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CIT-001: Fundamentals of Computer Systems

CIT-001: Fundamentals of Computer Systems

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for CIT-001 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Fundamentals of Computer Systems, you have come to the right place. CIT-001 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in CIT, BTS, BAFSM courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: CIT-001/Assign/2022-23

Course Code: CIT-001

Assignment Name: Fundamentals of Computer Systems

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Question 1


(a) What is a computer system? Explain briefly different application domains. (2 marks)

Ans) A computer is a digital electronic machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as programs. These programs enable computers to perform a wide range of tasks. A computer system is a "complete" computer that includes the hardware, operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment needed and used for "full" operation. This term may also refer to a group of computers that are linked and function together, such as a computer network or computer cluster. There are different application domains of computer system as follows:



Getting the right kind of information is a major challenge as is getting information to make sense. College students spend an average of 5-6 hours a week on the Internet. Research shows that computers can significantly enhance performance in learning. Students exposed to the internet say they think the web has helped them improve the quality of their academic research and of their written work. One revolution in education is the advent of distance learning. This offers. a variety of internet and video-based online courses.


Health and Medicine

Computer technology is radically changing the tools of medicine. All medical information can now be digitized. Software is now able to computer the risk of a disease. Mental health researchers are using computers to screen troubled teenagers in need of psychotherapy. A patient paralyzed by a stroke has received an implant that allows communication between his brain and a computer; as a result, he can move a cursor across a screen by brainpower and convey simple messages.



Scientists have long been users of it. A new adventure among scientists is the idea of a “collaboratory”, an internet based collaborative laboratory, in which researchers all over the world can work easily together even at a distance. An example is space physics where space physicists are allowed-to band together to measure the earth’s ionosphere from instruments on four parts of the world.



Business clearly see the interest as a way to enhance productivity and competitiveness. Some areas of business that are undergoing rapid changes are sales and marketing, retailing, banking, stock trading, etc. Sales representatives not only need to be better educated and more knowledgeable about their customer’s businesses, but also must be comfortable with computer technology.  The Internet has become a popular marketing tool. The world of cyber cash has come to banking not only smart cards but Internet banking, electronic deposit, bill paying, online stock and bond trading, etc.


Recreation and Entertainment

Our entertainment and pleasure time have also been affected by computerization. For example:  In movies, computer generated graphics give freedom to designers so that special effects and even imaginary characters can play a part in making movies, videos, and commercials.  In sports, computers compile statistics, sell tickets, create training programs and diets for athletes, and suggest game plan strategies based on the competitor’s past performance.  In restaurants, almost everyone has eaten food where the clerk enters an order by indicating choices on a rather unusual looking cash register; the device directly enters the actual data into a computer and calculates the cost and then prints a receipt.


(b) What are output devices? Briefly explain various types of printing devices. (2 marks)

Ans) An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment which converts information into a human-perceptible form or, historically, into a physical machine-readable form for use with other non-computerized equipment. It can be text, graphics, tactile, audio, or video. Examples include monitors, printers, speakers, headphones, projectors, GPS devices, optical mark readers, and braille readers. In an industrial setting, output devices also include "printers" for paper tape and punched cards, especially where the tape or cards are subsequently used to control industrial equipment, such as an industrial loom with electrical robotics which is not fully computerized.


Printing Devices

A printer is a device that outputs data to be put on a physical item, usually a piece of paper. Printers operate by transferring ink onto this medium in the form of the image received from the host.  Early printers could only print text, but later developments allowed printing of graphics. Modern printers can receive data in multiple forms like vector graphics, as an image, a program written in a page description language, or a string of characters.  Multiple types of printers exist:


Inkjet printers: An inkjet printer injects tiny droplets onto the printing medium via a series of nozzles on a printing head.


Laser printers: A laser printer uses a laser to charge a drum of toner in order to mark points where the toner would stick onto the medium.


Thermal printers: A printer which heats up a thermally sensitive roll of paper to reveal ink. Most often seen in retail stores to print receipts.


Dot matrix printer: A printer which uses impact to transfer ink from a ribbon to the medium.


