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BZYCT-131: Animal Diversity

BZYCT-131: Animal Diversity

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BZYCT-131 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Animal Diversity, you have come to the right place. BZYCT-131 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BSCG, BSCBCH courses of IGNOU.

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BZYCT-131 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BZYCT-131/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BZYCT-131

Assignment Name: Animal Diversity

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Note: Attempt all questions. The marks for each question are indicated against it.


Part-A Maximum Marks: 50


Q1. Fill in the blanks with suitable words: (10)


a) Protists with delicate thread like pseudopodia belong to group ……………… .

Ans) Protists with delicate thread like pseudopodia belong to group the Rhizaria supergroup.


b) The coelom that is formed by enlargement of the split in the mesoderm is

termed ……………… .

Ans) The coelom that is formed by enlargement of the split in the mesoderm is termed  'Schizocoel'.


c) Hexactinellida are characterised by the presence of …………… spicules.

Ans) Hexactinellida are characterised by the presence of siliceous hexactine (six-pointed) spicules.


d) Ascaris lumbricoides lives as ……………… anaerobe as the availability of oxygen is very less.

Ans) Ascaris lumbricoides lives as parasite anaerobe as the availability of oxygen is very less.


e) The different segmental appendages of various arthropods are said to be ……………… organs.

Ans) The different segmental appendages of various arthropods are said to be sense organs.


f) The cavity enclosing the gonads and the end sacs of the excretory organs in crustaceans is the ……………… .

Ans) The cavity enclosing the gonads and the end sacs of the excretory organs in crustaceans is the antennal or maxillary glands.


g) Some cephalopods have ………………. filled shells to maintain their ……………… in water.

Ans) Some cephalopods have gas filled shells to maintain their bouyancy in water.


h) The endoskeleton of most echinoderms is formed of ………………… .

Ans) The endoskeleton of most echinoderms is formed of cartilage and bone.


i) Epitoky is a characteristic feature of …………………. .

Ans) Epitoky is a characteristic feature of palolo worm.


Q2) Answer the following questions.


i) Describe canal system in Porifera. (5)

Ans) The phylum Porifera is distinguished by the water circulatory system of sponges, also known as the canal system. Aquiferous system is another name for canal system. The sponge canal system aids in food acquisition, respiratory gas exchange, and excretion.


The main constituents of the canal system are the numerous perforations on the body surface of the sponges for ingress and egress of water current. The water current inside the body flows through a system of spaces where food is captured from the incoming water and excretory material is discharged into the outgoing water.


In the physiology of sponges, water current is the most important factor. The outer pinacoderm and the inner choanoderm are epitheloid layers that make up the sponges' body wall.

Pinacoderm is made up of porocyte cells with ostia, or openings. Choanocytes, also known as collar cells, make up choanoderm. The flagellum of choanocytes is surrounded by a collar of microvilli. The water current is caused by the collar cells' flagella beating.


The water current that enters the sponges' bodies through the canal system serves the following purposes:

  1. This current maintains all exchanges between the sponge body and the external medium.

  2. This water current transports food and oxygen into the body.

  3. This water current also aids in the removal of excreta from the body.

  4. The water current carries the reproductive bodies out and into the sponges' bodies.


ii) What do you mean by polymorphism? Explain the functions of various polymorphic forms of Hydrozoa. (5)

Ans) As the name implies, poly means many and morphs means forms, so there are a lot of them. Polymorphic species have individuals that come in a variety of shapes and sizes and perform a variety of functions. Polymorphism is the term for this phenomenon. It's a fascinating aspect of a few animals' lives.


Polymorphism is the occurrence of multiple types of structurally and functionally different individuals within a population. It is one of the distinguishing characteristics of coelenterates, the phylum Hydrozoa's class Hydrozoa. Coelenterata contains a large number of colonial species with multiple forms of individuals, known as zooids. Polymorphism is most commonly observed in the Hydrozoa class.

Coelenterates are known for their polymorphism, and they can take on a variety of polypoid and medusoid forms. Both the polyp and the medusa have morphological differences.


Polypoid zooids are zooids that are made up of polyps.

