If you are looking for CIT-002 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Introduction to Information Technology, you have come to the right place. CIT-002 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in CIT, BTS, BAFSM courses of IGNOU.
CIT-002 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: CIT-002/Assign/2022-23
Course Code: CIT-002
Assignment Name: Introduction to Information Technology
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Question 1: (Covers Block 1) (6 marks)
(a) Differentiate between the terms – data, information, knowledge and wisdom with the help of an example. Explain different types of information.
Ans) Data: A datum, often known as a unit of data and named after the Latin term for one or more symbols used to convey information They are unadulterated facts that describe individuals, locations, objects, or occasions that have already happened or are likely to take place. It is an indication that a person or machine may immediately capture as a symbol, sign, or measurement. It has no connections, self-regulates, and has an infinite number. It is unadulterated, does nothing more than exist, and is meaningless in and of itself. Any form, whether useful or not, may exist for it. Information is a fact or a declaration of an occurrence that is unrelated to other things.
Example: Rain is falling.
Information: Data are interpreted into information. The beneficiary is being affected significantly by the data that has been transformed into an apparent state, and this data is of real perceived value in the ongoing or upcoming decision-making process. It is information that has been digested in a way that makes it possible for the person using it to learn more. Data processing, user evaluation, psychoanalysis, and interpretation transform raw data into useful knowledge. Information embodies knowledge of some sort of relationship, maybe cause and effect.
Example: After a 15-degree dip in temperature, it began to rain.
Knowledge: In order to express understanding, experiences, accumulated learning, and expertise as they relate to a current problem or process, information must first be categorised and processed. It is the proper collection of data, with the intention of being helpful. The process of learning is deterministic. Someone has accumulated knowledge when they "memorise" facts. Knowledge embodies a connected pattern that, in most cases, offers a high degree of predictability regarding what is being stated or what will happen next.
Example: It often doesn't contain the moisture in the atmosphere when the humidity is quite high and the temperature drops significantly, thus it rains.
Wisdom: Extrapolation is a nondeterministic, non-probabilistic process that involves wisdom. It precisely calls upon particular categories of human programming as well as all prior levels of consciousness. It calls to provide us with knowledge about things about which there was previously no knowledge, and in doing so, goes far beyond knowledge itself. It embodies all that philosophical inquiry is about. Wisdom is more of a comprehension of the fundamental ideas that are ultimately the foundation for the knowledge to be what it is. In essence, wisdom is systemic.
Example: Rain falls because rain falls. And this includes a knowledge of how rain, evaporation, air currents, temperature gradients, and changes interact with one another.
Types of Information
Strategic Information: The majority of the strategic information is related to an organization's top management roles. The strategic information covers topics on the national and worldwide levels, as well as industry trends, investment trends, rules and regulations from the government, strategies for competing, and emerging technologies. The requirement for strategic knowledge may be both internal and external in nature. It is typically noticed that external sources of strategic knowledge are more important than internal sources. Strategic information has a disposition that enhances long-term planning activities. Future forecasts and projections are included. The strategic information could include elements that aren't a direct outcome of computer processing traditional data.
Examples of common strategic information used by top management include projected demand trends for a prearranged product based on population trends, estimates of the purchasing power of the identified buyer group, and estimates of the cost of conservative fuels like coal and petroleum products over the next five years.
Tactical Information: In an organisation, tactical information typically refers to middle management. Short-term planning is handled by the tactical information. Unlike the case with the previously described strategic information, the planning period addressed by tactical information might be measured in months rather than years. Sales predictions, cash flow estimates, financial outcomes, sales analysis, budgetary control and variance statements, capacity utilisation plans, manufacturing plans, etc. are typical examples of tactical information. The acquisition of some tactical knowledge comes from outside sources.
For instance, tactical information obtained from external sources includes knowledge regarding changes in product mix brought about by competition. In a typical situation, the organisation itself generates the largest portion of the tactical information. Data processing is a common way that tactical information is created.
Operational Information: The operational information, as its name suggests, focuses on specific operations carried out by a company. The movement of data processing frequently results in the production of the operational information. Users of the operational information are precise users, who are frequently few in number. Compared to other sorts of information, operational information is more accurate. Additional well-known examples of operational information are shift reports, pending purchase order statements item-by-item stocks held, work-in-progress reports, and day-by-day attendance reports. This operational data is utilised as a starting point for further processing to obtain tactical data.