Plotter: A plotter is a type of printer used to print vector graphics. Instead of drawing pixels onto the printing medium, the plotter draws lines, which may be done with a writing implement such as a pencil or pen.


Teleprinter: A teleprinter or teletypewriter is a type of printer meant for sending and receiving messages. Before displays were used to display data visually, early computers would only have a teleprinter for use to access the system console. As the operator would enter commands into its keyboard, the teleprinter would output the results onto a piece of paper. The teleprinter would ultimately be succeeded by a computer terminal, which had a display instead of a printer.


(c) What is database management system (DBMS)? Briefly explain different types of DBMS. (2 marks)

Ans) Database Management System: The software which is used to manage databases is called Database Management System (DBMS). For Example, MySQL, Oracle, etc. are popular commercial DBMS used in different applications. DBMS allows users the following tasks:

  1. Data Definition: It helps in the creation, modification, and removal of definitions that define the organization of data in the database.

  2. Data Updation: It helps in the insertion, modification, and deletion of the actual data in the database.

  3. Data Retrieval: It helps in the retrieval of data from the database which can be used by applications for various purposes.

  4. User Administration: It helps in registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, and recovering information corrupted by unexpected failure.


Types of DBMS


Relation Database

  1. A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a system where data is organized in two-dimensional tables using rows and columns.

  2. This is one of the most popular data models which is used in industries. It is based on SQL.

  3. Every table in a database has a key field which uniquely identifies each record.

  4. This type of system is the most widely used DBMS.

  5. Relational database management system software is available for personal computers, workstation and large mainframe systems.


Object Oriented Database

  1. It is a system where information or data is represented in the form of objects which is used in object-oriented programming.

  2. It is a combination of relational database concepts and object-oriented principles.

  3. Relational database concepts are concurrency control, transactions, etc.

  4. OOPs principles are data encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.

  5. It requires less code and is easy to maintain.


Hierarchical Database

  1. It is a system where the data elements have a one to many relationship (1: N). Here data is organized like a tree which is similar to a folder structure in your computer system.

  2. The hierarchy starts from the root node, connecting all the child nodes to the parent node.

  3. It is used in industry on mainframe platforms.


Network database

  1. A Network database management system is a system where the data elements maintain one to one relationship (1: 1) or many to many relationship (N: N).

  2. It also has a hierarchical structure, but the data is organized like a graph, and it is allowed to have more than one parent for one child record.


Question 2


(a) What is System Software? How System Software is different from Application Software. (2 marks)

Ans) Software is a type of programme that loads when a computer initially powers on and controls all of its resources. They are created to simplify computer use. The operation of the CPU, RAM, and other input/output devices, etc., is controlled by system software. Microsoft Windows is an operating system that is based on Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, or Windows XP.


Examples of system software include Windows Vista and other applications. a few system software features:

  1. A device that a computer employs to carry out a task.

  2. Controls every aspect of the computer.

  3. Create a database, then after each transaction, update it.

  4. The order of the files is alphabetical.

  5. Controls the interior workings of the computer.

  6. Controls additional hardware that is connected to the CPUs.


System software is comparable to a certain type of programme that serves as a conductor. throughout a performance. It specifies all the rules for using the equipment and regulates all actions. engage with software. Two examples of systems are MS DOS and Microsoft Windows. a piece of software, like an operating system. Certain system software is pre-installed on the PC. Such programmes can take the form of ROM chips, as examples. The computer can be started and configured with the help of this programme.


From the standpoint of the application programmer, system software should initialise hardware fast and efficiently and also provide a better working environment. System software starts when the system is turned on and ends when the system is turned off. As an example, the libraries could comprise a math library for performing mathematical operations, an input/output library, a graphics library for creating various types of images, etc. Application software operates as directed by the user. Programming for system software is more difficult than for application software. Programming for application software is easier than for system software.


(b) What is a Flowchart? Explain different symbols used in Flowchart. Draw a Flowchart for finding the simple interest on a saving bank deposit. (3 marks)

Ans) The flowchart is a diagram that shows how data flows via processing.

systems. This means that one can learn about the operations carried out and

the order in which a system performs various activities. Algorithms are simply a series of

steps for problem-solving So an algorithm can be represented using a flowchart. A

flowchart, which will outline the procedures (and in what order) needed to solve a

given difficulty.


