If you are looking for BTMG-172 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Culture in Indian Subcontinent II, you have come to the right place. BTMG-172 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAVTM courses of IGNOU.
BTMG-172 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BTMG-172 / TMA / 2022 - 2023
Course Code: BTMG-172
Assignment Name: Culture in Indian Subcontinent - II
Year: 2022 - 2023
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
Q 1. How can one link fair and festivals with tourism promotion? Discuss with examples.
Ans) Fairs and festivals can promote tourism by:
Attracting visitors: Offering unique and cultural experiences that attract visitors from near and far.
Showcasing local culture: Highlighting local traditions, customs, and arts, which can pique the interest of tourists.
Boosting local economy: Generating revenue for local businesses and the community, through increased tourism and spending.
Creating a festive atmosphere: Fostering a lively and festive atmosphere that can entice visitors to return to the destination in the future.
Offering diverse activities: Providing a range of activities, such as music, dance, food, and games, which can cater to the interests of different types of tourists.
Building community spirit: Strengthening community ties and fostering a sense of pride and ownership among residents, which can be attractive to visitors.
Raising profile: Raising the profile of the destination, by attracting media coverage and increasing awareness of the destination among potential visitors.
Festivals reflect on the traditional art of India and its potential for the development of tourism industry. There are in addition certain festivals which are recently 'created' by various state tourism departments to highlight the peculiar culture and tradition of the region. These are now-a-days becoming chief centres of attraction among international tourists.
Some examples are provided below:
1. Elephant Festival
In 1990, the Kerala Tourism Development Corporation (KTDC) came up with a new way to attract more tourists from other countries: they planned the Great Elephant March. Since then, its popularity has grown, and its power has grown. It is a four-day party that takes place every January.
2. Desert Festival of Rajasthan
The desert festival of Jaisalmer, a city with sand dunes, is another thing that the Tourism Department (RTDC) produced. Since it began in 1979, it has become one of the biggest successes and the biggest draw for tourists from other countries. In February every year, the city comes alive with bright colours, music, and celebrations. In February, when the moon is full, the desert festival takes place. The desert is full of life, with rare examples of art and culture in the wild.
3. Religions Melar
The Kumbh mela is the biggest and most important of India's fairs that happen every few years. It is held at Nasik, Ujjain, Prayag, and Haridwar once every twelve years. It is also where the most important religious leaders in the country get together to talk and share ideas. Millions of people come to these melas to pray. They now get a lot of tourists from all over the world.
4. The Hermit City: Ladakh
There are many monasteries in Ladakh. Nearly half of the people who live here are Buddhist. There are still many old Buddhist carvings and main walls that can be seen today. Deski, the oldest monastery, is in the Nubra valley, which is very green. This land kept its secular cultural traditions because it was relatively far away from the noise, pollution, and population growth of the rest of the world.
Fairs and festivals not only show off India's rich cultural history, but they have also become big tourist draws over time. Fairs and festivals have been successful all year long. These activities to promote tourism not only give tourists a good time and show them India's rich cultural history, but they also create jobs, bring in valuable foreign exchange, and help the area's economy grow. They also help protect national heritage and the environment.
Q 2. What is “Audience”? Discuss the historical role of patronage in India.
Ans) Audience refers to the people who watch, listen to, or participate in a particular event, performance, or piece of work, such as a movie, play, concert, or speech. The audience can be made up of individuals, groups, or communities, who have a common interest in the event or work being presented. The term can also be used to describe the readers or listeners of a particular book, article, or broadcast. In this sense, the audience is the group of people for whom a particular message or content is intended.
1. Heterogeneous Audience
Today, there are a lot of people who like art, and they each have their own tastes and preferences. In the crowd, there may be people from different countries, genders, races, and social classes. So, they might see the work of art in a way that fits with who they are and what they believe in.
2. Scattered Audience:
People may come to an event from different places because of their location or the area they live in. But the artists, performers, and organisers may be from a certain country or region. So, it's important to think about how interested the audience is, how well they can get to the events, and how much they want to stay at the destination.
Historical Role of Patronage in India
In the past, an artist was financially secure if he or she had a powerful patron. During the Renaissance, it was common for an artist to give someone a place to stay so that they could be close by while doing research. The patron respected the artist and gave them money so they could make their own visions. The value of the art went up by a factor of ten when the artefacts were sold to private collectors. Over the years, it has also become trendy to invest in art. Even now, art is a luxury item in many places.