(b) What is digital divide? What are the reasons of digital divide? What are the measures to bridge the digital divide?
Ans) As is obvious, the phrase "Digital Divide" combines the phrases "Digital" and "Divide." Information and communication technology is referred to as "Digital" in this context, whereas "Divide" refers to discrepancies, disparities, or gaps. The digital gap is, in general, a situation where those who have access to ICT gain from using it. Their access to ICT ensures their access to well-paying occupations and greater business options, while those without it are excluded from these advantages and, consequently, are disadvantaged in comparison. The gap affects people not just economically but also socially.
Consequently, the digital divide is the socioeconomic gap in people's access to ICT. The phrase also refers to gaps in the availability of high-quality, practical digital information and the differences in literacy and technical abilities amongst groups that affect how well they can use ICTs. The gap is considered to be a socioeconomic issue.
The discrepancy in Internet connection between rural and urban areas of the United States of America was the reason the phrase was first used in the middle of the 1990s. According to some academics, the concept of the "digital divide" echoes scepticism regarding assertions about the ICT's revolutionary potential. It is frequently asserted that the ICT is changing society by closing the gap or removing the distance. In opposition to this, critics have noted that ICT is creating a brand-new gap known as the "digital divide." They base their reasoning on "the knowledge gap hypotheses," which can be found in communications studies.
Reasons for Existence of Digital Divide
the absence of a solid ICT infrastructure that allows for internet access. A nation's ICT infrastructure is assessed using various metrics, including tele-density and the number of PCs. ICT is a very modern technology that is only available in a few nations. As a result, other nations must import the required framework. In the majority of developing nations, there are not enough resources to spend in information infrastructure, research, and development.
Regular internet connectivity is not always possible. There is the issue of connectivity, or the lack of a quick, dependable, and reasonably priced internet connection. The cost of using the internet, which also includes telephone rates, line rentals, and Internet service provider fees (ISP). The cost of replacing the computer could be added to this. Many low-income households may not be able to afford Internet access. It is also crucial to consider the ISP's level of service. It becomes challenging to take use of the benefits of ICT due to the poor quality of services offered due to outdated technology.
One of the main obstacles to the widespread use of ICT is education. ICT can only truly benefit individuals who are literate and computer literate. Computer literacy is a distant cry in underdeveloped nations where governments are still working to universalize elementary education. Consequently, the gap must exist.
the accessibility of pertinent content in one's native tongue. The fact that the internet is a large repository of knowledge and information is its most significant advantage. However, this information should be accessible to those who need it, i.e., web material must be available in the user's language. The user's search for the information presents another difficulty. Internet access may be hampered by a lack of pertinent material.
The society's e-readiness, or capacity for using technology. The ability of a society to integrate ICT into all of its endeavours is known as e-readiness. The availability of trained human resources capable of utilising, enhancing, developing, and adapting new technology is a key factor in the e-readiness of a society. Households, businesses, the government, and other societal groups should be ready to accept and employ ICT. The government must establish the required laws and regulations to control how ICT is used in various societal areas. Wider the divide and less readiness are both related.
Measures to Bridge the Divide
Providing internet access at public places: The first step that needs to be made in this approach is to find a solution to the infrastructure availability issue. Since it is impossible to provide everyone with the necessary infrastructure, a community model can be used, in which everyone has access to shared amenities that are provided in public locations like schools and libraries. Because of the lack of infrastructure and financial resources in many nations, access in public places is likely to be a significantly less expensive way to increase internet access and use. These might be either privately run internet cabanas or public libraries, community centres, etc. Increasing Internet connectivity in public areas would significantly enhance individuals without access to computers' use and access to the internet.
Education matters most of all: To benefit from the new ICT era, education is essential. A fundamental step in closing the gap is to promote education and literacy in general and digital literacy in particular. The various rates of ICT and Internet usage penetration are a result of educational inequalities. Along with traditional education, efforts must be made to provide computer instruction. Simply providing computers is insufficient; instructors must also receive ICT training. In addition to students, a sizable portion of the current workforce needs ICT training. The key to closing the digital divide is training them with their needs in mind.
Exploring the various forms of ICT: There are other information and communications technologies than the Internet that can be useful. According to the International Telecommunication Union, mobile phones spread more quickly than the Internet. Because they are less expensive and require fewer skills than computers and the PC-based Internet, mobile phones can thus be used as alternatives to traditional information sources. They can be used even by illiterates.