  1. Gastrozooids

  2. Dactylozooids

  3. Gonozooids.


Some medusoid forms are

  1. Pneumatophores

  2. Nectophore

  3. Bracts

  4. Gonophore


All cnidarian forms fall into one of two morphological categories: (a) the hydra-like polyp or hydroid form, which is adapted for a sedentary existence, and (b) the umbrella-like medusa or jelly fish form, which is adapted for a floating or free-swimming existence.


Polymorphism is found in many hydroids of the Hydrozoa class, and it is linked to colonial organisation. The majority of hydroids are dimorphic or polymorphic, meaning they have two or more structurally and functionally distinct individuals within the same species. They are polyps for a portion of their lives.


Both the polyp and the medusa have the three cnidarian body layers: (a) the outer ectoderm, (b) the inner endoderm, and (c) the middle jelly-like layer, the mesoglea. The medusa's mesoglea is much thicker, forming the bulk of the animal and allowing it to float.


Q3) Answer the following questions.


i) Name three important characters of Platyhelminthes for considering them more advanced than cnidarians. (3)

Ans) Some of the characteristics that distinguish the organisms belonging to phylum Platyhelminthes from others are:

  1. Presence of flame cells.

  2. Ladder-like nervous system.

  3. Presence of parenchyma in the body cavity.

  4. Self-fertilization.


Characteristics of Platyhelminthes

  1. They are triploblastic, acoelomate, and bilaterally symmetrical.

  2. They may be free-living or parasites.

  3. The body has a soft covering with or without cilia.

  4. Their body is dorsoventrally flattened without any segments and appears like a leaf.

  5. They are devoid of the anus and circulatory system but have a mouth.

  6. They respire by simple diffusion through the body surface.

  7. They have an organ level of organization.

  8. They do not have a digestive tract.

  9. The space between the body wall and organs is filled with connective tissue parenchyma which helps in transporting the food material.

  10. They are hermaphrodites, i.e., both male and female organs are present in the same body.

  11. They reproduce sexually by fusion of gametes and asexually by regeneration by fission and regeneration. Fertilization is internal.

  12. The life cycle is complicated with one or more larval stages.

  13. They possess the quality of regeneration.

  14. The flame cells help in excretion and osmoregulation.

  15. The nervous system comprises the brain and two longitudinal nerve cords arranged in a ladder-like fashion.


ii) What is parasitic adaptation? Explain the adaptations that have taken place in Ascaris lumbricoides. (7)

Ans) The parasite's ability to adapt to the surrounding environment at the infection site is crucial to its survival in the body of the host. Parasitic adaptations are changes that allow a parasite to adapt to a parasitic mode of life within the host.


Parasites have evolved to get the most out of their hosts while not killing them. Strong suckers and hooks for attachment to the lining of the small intestine are among the adaptations of tapeworms. Tapeworms are thin and flattened, with a large surface area for nutrient absorption.


Different parasitic adaptations of Ascaris lumbricoides are as follows:

  1. The parasite's body shape and size are determined by the amount of space available at the infection site. Ascaris' body is elongated, cylindrical, and tapered at both ends, which is a useful adaptation for manoeuvring in tight spaces.

  2. Locomotory structures are almost non-existent in parasitic forms because they do not need to move in order to find food.

  3. If a parasite enters the body without attaching to the surrounding tissues, it is carried away to a non-specific site or the outside of the body, where it cannot survive. As a result, they attach to the surrounding tissues in the intestine to stay at the infection site. Ascaris has a mouth with three lips that help it attach to the intestine membrane of the host.

  4. The parasite's body surface is covered in cuticle to protect itself from the harmful effects of the host's digestive enzymes. Physiological studies show that Ascaris secretes enzyme inhibitors that protect the worm from the digestive enzymes of the host.

  5. Ascaris lumbricoides is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it lives in an environment where oxygen is scarce or non-existent. They can breathe aerobically when oxygen is available and anaerobically when oxygen is unavailable.

  6. A parasite's reproductive potential is extremely high. A single Ascaris female can lay up to 2,00,000 eggs per day, which pass through the host's faeces. Despite numerous risks during development, the parasitic race's high reproductive potential ensures its survival. A large egg production is an adaptation to a parasitic lifestyle.