India's contribution to the world of sculpture shows how much the people there care about the development of art. Indian sculptors were already very good at what they did at a very young age, and their works are now known all over the world and are objects of international recognition. Sculpture is the action or art of making three-dimensional works of art out of soft or hard materials by carving, modelling, casting, etc. Many people think that Indian sculpture fits in with the different styles of Indian architecture.
Indian sculpture began with the people who lived in the Indus valley. The polished and carved styles of the animal and human figures that have been found in this area show that the people who lived there were very advanced. The terracotta figures from this time show impressive work with animals like buffalo, rhinoceroses, and crocodiles. They also show how society changed during this time. The seals also show how people and animals interact in the wild, which shows how talented the artists are.
This kind of art is one of the oldest kinds of art that have ever been made. There is evidence that the earliest art was made up of figurines of people and animals as well as religious sculptures. Indian museums now have sculptures from early empires that were found and dug up.
Answer the following in about 250 words each.
Q 3. Describe the features of modern Indian paintings.
Ans) India's social, political, economic, and, last but not least, cultural life was all changed by the colonial period. Different art societies and art schools were set up to teach and support various kinds of art. The English added a new style to Indian art. With the introduction of acadamecia into art, more attention was paid to Victorian art, natural landscapes, oil portraits, etc. Also, the new colonial artists were given the respect they deserved and had a high social status compared to the Mughal court artists, who had a low social status.
Some Important Features of Modern Indian Paintings
Company style was synthesis of Indo-European paintings.
It involved into a combination of best of Rajput & Mughal paintings which were further blended with European techniques.
Just like Rajput & Mughal paintings, the paintings portraying Indian style of miniature paintings were mostly smaller in size, but the paintings based on nature like on subjects of plants and animals were larger in size.
Modern Indian painters combine traditional Indian styles and techniques with contemporary art forms and elements to create a distinct style. Modern Indian paintings continue the tradition of bright, bold colour. Modern Indian paintings depict poverty, inequality, and environmental degradation. Modern Indian painters experiment with found objects, digital media, and mixed media. Modern Indian paintings often reflect the diverse cultures of India. Modern Indian paintings are dreamlike and surreal due to abstract and surreal elements. The nature of existence, life and death, and the divine are common themes in modern Indian paintings.
Q 4. Discuss the problems faced by handloom sectors.
Ans) Today handloom industry is the largest sector. It accounts for nearly 30 per cent of the total textile production in the country. There are about 3.8 million handlooms and about 10 million people depend on them. The handloom sector in India faces several challenges:
Research shows that making small changes to machines and processes can boost their efficiency by up to 50%. Because of this, more research needs to be done to improve the quality and output of handlooms. Also, even though there are now a lot of cooperatives and corporations, most weavers still have to rely on brokers or middlemen to sell their goods and get raw materials.
Seri farmers have a harder time selling their cocoons because they have to sell them at the prices that are already set. This is because the moth comes out of the cocoon on the ninth or tenth day, making the cocoon useless. Still, more needs to be done to make sure that the weavers get the real money. Weavers also have trouble getting credit. They need easy terms for both short-term and long-term loans. NABARD is set up in 1983 to do this, though. But the weavers have not heard about these plans yet. Even how much their products should cost needs to be done in a scientific way. To improve the quality of silk, sericulture needs to get better seeds from other countries.
Aside from these things, people who work with handlooms often don't have access to modern technology and tools, which makes it hard for them to compete with power looms. A lot of the time, the government doesn't help or invest in the handloom sector, which makes it hard for handloom workers to keep their businesses going. There are not enough skilled handloom workers because many younger people do not want to work in the industry.
Q 5. Describe the features of major temple styles of India.
Ans) The major temple styles of India can be characterized by the following features:
North Indian Temple Style: This style is characterized by high spires (shikharas) and intricately carved towers. The temples are often built in a square shape and feature a central shrine surrounded by smaller shrines and halls. Examples of this style include the Khajuraho temples and the Jagannath Temple in Puri.
South Indian Temple Style: This style is characterized by grand entrances (gopurams), spacious courtyards, and multiple towers. The temples are often built in a rectangular shape and feature elaborate carvings, sculptures, and murals. Examples of this style include the Meenakshi Temple in Madurai and the Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam.
Rekha Deula Style: This style is characterized by tall spires (rekhas) and curvilinear towers. The temples are often built in a square shape and feature intricate carvings and sculptures. Examples of this style include the Konark Sun Temple and the Lingaraj Temple in Bhubaneswar.