Government policies and support: The shift to an ICT society requires improved governmental support in the form of budgetary allocations, lower taxation, and a regulatory framework. A suitable telecommunications policy is also required, in addition to financial help. The European Union's deregulated telecom sector has resulted in a significant drop in access costs and a sharp increase in Internet users. Government-funded initiatives that have well defined national strategies supporting the development of the Internet and other ICTs, like those in the U.K., Japan, or Korea, hasten the spread of Internet use.
Uneven distribution of ICT: Last but not least, the most crucial step in closing the digital divide is understanding the reasons for the unequal distribution of ICT among nations. As we have shown, there are numerous dimensions to the digital divide. Additionally, the digital divide is caused by a number of reasons, making it more difficult to close than it would be to simply provide computers and internet access. Promoting increased Internet usage and accessibility is essential for bridging the digital divide. Governments, the commercial sector, and nongovernmental organisations must work together.
(c) What is a digital identity? What is meant by verification and revealing of identity? Does revealing digital entity can result in cybercrime? Explain this with the help of an example.
Ans) are conventional in nature and punishable by law everywhere, including stealing, fraud, forgery, and mischief. The terms "computer abuse" and "misuse" are also often used, but they have very different meanings. Law must distinguish between annoying and criminal behaviour. According to the IT Act of 2000, computer crime and cybercrime are not categorically defined. Because of this, it is still exceedingly difficult to tell these two words apart. The concept of claim of right also guides the decisions of criminal behaviour with regard to the question of purpose.
Verification and Revealing of Identity
Identity theft prospects are facilitated by the internet. Digital material has the ability to be perfectly and simply replicated as one of its intrinsic qualities. Everything sent through a digital communications channel can be recorded in exact copies. Take sending a letter to someone that has been signed as an example. I shall disclose to the recipient my exact signature in the physical space, but because forgery is a tough skill to perfect, I am protected from the risk that the recipient may start signing letters with my signature.
However, if I send a digital letter with a copy of my signature in it, the recipient might easily copy it and use it to pretend to be me when signing paperwork. When you think that future technologies will enable incredibly significant identifiers, like a retinal scan or a fingerprint, to be recorded digitally, the gravity of this issue is brought to light. Due to the fact that they are ingrained in the physical body of the individual, these biometric characteristics are safeguarded in real space. In online, this is lost. As a result, cyberspace requires a system that enables people to confirm their identities to others without disclosing their digital representations to them.
For instance, a verification system could inform Bob that Alice is who she says she is or that she possesses a certain trait, but it couldn't allow him to pose as Alice or claim ownership of the trait. In the case of our digital letter, Bob would be allowed to confirm that Alice signed the letter, but he would not be permitted to sign the documents in Alice's place. Similar to this, confirming someone's legal age to buy alcohol would not provide them the opportunity to prove their identity or enable them to represent themselves as being of legal drinking age. By exchanging identifying information, this approach enables both parties to achieve their goals without running the danger of identity theft.
Traditional criminal behaviours including theft, fraud, forgery, and mischief, all of which are punishable by law worldwide, can also be included in computer crimes. The terms "computer abuse" and "misuse" are also often used, but they have very different meanings. Law must distinguish between annoying and criminal behaviour. According to the IT Act of 2000, computer crime and cybercrime are not categorically defined. Because of this, it is still exceedingly difficult to tell these two words apart. The concept of claim of right also guides the assessment of illegal behaviour in respect to the question of purpose.
For instance, if an employee accesses databases after receiving a password from their employer but without being told whether or not to do so, it is doubtful that they will be charged with a crime. The legal response to the issues must be proportionate to the claimed activity, and a difference must be established between what is immoral and what is criminal.
Question 2: (Covers Block 2) (2+1+2+2= 7marks)
(a) What are the different system of payments that can be used for e-Commerce? Explain the following giving their functions and usage – Digital Signature, Digital Certificate, SSL and Firewall.
