrastructure already require less investment.

  4. It should be remembered that similar or competing attractions should not be developed concurrently, and that the visitor volume should be estimated prior to development in order to justify the investment.

  5. Tourists are always looking for new and unique experiences, thrills, and thrills. These could be great draw cards.

  6. After estimating demand for both domestic and international tourists, internal and external tourism data should be gathered.

Q10) Discuss the positive and negative impacts of Tourism with respect to any destination.

Ans) Positive and negative impacts of tourism are mixed. Tourism impacts are traditionally classified as economic, social, and environmental. Tourism benefits the economy by increasing tax revenue, personal income, and job opportunities. Direct environmental impacts include habitat loss, vegetation loss, air pollution, water table changes, wildlife changes, and changes in natural phenomena, while indirect impacts include increased food harvesting and indirect air and water pollution. Tourism has both positive and negative health effects on locals. The short-term negative effects of tourism on residents' health include increased crime, traffic congestion, crowding, and other stressful factors. Residents may also suffer from anxiety and depression due to concerns about mortality rates, food insecurity, and exposure to infected tourists, among other factors. Tourism also improves residents' health and well-being by increasing healthcare access, positive emotions, novelty, and social interactions.

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