  7. The developing eggs are resistant to harsh environmental conditions and can live for up to 20 years in the soil. It's also a way of adapting to a parasitic lifestyle.

  8. Ascaris secretes enzyme inhibitors that protect the round worm from the host's digestive enzymes, according to physiological studies.


The presence of parasites activates the host's immune system, which produces antibodies to kill the parasites. Parasites, on the other hand, generally evade the action of antibodies through a process known as molecular mimicry, in which parasites are covered by molecules that are similar to those of the host. These are mistakenly identified as self-molecules by the host's antibodies, and antibodies are unable to counteract them.


Q4) Answer the following questions.


a) What are true coelomates? Discuss their advantages. (5)

Ans) In metazoans, the coelom is a body cavity (animals that develop from an embryo with three tissue layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). During development, the cells in each tissue layer differentiate into different tissues, organs, and a digestive tract. The coelom, which is made up of mesodermal epithelium and is found between the intestinal canal and the body wall, is derived from the mesoderm. The blood, bones, digestive tract, gonads, kidneys, and other organs are all formed from mesodermal tissue. Organisms with a true coelom are referred to as (true) coelomates.


Advantages of True Coelomates:

The ability of the inner mesenteric (mostly connective tissue) layer to suspend the central gut in the middle of the animal is a true coelom's advantage. Otherwise, gravity would pull the gut down and severely limit body size in animals with a body cavity used for locomotion. Coelomates have far larger bodies than any other animal group. The coelom has been of varying importance to the form and diversity of the various phyla within the coelomates. It is required for the burrowing abilities of annelids and related phyla, for example. However, in arthropods, which have transferred locomotion to limbs supported by an exoskeleton rather than a coelomic hydroskeleton, it has lost much of its significance. The main function of the coelom in vertebrates is suspension, as they have an endoskeleton that does not need to be shed during growth, allowing them to achieve the largest body sizes among animals.


b) “Insects have dominated the terrestrial environment”. What are the reasons for the success of the insects in the terrestrial environment? (5)

Ans) Insects have completely conquered the terrestrial environment, occupying every available niche. They've also infiltrated aquatic habitats, despite the fact that only a few marine species exist. Insects have a variety of effects on the environment and human life. They have been both man's allies and adversaries. Some of the factors that have contributed to their success on land include the evolution of flight, an impermeable cuticle, and tracheal respiration.


Insect heads are a composite structure. It has a pair of compound eyes and a pair of antennae. There are usually three ocelli as well. The mouthparts are made up of three pairs of appendages. A pair of mandibles and two pairs of maxillae make up the labium, with the second pair of maxillae fused together to form the labium. An upper lip, or labrum, covers the mandibles in front. The epipharynx is a median lobe-like process that projects into the anterior region of the buccal cavity. This emerges from the labium's base.


The thorax is divided into three sections: prothorax, mesothorax, and metathorax. Notum is the tergum of the thoracic segments of insects. The meso and metathorax articulate with the two pairs of wings. While some primitive insects (apterygotes) lack wings, some higher forms have lost their wings as a result of evolution. Each of the three thoracic segments articulates with a pair of legs. The coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, and tarsus form a jointed structure in each leg. The legs of various insects have been modified to suit various functions such as walking, food collection, and so on. The abdomen is divided into nine to eleven segments. On the 11th segment of the abdomen are a pair of sensory structures known as anal cerci. Insect genital segments contain an intromittent organ for the transfer of spermatozoa in males and an ovipositor for the deposition of eggs in females.


Q5) Write brief notes on : (5)


i) Shell in Bivalvia

Ans) A bivalve has two shells secreted by a mantle that extends on either side of the body. The umbo is a large hump on the anterior end of the dorsal side of each shell. The ligament connects the two shells at the dorsal end. Tensilium and resilium make up the ligament. They open the shells together. A bivalve's shell closes by contracting its adductor muscles. There are usually two, an anterior and a posterior, but in some cases (like scallops) only one.