Ans) Technology has been developed to increase, improve, and enable secure e-payment transactions in response to the rising popularity of internet-based banking and shopping. Paperwork, transaction expenses, and labour costs have all been cut with paperless e-commerce payments, revolutionising the payment processing industry. The solutions enable businesses expand their market reach and are user-friendly, taking less time than manual processing. The various e-commerce payment methods available today include:
Credit Card: Credit cards are the most widely used method of payment for e-commerce purchases. The customer simply enters their credit card number and expiration date in the relevant fields on the seller's website to utilise it. Increased security measures, such as the use of a card verification number (CVN), have been added to online credit card purchases in order to strengthen the security system. By comparing the CVN number with the cardholder's information, the CVN system aids in the detection of fraud.
Debit Card: In India, debit cards are the second-largest form of online payment. Customers prefer to use their debit cards to make online purchases within their means. With a debit card, the customer can only use funds that are already in his or her bank account to pay for purchases, as opposed to a credit card, which bills the consumer for the amounts they spend and requires payment at the end of the billing cycle.
Smart Card: It is a plastic card with a microprocessor implanted in it that may be loaded with money to use for online transactions and immediate bill payment. Personal information about the consumer is stored on the card. According to the customer's usage, the money put on the smart card decreases and needs to be replenished from his or her bank account.
E-Wallet: A prepaid account called a "e-Wallet" enables users to safely store numerous credit card, debit card, and bank account details. As a result, making payments no longer requires entering account information each time. The customer can make payments more quickly after creating an E-Wallet profile and registering.
Netbanking: This is another well-liked method for paying for things online. It is an easy method of paying for online goods using the customer's bank account. Similar to how debit cards work, it uses an existing balance from the customer's bank to make payments. The user of net banking does not need a card to make purchases, but they must register with their bank in order to utilise the net banking service. The customer only needs to enter their net banking ID and pin while making the purchase.
Mobile Payment: Mobile phone payments are one of the newest methods for making purchases online. Instead of paying with a credit card or cash, a consumer can just text a payment request to their service provider, who will then charge their mobile account or credit card. The customer simply needs to download the necessary software from the website of their service provider, link their credit card or mobile billing information to the software, and they are ready to set up their mobile payment system.
Functions and Usage – Digital Signature, Digital Certificate, SSL and Firewall
Digital Signatures and Certificates: Digital signatures satisfy the requirements for integrity and authentication. A plain text message is processed through a hash function to greatly simplify the process, yielding the message digest value. The recipient receives this digest, the hashing algorithm, and plain text that has been encrypted using their public key. The recipient uses their private key to decode the message and applies the provided hash function to ensure that the message digest value is preserved. A third party agency will frequently also time stamp the transmission, providing nonrepudiation. The digital certificate is examined. This is a digital document that uniquely identifies the merchant and was created by the CA). For emails, e-merchants, and web servers, digital certificates are offered for sale.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL): The TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) collection of protocols is frequently used to transmit data across the Internet. The data is divided into packets, each of which has a sequential number and an error control attached. Various routes are used to send different packets. Any packet with defects is resent, and TCP/IP reassembles them in the correct order. PKI and digital certificates are used by SSL to provide authentication and privacy. According to the process, the client sends a message to the server, which then responds with a digital certificate. The session keys, which are symmetrical secret keys established only for that communication, are created through negotiation between the server and client using PKI. Communication with these session keys and the digital certificates continues after the session keys have been agreed upon.
Firewalls: A server, a network, and a single PC are all shielded against assault by viruses and hackers by firewalls, which can be hardware or software. Protection against system negligence or malice is just as crucial, thus many businesses utilise the Kerberos protocol, which limits access to authorised personnel by using symmetric secret key cryptography.
(b) Differentiate between e-Commerce and e-Governance. List the objectives of e-Governance and e-Government.
Ans) Difference between e-Commerce and e-Governance is as follows:
Objectives of E-Governance and E-Government
Supporting and streamlining governance for all stakeholders, including the government, citizens, and enterprises, is e-strategic governance's goal. All three parties can be connected, and procedures and activities can be supported, by the use of ICTs. In other words, e-governance promotes and supports good governance by using electronic means. Therefore, e-goals governance's are the same as those of good governance. A country's affairs can be better managed at all levels, including local and national, by using its economic, political, and administrative authority.
The goals for internally focused operations (operations) and goals for externally focused services are separated in the context of e-government.
External strategic goals: By making it easier for the public to interact with various online services, e-government seeks to adequately meet the demands and expectations of the public on the front office side. The use of ICTs in government operations makes it easier to interact with the public, citizens, business, and other agencies in a quick, transparent, accountable, efficient, and effective manner.