Flowchart Symbols


(c) Write a C program to find the area of a triangle. (2 marks)

Ans) C program to find the area of a triangle:

#include <stdio.h>

#include <math.h> /* It is ecessary for using sqrt function  */

void main()


    /*Variable Declaration*/

    float a, b, c, s, area;


    /*Taking user input*/

    printf("Enter the three sides, a, b, and c, of the triangle:");

    scanf("%f%f%f", &a, &b, &c);


    /*Calculate the area of the triangle*/

    s = (a + b + c) / 2;

    area = sqrt((s *(s - a) *(s - b) *(s - c)));

    printf("\n The area of the triangle is %f.", area);



Program output:

Enter the three sides, a, b, and c, of the triangle:




The area of the triangle is 70.710678.


Question 3


(a) Explain the following network devices: (2 marks)


i. Bridge

Ans) A bridge can connect many LANs, much as a repeater (Local Area Network). To isolate traffic or issues, a bridge can also split a network. A bridge can isolate specific computers or departments, for instance, if the volume of traffic from one or two computers or a single department is clogging the network with data and slows down the entire operation. Two LAN segments, segment1 (LAN1) and segment2 are connected by a bridge (LAN2). Several computers may be connected to each segment.



ii. Modem

Ans) A modulator-demodulator or modem is a computer hardware device that converts data from a digital format into a format suitable for an analog transmission medium such as telephone or radio. A modem transmits data by modulating one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information, while the receiver demodulates the signal to recreate the original digital information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded reliably. Modems can be used with almost any means of transmitting analog signals, from light-emitting diodes to radio.


ii. Gateway

Ans) A gateway is a network node used in telecommunications that connects two networks with different transmission protocols together. Gateways serve as an entry and exit point for a network as all data must pass through or communicate with the gateway prior to being routed. In most IP-based networks, the only traffic that does not go through at least one gateway is traffic flowing among nodes on the same local area network (LAN) segment.


iv. Router

Ans) A router is a device that connects two or more packet-switched networks or subnetworks. It serves two primary functions: managing traffic between these networks by forwarding data packets to their intended IP addresses and allowing multiple devices to use the same Internet connection.


(b) What is network topology? Explain Tree and Star topology with the help of suitable diagrams. (2 marks)

Ans) The study of how the components of a network's connections between nodes are arranged or mapped out is known as network topology. In the future, topologies may be physical or logical, and it also sets the plan for physically growing the network. The actual layout of a network, including the devices, locations, and cable installations, is referred to as physical topology. Unlike a network's architecture, logical topology describes how data really moves via a network.


Star Topology


Each computer on a network connected by a star topology communicates with a central hub (also known as a concentrator), which then resends the message to all computers or only the destination computer. A hub multiplies a single network connection into several. A fourport hub, for instance, can link up to four devices. Small networks can function with with one hub, but larger networks need numerous hubs. However, it drives up the price of hardware and cabling.


Tree Topology


It is one of the most prevalent network configurations and is comparable to both a bus topology and a star topology. Multiple star topologies are integrated into a bus using tree topology. Only hub devices can connect directly to the tree bus in its most basic configuration, and each hub serves as the "root" of a tree of devices.

Question 4


(a) Briefly explain the need for Information Security. (2 marks)

Ans) Information system means to consider available countermeasures or controls stimulated through uncovered vulnerabilities and identify an area where more work is needed. The purpose of data security management is to make sure business continuity and scale back business injury by preventing and minimizing the impact of security incidents.


The need for Information security


1) Protecting the functionality of the organization:

The decision maker in organizations must set policy and operates their organization in compliance with the complex, shifting legislation, efficient and capable applications.


2) Enabling the safe operation of applications:

The organization is under immense pressure to acquire and operates integrated, efficient and capable applications. The modern organization needs to create an environment that safeguards application using the organizations IT systems, particularly those application that serves as important elements of the infrastructure of the organization.