Bivalves have two ctenida and a muscular foot. Some taxa's mantle edges fuse and extend into tube-like syphons. A bivalve uses its muscular foot to attach to a substrate or to burrow. Scallops use jet propulsion: rapid valve closure squirts water out of the mantle cavity, and the animal "swims" in the opposite direction.


ii) Crystalline style

Ans) Crystalline style is a structure found in the stomach of lamellibranchs. It is a compact and long, gelatinous rod that secretes enzymes amylase and lipase.


The stomach of lamellibranchs contains a structure called crystalline style, a compact and often a long gelatinous rod that secretes enzymes like amylase and lipase. The heart is three chambered and is folded around the rectum, and pericardial cavity surrounds the heart. The pericardial cavity thus encloses both the heart and a section of the posterior part of the digestive tract.


iii) Describe the water vascular system of a sea star. (5)

Ans) The water vascular system, unique to echinoderms derived from some of the coelomic cavities performs varied functions such as food gathering, locomotion respiration and circulation.


The water vascular system is a hydraulic system used by echinoderms, such as sea stars and sea urchins, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration. The system is composed of canals connecting numerous tube feet. Echinoderms move by alternately contracting muscles that force water into the tube feet, causing them to extend and push against the ground, then relaxing to allow the feet to retract.



Part-B Maximum Marks: 50



Q6) Sate whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) (10)


i) All lampreys are hermaphrodites.

Ans) False.


ii) Ammocoete larvae metamorphose into adults in 3 to 7 days.

Ans) False.


iii) The pattern of structure of limbs and girdles found in amphibians is different from those found in higher tetrapods.

Ans) True.


iv) Gills are used as respiratory organs in larvae of Anura and in adults of urodeles.

Ans) False.


v) Birds and crocodiles belong to a monophyletic group.

Ans) True.


vi) In snakes, spur like rudiments of hind legs are only present in the cobras.

Ans) False.


vii) The feather of birds consists of more than 90% of a particular type of alpha keratin, which is protein.

Ans) False.


viii) Most of the female birds have only the right ovary and oviduct.

Ans) False.


ix) The new-born babies of deer and horses are precocial.

Ans) True.


x) Cynodonts developed homodont teeth. 

Ans) False.


Q7) Answer the following.

a) Name five hallmarks shared by all chordates and explain the function of each. (5)

Ans) The five hallmarks shared by all chordates are:

  1. Notochord: a flexible rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the body in the lowest chordates and lowest vertebrates and in embryos of higher vertebrates.

  2. Pharyngeal Gill Slits: characteristic of both hemichordate and Chordata, are used by organisms in feeding. The wall of the pharynx is perforated by up to 200 vertical slits, which are separated by stiffening rods.

  3. Endostyle: in chordates, it secrets mucus that traps particles, and is a precursor to the thyroid gland.

  4. Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord: nerve cord found in all chordates that forms the spinal cord and brain.

  5. Postanal Tail: muscular structure at the end of a developing chordate.


b) Describe the common morphological features of hagfishes and lampreys. How do they differ from each other? (5)

Ans) Lampreys are a group of jawless fish that are used to compare vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, cyclostomes, the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparing cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived traits that may have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates. Because invertebrate chordates lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates are essential for inferring developmental characteristics in early vertebrates and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates.


When stressed or provoked, hagfishes are best known for their ability to produce alarming amounts of slime. Many of their common names, such as slime eel and slime hag, contain the word slime. Myxine glutinosa, the Atlantic hagfish, is named after its slime (myx = slime, glutin = glue). Many animals produce slime when they are stressed, but hagfish slime is unique in that it is produced in large quantities.


Differences

The main distinction between a hagfish and a lamprey is that a hagfish is not a vertebrate, whereas a lamprey is. Hagfish and lamprey are jawless, elongate eel-like animals that lack paired fins. These two species are the only living descendants of the ancient creatures who gave rise to fish and humans. Both fish lack scales and have paired fins. In addition, they are boneless. Their skeletons are cartilage-based. Hagfish and lampreys are both marine creatures. The lamprey has vertebra, whereas the hagfish does not. As a result, the lamprey is a primitive vertebrate, whereas the hagfish is not.


