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CIT-001: Fundamentals of Computer Systems

CIT-001: Fundamentals of Computer Systems

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for CIT-001 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Fundamentals of Computer Systems, you have come to the right place. CIT-001 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in CIT, BTS, BAFSM courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: CIT-001/ASSIGN/2021-22

Course Code: CIT-001

Assignment Name: Fundamentals of Computer Systems

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Marks: 25

Q1) What is a computer system? Explain different components of computer system.

Ans) A computer system is a basic, comprehensive, and functional hardware and software arrangement that includes everything necessary to accomplish computing tasks.

Central Processing Unit (CPU): It is the electronic circuitry of a computer that performs the real processing, and it is commonly referred to as the computer's brain. It is also known as a processor. A CPU can be physically placed on one or more integrated circuits (ICs) (IC). Semiconductor materials are used in the ICs.

Input Devices: Input devices are the devices that allow control signals to be sent to a computer. These devices convert the data into a digital format that the computer system can understand. Keyboards, mice, scanners, touch screens, and other input devices are examples.

Output Devices: The output device is the device that receives data from a computer system for display, physical production, and other purposes. It turns digital data into a human-readable format. Monitor, projector, headphones, speakers, printer, and so on.

Q2) What is a printing device? Briefly explain the various types of printing devices.

Ans) A printer is a device that takes text and graphic output from a computer and converts it to paper, usually standard-size 8.5" by 11" sheets.

  1. Character Printer: Only one character can be printed at a time on these printers. They function similarly to a typewriter. Daisy Wheel Printer, Dot Matrix Printer, and Inkjet Printer are three examples.

  2. Daisy Wheel Printer: This printer looks like a typewriter with a ballhead. The shape of each character is imprinted on a plastic or metal wheel with this sort of printer.

  3. DotMatrix Printer: This is one of the most widely used printers for personal computers. These printers, which utilise impact technology, are less expensive than other technologies.

  4. Line Printer: Large amounts of data are printed on line printers. These are high-capacity printers that print at speeds ranging from 300 to 2500 lines per minute. Drum printers and chain printers are two examples.

  5. Page Printer: These printers print at a rapid pace and generate high-quality output. They work at a rate of 10 to 25 pages per minute.

  6. Inkjet Printer: Inkjet printers use inkjet technology to produce greater print quality than dot matrix printers. These print by precisely spraying a stream of small oink droplets over the paper, generating dot matrix or solid letters.

  7. Laser Printer: This printer features high-quality, high-speed, and high-volume printing technology. A laser beam is utilised in laser printers to create an image on a drum. The laser's light modifies the electrical charge on the drum wherever it lands.

Q3) Briefly explain various types of computer memory.

Ans) In today's computers, the following three types of memory systems are routinely used:

Processor’s internal memories: Internal to a processor, these are a tiny group of high-speed registers that are employed as temporary locations where actual processing takes place. This is also known as CPU memory.

Primary (main) memory: It has a lot of memory and is quick, but it is slower than CPU memory. Primary memory has a shorter access time, a smaller storage capacity, and a higher cost per bit of storage than secondary memory. The processor has immediate access to this memory. It keeps track of the applications and data that the CPU requires right now. The CPU interfaces with the main memory directly. Because of its high price, the main memory is kept tiny.

Secondary (or auxiliary) memory: The secondary memory is mostly used for programme, data, and other information bulk storage (mass storage). It has a significantly bigger capacity than main memory, however it is slower. It primarily contains system software, compilers, assemblers, and other helpful packages, as well as big data files.

Q4) Define Software? Differentiate between System Software and Application Software.

Ans) In computer science, the phrase software can be compared to the life of any living entity, without which it would be meaningless. Programs and software are both terms for the same thing. Programs are frequently written in a language known as "programming language."

System Software: System software is a type of software that handles all of a computer's resources and is loaded at the start of the computer's boot process. These are intended to make using the computer easier.

Application Software: Although system software is required to run your computer and manage all of its resources, it is not required. Application software allows a computer to do a specialised data processing task, such as payroll processing, inventory control, or data from an insurance provider. A software package is a collection of programmes that work together to complete a certain goal.

Q5) What is a Flowchart? With the help of an example flowchart, explain the use of various symbols of a flowchart.

Ans) A flowchart is a diagram that depicts an algorithm. It clearly depicts the steps that must be followed in order to arrive at a solution to an issue. Flow charts may not be very effective for small situations, but they are quite valuable for grasping the logic of big and enormous problems. Flowcharts serve as a communication channel between programmers and the clients who will be served by the application.

Example: Convert temperature Fahrenheit to Celsius


Meaning/Used for

The beginning or the end of the programme

Used to write the steps of an operation/action or a program's processing function.

Operation on the input or output

Making decisions and branching operations

In a flow chart, a connector joins two sections together.