3) Protecting the data that the organization collect and use:

Data in the organization can be in two forms are either in rest or in motion, the motion of data signifies that data is currently used or processed by the system. The values of the data motivated the attackers to steal or corrupts the data. This is essential for the integrity and the values of the organization’s data. Information security ensures the protection of both data in motion as well as data in rest.


4) Safeguarding technology assets in organizations:

The organization must add intrastate services based on the size and scope of the organization. Organizational growth could lead to the need for public key infrastructure, PKI an integrated system of the software, encryption methodologies. The information security mechanism used by large organizations is complex in comparison to a small organization. The small organization generally prefers symmetric key encryption of data.


(b) Explain different types of security threats in the computer network. (2 marks)

Ans) Network security is the deployment and monitoring of cyber security solutions to protect your organisation's IT systems from attacks and breaches. It also covers policies surrounding the handling of sensitive information.


Following are some types of the security threats in the computer network:


Internal Security Threats: Over 90% of cyberattacks are caused by human error. This can take the form of phishing attacks, careless decision-making, weak passwords, and more.


Distributed Denial-Of-Service (DDoS) Attacks: A DDoS attack causes websites to crash, malfunction, or experience slow loading times. In these cases, cybercriminals infect internet-connected devices (mobile phones, computers, etc.) and convert them into bots. Hackers send the bots to a victim's IP address.


Rogue Security Software: Rogue security software tricks businesses into believing their IT infrastructure is not operational due to a virus. It usually appears as a warning message sent by a legitimate anti-malware solution.


Malware: Malware are malicious software programs used to gather information about victims through compromised devices. After successful deployments, hackers can mine devices for classified information (email addresses, bank accounts, passwords, etc.) and use them to commit identity theft, blackmail, or other business-damaging actions.


Ransomware: Ransomware is a type of malware that encrypts files within infected systems and holds them for ransom, forcing victims to pay for a decryption key to unlock the data. This can take the form of ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS).


Phishing Attacks: Phishing attacks are scams where hackers disguise themselves as a trusted entity and attempt to gain access to networks and steal personal information, such as credit card details. Phishing scams take the form of emails, text messages, or phone calls.


Viruses: Computer viruses are commonly attached to downloadable files from emails or websites. Once you open the file, the virus exploits vulnerabilities in your software to infect your computer with malicious code to disrupt network traffic, steal data, and more.


(c) Briefly explain various types of social engineering. (2 marks)

Ans) Although the majority of social engineering assaults concentrate on human-to-human communication, some computer-based techniques also seek to retrieve the necessary information using software to either gain information or prevent a system from functioning. In 1993, a social engineering-based method was introduced. After providing the right user name and password, the system displayed the standard prompt to the user who was attempting to log on. In reality, a social engineer put a software in front of the typical sign-on procedure, collected the information, and then forwarded the prompt to the actual sign-on procedure. At that time, almost 95% of regular users had their codes compromised.


You must have received tempting emails offering you freebies, or you must have won a prize or competition (without applying for it). Many people receive emails claiming that they have suddenly become millionaires as a result of a close relative passing away and leaving behind all of the property and fortune valued at several billion dollars. Just provide a legitimate account number so that the funds can be put into your account, please. These messages come from a social engineering perspective.


Dumpster diving and shoulder surfing are two of social engineering's first techniques. The information-seeking dumpster diver is prepared to get messy in order to obtain it. Sadly, businesses frequently discard crucial information. Before throwing away phone directories that include sensitive information, shred them.


Third-party authorization and tech support are the final two categories of social engineering. When the social engineer discloses the name of a superior who has the power to provide access, this is how third-party authorisation typically happens. In the tech support method, the social engineer poses as a member of the infrastructure team and requests a user's access to a system so they may inspect the connection. Typically, they will request the user's account ID and password so they can access it from anywhere on the network.


(d) What is encryption? Differentiate between symmetric encryption and public-key encryption. (2 marks)

Ans) Through encryption, a system's secrecy requirements are met. Information that needs to pass across open channels must be protected by encryption and secret codes. Information security requires encryption. Encryption is used to stop hackers from regaining the original communication after acquiring a cypher text during network transmission. Through encryption, any type of data can be converted into a format that only the decryption key can decode. An extremely large number, usually just a string of ones and zeros, serves as a key.

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