Q8. a) Why do marine teleosts need to drink large amounts of seawater? How do the freshwater teleosts overcome their osmoregulatory challenges? (5)

Ans) Marine bony fish have hypotonic tissues, meaning their bodies contain fewer solutes (0.3-0.4 M) than the surrounding solution (about 1M), and they tend to lose water and gain salts. The gill surfaces directly in contact with seawater lose most of their water. Hypoosmotic regulators: marine fish. The excess salts (Na+, Cl–, and K+) are eliminated by special cells in the gill epithelium. Dietary ions are excreted in the faeces or excreted by the kidneys via tubular secretion. Because marine teleosts produce little urine, their kidneys' glomeruli are reduced in number or absent (in pipefish and frogfish), resulting in aglomerular kidneys.


Freshwater has a salt concentration of 0.001 to 0.005 gramme moles/liter (M). This salt concentration is much lower than freshwater fish (0.2 to 0.3 M). Freshwater fish gill cells are therefore hypertonic. Thus, water enters the epithelial cells via osmosis and moves to the rest of the body, while salt tends to diffuse out of the epithelial cells via diffusion. To keep the fish alive, an ionic concentration of 0.2-0.3 M must be maintained.


Freshwater fish are therefore hyperosmotic regulators with varying strategies as follows:

  1. They don't drink.

  2. They have opisthonephric kidneys that can resorb NaCl in the tubules to form very dilute urine.

  3. The gill epithelium has cells that actively absorb salt (Na+ and Cl–) from the water back into the blood. Also, the food they eat re-salts the body.


Q8. b) Explain the mechanism of circulation in amphibians. (5)

Ans) The adaptability of modern amphibians' gaseous exchange mechanisms is a distinguishing feature. Mucous secretions keep amphibian skin moist, and blood vessels are plentiful. To varying degrees, it is used for breathing. When lungs are present, carbon dioxide can be expelled through the skin, but some salamanders lack lungs and must rely solely on the skin for respiration. Even in frogs, it appears that the skin can take up oxygen at times, such as when they are submerged in water. As a result, breathing is regulated within a single species, and the relative contributions of skin and lungs change over time.


The heart of an amphibian is typically three-part, with a divided atrium and a single ventricle. The lungless salamanders, on the other hand, lack an atrial septum, while the caecilians, a small and unknown group, show signs of a ventral septum. The presence of septa in both the atrium and ventricle of the first amphibians is unknown. They might have, and the lack of septa in many modern forms could simply be a sign of a more flexible approach to using the skin, lung, or both as a site of oxygen exchange. Furthermore, muscular columns divide the ventricle into numerous compartments, preventing blood from freely mixing.


Q9. a) How are tuataras different from lizards? (2½)

Ans) endemic to New Zealand, the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). Unlike most lizards, they belong to the Rhynchocephalia order. Their name means "peaks on the back" in Mori. Their most recent common ancestor is the squamates (lizards and snakes). Tuataras are thus useful in reconstructing the appearance and habits of early diapsids, a group of amniote tetrapods that includes dinosaurs (including birds) and crocodilians.


Tuataras are greenish brown and grey in colour and weigh up to 1.3 kg. Males have a spiny crest along their backs. Unique among living species, their upper jaw has two rows of teeth overlapping one row on the lower jaw. They have unique skeleton features, some of which appear to have evolved from fish, and can hear despite not having external ears.


There are squamate reptiles (Lacertilia) on every continent except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. Some lizards are related to snakes and Amphisbaenia more than others. Lizards range in size from tiny chameleons to the 3 metre Komodo dragon.


Most lizards run on four legs. Legless lizards have snake-like bodies and no legs. Others, like the woodland Draco, can glide. Males intimidate rivals and attract mates by flashing bright colours. The Komodo eats large mammals like water buffalo.


Q9. b) How do crocodiles and alligators differ from each other? (2½)

Ans) Although these large reptiles come from different families, they all have long snouts, powerful tails, short legs, and bony-plated backs in common. However, there are a few simple ways to tell them apart. The first is the snout's shape. It's broad and U-shaped in alligators, but narrow and V-shaped in crocodiles. The teeth come next. When the mouth of an alligator is closed, the lower teeth are typically hidden. Crocodiles, on the other hand, have some teeth in the bottom jaw, particularly the large fourth tooth. Another distinguishing feature is the colour, which is either grey or black, indicating that it is most likely a gator. Crocodiles are olive or tan in colour. The locations of the two reptiles are also different. Crocodiles prefer saltwater habitats, whereas alligators prefer freshwater environments. Finally, but certainly not least, is behaviour. Crocodiles are more aggressive than gators in general.