Internal strategic goals: The goal of e-government in government operations is to enable a quick, transparent, accountable, efficient, and effective procedure for carrying out administrative tasks for the government. Government operations may see significant cost savings (per transaction).
(c) What are the technologies that can be used for e-leaning? Explain the features of any four such tools.
Ans) Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a pre-existing solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. Technology has been the major aspect to drive this concept of e- learning.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop the education system. In India technology has helped improve and develop the education system. New advanced tools, techniques developed has enhanced the for learning systems. Technology used for the methods of e-learning is as below. Most of the methods are a combination of two or more techniques together.
Any learning done via listening to any material is an audio method of learning. Audio, an electrical or other representation of sound. Digital audio, representation of sound in a form processed and/or stored by computers or other digital electronics. Audio, audible content in media production and publishing. The radio has been around for a long time and has been used in educational classrooms. Recent technologies have allowed classroom teachers to stream audio over the internet. There are also webcasts and podcasts available over the internet for students and teachers to download.
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying and broadcasting of moving visual images. This method is used by any visual learners or students who learn best by seeing the material rather than hearing or reading about it. Teachers can access video clips through the internet instead of relying on DVDs or VHS tapes. Websites like YouTube are used by many teachers. Teachers can use messaging programs such as Skype, Adobe Connect, or webcams, to interact with guest speakers and other experts. There is an increased retention and better results when video is used in a lesson. . Systematic video development method creation holds promise for creating video models that positively impact student learning.
Computers, Tablets and Mobile Devices
Recent technology has resulted in development of Desktops, laptops, I – pads, Tablets, Macbooks which are been used extensively in market. These devises have been contributed at large extent in learning. Paper is now being replaced by E-learning. Computers and tablets allow students and teachers access to websites and other programs, such as Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, PDF files, and images. These tools help learners to express their ideas. Excel helps the mathematical working of the study. PowerPoint helps the presentation of the study done by the learner. Graphs, Pie charts, diagrams helps learner to analyse the data studied which helps to give a better result.
A blog (a truncation of the expression web log) is a discussion or informational site published on the World Wide Web and consisting of discrete entries ("posts") typically displayed in reverse chronological order (the most recent post appears first). The blogs can be single user or multiple users. A majority is interactive, allowing visitors to leave comments and even message each other on the blogs, and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static website. Bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but also build social relations with their readers and other bloggers.
Graphics and Images
useful for elaborating on or illustrating concepts in a programme of online learning. Using specialised image modification software, such as Adobe Photoshop or Adobe Illustrator, graphics and images can be created or digitised using a scanner and transferred into a computer. After that, images are added to an HTML web page. The Graphic Interchange Format (.GIF) and Joint Experts Photography Group (.JEPG), two popular image formats, use compression technology to reduce the size of the image files for quicker web display or download. Although visuals and images are effective teaching tools, creating them needs some proficiency with graphic design software. Plain text typically has a smaller file size than graphics or images, which makes them take longer to download or display on screens.
(d) Explain the role of ICT in health education, diagnostic support system and medical transcription process.
Ans) India, has a current population of 1.25 billion. By 2050, it is expected to reach 1.6 billion. So, the public health planners of the country have a big challenge to cater to. The performance of the health sector is suboptimal because of an increased burden of factors like political instability, underdevelopment, weak institutions, scarcity of resources, inadequately developed social sectors and evident social inequalities.
However, with an increase in population, healthcare service resources will not increase in the same proportion. There are big geographical disparities in health and wellbeing of the population along with demographic and epidemiological transitions that take place. This demands non-stop spatio-temporal adjustments in plans and readjustment in allocation of healthcare resources. Though the government has made huge budget expenditures under ambitious schemes like NRHM, accessibility to low-cost healthcare is poor. Technology has a huge potential to grow capacity in this sector due to low-cost innovation, low-priced mobile phones and more ‘inclusive’ solutions that fill crucial gaps in health information and access.
To tackle these challenges, the process of health planning needs to evolve by the use of ICT in healthcare delivery and distribution and public health decision making at every level. This will ensure delivery of right health services to right people at the right place as well as on right time. ICT has the capacity to influence all aspects of the health sector. For instance, in public health, management of information and communication processes are very crucial and are assisted or limited by the availability of information.