A flow line is a diagram that depicts the flow of data.

Magnetic tape is used for backup and auxiliary storage.

Secondary storage/backup is done on a magnetic disc.

Q6) Write a C program for finding the largest number among the three given numbers.


/* Program to find largest among three numbers */

#include <stdio.h>




int num1,num2,num3;


printf("Eenter three enteger values\n");

scanf ("%d%d%%d",&num1,&num2,&num3);

if ((num1>num2)&&(num1>num3))


printf("%d is greatest\n",num1);


 else if((num1<num2)&&(num2>num3))


printf("%d is greatest\n",num2);




printf("%d isgreatest\n",num3);



Q7) Differentiate between asynchronous and synchronous mode of data transmission.

Ans) Asynchronous Transmission

In landline communications systems and some forms of teletype communications, asynchronous data transmission is ubiquitous. Asynchronous, or character framed, transmission is most commonly used to send seven- or eight-bit data in ASCII (American Standard Code for International Interchange) character format. Each letter has a distinct start and finish sequence, usually consisting of one start bit and one or two stop bits.

An asynchronous data stream's transmission format is depicted in Figure 4. A parity bit (even or odd) may be inserted to ensure that the transmitted data is accurate. Asynchronous characters can be sent one at a time or in a string; nevertheless, each character has start and end bits. When data signals are broadcast in this format, the sending and receiving devices synchronise on a character-by-character basis, which allows for certain timing imperfections. With the arrival of the next character, all timing errors are fixed.

Synchronous Transmission

Synchronous messages are used by the majority of tactical digital information linkages.

Synchronous transmission is a more advanced data transfer mechanism. It sends data in long, continuous streams with a predetermined start and stop sequence. The preamble is the name given to the initial sequence. The preamble's primary purpose is to notify the receiver of incoming data and to serve as a reference for synchronising the receiver with the sent signal. A start code follows the preamble, indicating the start of the message data to the receiving device. Figure 5 depicts the basic format of a synchronous data transmission.

The receiver's time is then synchronised using the incoming bit stream. The message data is followed by a stop code, which indicates the conclusion of transmission.

Q8) Explain the use of following network devices:

i. Bridge

Ans) A bridge connects two LAN segments, segment 1 (LAN1) and segment 2 (LAN2) (LAN2). Several computers can be connected to each segment.

ii. Switch

Ans) A switch (or switching hub) is a device that divides a big local area network into smaller segments to lessen traffic burden.

iii. Hub

Ans) Hubs are commonly employed on tiny networks when the amount of data passing through the network is never very large.

iv. Router

Ans) A router is similar to an intelligent bridge in that it converts data from one network to another.

Q9) What is network topology? Explain star and bus topology with the help of suitable diagrams.

Ans) The study of the layout or mapping of the elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a network interaction between nodes is known as network topology.

Bus Topology

A bus topology is a centralised communication system to which all computers are linked. As indicated in the diagram, it consists of a single length of cable with a terminator at each end.

Star Topology

Each computer on a network communicates with a central hub (also known as a concentrator) that resends the message to all computers or just the destination computer in a star topology.

Q10) What is a computer virus? Explain any two types of virus attack.

Ans) The computer and information technology world is experiencing an era of electronic terrorism in the form of viruses. It's a problem that has the potential to be so harmful that it jeopardises the computer system's correct operation in today's information age.

  1. Worms: These are malicious programmes that infiltrate your computer via network or Internet connections and quickly spread throughout it.

  2. Zombie : These programmes take over your computer and utilise your Internet connection to attack other computers or networks, or to commit crimes.

Q11) What is need of Network Security? Explain its different elements of Network Security.

Ans) Network security refers to the steps taken by a corporation to safeguard its computer system, and it is a major problem for every firm that employs computers. All activities that organisations, corporations, and institutions do to protect the value and continuous usability of assets, as well as the integrity and continuity of operations, are referred to as network security.

Network security is a wide phrase that encompasses a number of important components:

Firewall: On several levels, firewall systems secure and facilitate your network. They permit email and other applications, such as file transfer protocol and remote login, as needed, while restricting access to the internal network. Firewall systems have an authorisation mechanism that ensures that only certain individuals or apps are allowed to pass through the firewall.

Password Mechanism: Passwords are a technique of identifying and authenticating people when they use a computer system. Unfortunately, a password can be hacked in a variety of ways.

Authentication and Integrity: Authentication is the process of verifying that users are who they claim to be. Authentication is critical when using resources or transmitting communications over a large private network, let alone the Internet. Integrity ensures that the information sent has not been tampered with. Of course, any message that has been altered in any manner is highly suspect and should be utterly dismissed.

Developing a Site Security Policy: The purpose of creating an official site policy on computer security is to establish the organization's expectations for proper computer and network use, as well as processes for preventing and responding to security problems.

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