Q9. c) Where was the Archaeopteryx discovered? Give reasons for the Archaeopteryx being considered the connecting link between reptiles and birds. (5)

AnsArchaeopteryx was first discovered in 1861, and it was a very mysterious creature that sparked a lot of debate and controversy. It resembled both a dinosaur and a bird in appearance. It had feathers, which are a characteristic of birds, but it also had teeth, a bony tail, and limbs that were more akin to those of dinosaurs. Archaeopteryx is Greek for "old wing." It was discovered in Germany and is sometimes referred to as Urvogel, which means "first bird" in German. Although it had feathers and wings, its skeleton was more akin to that of a dinosaur. Because birds were the only animals with feathers at the time of archaeopteryx's discovery, it's natural to assume it was a bird. It did, however, have teeth and bones in its tail, known as caudal vertebrae. This puzzled scientists because birds do not normally have teeth or tail bones. The teeth were small and spiked, making them ideal for eating insects, worms, and lizards, among other small creatures.


Reasons for Archaeopteryx being the Connecting Link

Reptilian characters of archaeopteryx:

  1. The body axis is more or less lizard-like

  2. A long tail is present.

  3. The bone is pneumatic(hollow)

  4. The jaws of archaeopteryx have similar teeth as that of reptiles

  5. They have weak sternum like that of reptiles

  6. Presence of free caudal vertebrae as found in lizards

  7. The hand bears a typical reptilian plan, and each finger terminates in a claw.


Bird Characters of Archaeopteryx

  1. Presence of feathers on the body

  2. The two limbs are modified into a beak

  3. The forelimbs are modified into wings

  4. The hind-limbs are built on the typical avian plan.

  5. An intimate fusion of skull bones as seen in the birds.


Q10. a) List and give one function of the four glands of the integument of mammals. (4)

Ans) The integumentary system has a variety of functions; in animals, it serves to waterproof, cushion and protect the deeper tissues, excrete waste, regulate temperature and is the location of sensory receptors for pain, pressure, and temperature. Generally, mammalian skin is covered with hair and is termed hirsute skin.


Skin Structure

Keratinocytes, a type of cell found in the mammalian epidermis, are formed by cell division in a basal stratum germinativum. This is supported by a basement membrane that is firmly attached to the dermis' surface. Newly formed cells move outward, first forming part of the prickle cell layer (stratum spinosum), where plaquelike structures called desmosomes hold them together. They then pass through a granular layer (stratum granulosum), where keratohyalin, a granular component of keratin, coats them.


The stratum corneum is formed when the cells flatten and lose their nuclei. The dead skin cells on the surface of the skin are eventually sloughed off or desquamated. A clear layer called the stratum lucidum can be distinguished between the stratum granulosum and the stratum corneum in thick, glabrous skin lacking hair follicles, such as that found on human palms and soles.

Q10) b) Give two distinguishing morphological features of each of the following orders: (6)


i) Cingulata

Ans) Armadillos are an example –

Order Cingulata contains the armadillos which are insectivorous in nature and are closely related to anteaters and sloths. They are odd looking, armoured creatures as the dorsal surface of their body is covered by armour, formed of osteodermal plates. The dorsal armour, around the center of the body in the armadillos is arranged into bands of plates which are separated by soft skin.


ii) Sirenia

Ans) Examples: Dugongs and manatees (sea cows).

Order Sirenia, contains the sirenians which are fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps, rivers, estuaries, marine wetlands, and coastal marine waters. Sirenians have a large head with two nostrils located on the top or at the front of a thick muzzle. Sirenians lack ear pinna. The tail of sirenians is horizontally flattened tail.


iii) Primate

Ans) Examples: Lemurs.

The sense of sight in primate species is the dominant sensory system. Primates have front facing, large eyes and well-developed vision that give them both binocular vision and stereoscopic vision as compared to mammals of other orders in which the sense of smell is the dominant sensory system.

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