Nagara Style: This style is characterized by curvilinear towers (shikharas) and elaborate carvings. The temples are often built in a rectangular shape and feature multiple shrines and halls. Examples of this style include the Jagdish Temple in Udaipur and the Mukteswara Temple in Bhubaneswar.
Hoysala Style: This style is characterized by intricate and delicate carvings, including sculptures of Hindu gods and goddesses. The temples are often built in a star-shaped or circular shape and feature a central shrine surrounded by smaller shrines. Examples of this style include the Chennakesava Temple in Belur and the Hoysaleswara Temple in Halebid.
Dravida style: This has a polygonal, often octagonal shikhara and a pyramidal vimana, which is
rectangular in plan. A temple of the Dravida type is also notable for the towering gopurams or
gatetowers of the additional mandapas. Examples of this style are Brihadishvara temple at Thanjavar.
Answer the following in about 100 words each.
Q 6. What is popular culture?
Ans) Popular culture is looked at in terms of how it changes society. This affects what people buy, how they dress, what they eat, and what music they listen to. This means that a lot of different kinds of people from different social groups come together to see themselves as a social group. It brings together the people who play important roles and helps them understand who they are. This has led to a group, and it also helps people get to know each other better. Popular culture has also grown out of the spread of cities.
With these things in mind, you could say that popular culture is the different ways of being cultural that are practised by a large number of people and are widely accepted and approved of in a certain society.
Q 7. Why were Zonal Cultural centres set up by the Government?
Ans) The Zonal Cultural Centers (ZCCs) were set up by the government of India with the following objectives:
ZCCs aim to preserve and promote India's rich cultural heritage, including traditional music, dance, drama, and visual arts.
ZCCs aim to promote inter-state cultural exchange and encourage artists and cultural groups from different regions to interact and collaborate.
ZCCs provide training and support to artists, including financial assistance, performance opportunities, and access to resources and equipment.
ZCCs aim to raise awareness of the cultural diversity of India and promote greater understanding and appreciation of the country's cultural heritage.
ZCCs work to create cultural infrastructure, including theatres, concert halls, and training canters, to support the development of the arts and culture in India.
ZCCs aim to encourage regional cultural development and provide opportunities for local artists and cultural groups to showcase their talents and reach a wider audience.
Q 8. Why the craft of ivory has been banned in India?
Ans) Craft of ivory is no longer practiced as there is a ban on it. The ban has been imposed by the government to protect the elephant population in the country. The tradition of craft is centuries old, and some excellent pieces are preserved in various museums. Ivory craft has been practised in India for thousands of years. However, now the Government of India has put a complete ban on the practice of this craft as well as trade in ivory objects.
The craft of ivory has been banned in India due to the following reasons:
Ivory, made from elephant tusks, was banned to protect elephants. Ivory hunters kill elephants for their tusks, causing elephant populations to decline. Crooked poachers killed the animal for its tusks. Since hunting was unsuccessful, ivory was banned. India is a member of CITES, which regulates wildlife and wildlife products, including ivory. India's ivory ban follows CITES.
Q 9. What is museum?
Ans) A museum is a public or private institution that collects, conserves, research, and displays objects and artifacts of cultural, historical, scientific, or artistic significance. Museums are typically open to the public and provide educational opportunities for visitors, with the goal of promoting knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of their collections. The collections held by museums can range from ancient artifacts and works of art to scientific specimens and technological innovations. Museums may also organize exhibitions, provide educational programs, and host events and performances. The role of museums has evolved over time, and today many museums use innovative techniques and technologies to engage visitors and bring their collections to life.
Q 10. What is “Conservation”?
Ans) Conservation refers to the protection, preservation, and maintenance of natural resources, cultural heritage, and the environment. It involves a range of activities aimed at ensuring the continued existence of species, ecosystems, historical sites, and other resources that are of value to humans and the environment.
Conservation can include measures such as:
Protecting natural habitats, such as forests, wetlands, and oceans, to ensure the survival of wildlife and plant species.
Taking measures to conserve endangered species, such as breeding programs and habitat restoration.
Protecting and preserving cultural heritage sites, such as historic buildings, monuments, and archaeological sites, to ensure their continued existence for future generations.
Managing the use of natural resources, such as water, air, and minerals, to ensure that they are used sustainably and do not become depleted.
Taking measures to protect the environment, such as reducing pollution and mitigating the impact of climate change.
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