Of late, the use of ICT has seen a remarkable growth. In India, e-governance has been institutionalised, the use of ICT has become a norm for several government departments. ICT helps patients become more involved in their own care. This becomes more significant in managing chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease etc. People in remote areas sacrifice a day’s work and wages in order to get to a doctor for minor ailments. In such cases, primary healthcare costs can be reduced by be facilitating innovation in telemedicine. Telemedicine can also streamline processes and decrease administrative overheads, thereby leading to creation of new, high-tech markets and jobs. It is also being used for education, research and data management.
Though India has the benefit of a strong IT force as well as indigenous satellite communication technology along with trained human resources, still the application of telemedicine is at quite a nascent stage, particularly in the public health sector. However, with increased efforts, telemedicine could play a pivotal role in delivering specialised healthcare to the remotest corners of the country. Telemedicine can provide the advantages of tele-diagnosis in the areas of pathology, cardiology, radiology and dermatology. It can also essentially lead to operationalisation of CME programmes.
There are various advantages of incorporating ICT in healthcare such as better access to total and accurate EHR that collect information to improve diagnoses, prevent errors and thus save precious response times. It also leads to greater patients’ engagement in their own healthcare. Further, it improves population-based knowledge in a country such as India.
ICT ushers in an augmented administrative efficiency in a nation where the public health infrastructure is in absolute mess. For instance, administrative tasks such as filling forms, processing billing requests represent an important fraction of healthcare costs. Health IT can help to streamline these tasks and thus substantially reduce costs, as well as decrease the number of personal visits to doctors. ICT in healthcare can assist remote consultation, diagnosis and treatment through telemedicine.
Question 3: (Covers Block 3) (6 marks)
(a) Explain the role of testing in the process of MIS development. What are the different types of maintenance? Explain each type with the help of an example.
Ans) The system should be fully tested for errors before being fully operational.
The test plan should include for each test:
Detailed specification of test procedure
Details of expected outputs
Each sub-system and all their components should be tested using various test procedures and data to ensure that each component is working as it is intended. The testing must include the users of the system to identify errors as well as get the feedback.
Types of Maintenance
Corrective Maintenance: In response to an issue being discovered, maintenance crews are mobilised. Corrective maintenance is to return systems to normal operation as soon as practicable. There is no programme for routine maintenance with corrective maintenance. Prior to maintenance, there must be an issue. For instance, Repairing an HVAC system rather than maintaining it, once data from the system indicates it is not performing at its best.
Adaptive maintenance : It entails adapting the program's functionality to meet evolving requirements. For instance, changing the server, processors, compilers, etc. will also have an impact on your software's operation.
Perfective maintenance: It entails improving functionality or updating the program(s) to address the user's evolving or new needs. Actually, maintenance is the process of carrying out the post-implementation review plan. Modifying an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) programme to incorporate a new payment settlement feature in a software system is an example of perfective maintenance.
(b) Explain the following components of and MIS
i) Finance and Accounting
Ans) The full financial accounting of the company is handled through MIS online. It keeps track of every book and record required for accurate bookkeeping, stock analysis, and accounting. The entire system is affected and updated by every transaction, and all reporting is real-time providing the most up-to-date data possible at all times. With modules for bookkeeping and making sure the bills are paid on time, MIS assists in managing all types of taxes, bank reconciliation, inventory cashed, and everything else needed for effective and thorough financial accounting.
For instance, general ledger maintains unified charts of accounts and financial balances for businesses. Accounts receivable keeps track of payments that clients owe a business. Receipts to be made Organizes the payment of invoices to distributors and suppliers. Fixed resources oversees the management of depreciation and other costs related to tangible assets including buildings, land, and machinery.
Financial transactions, investment risks, and cash holdings are all tracked and analysed by treasury management. control of costs analyses the expenses incurred by the company for overhead, goods, and manufacturing orders. Financial management tools provided by MIS are comprehensive, all-inclusive, and versatile, enabling you to monitor cash flow in your business while maintaining a trustworthy atmosphere.
A sophisticated system that is efficient Your accounts payable and receivable can be processed and managed with ease. With MIS's general ledger, you can simply create financial statements, budgets, and other sophisticated financial reports while keeping track of all accounting activity.
ii) Manufacturing and logistics
Ans) With labour-saving capabilities that give you more control over production and scheduling, MIS's fully featured manufacturing capability helps you manage your work-in-progress tasks and boost the output of your production team. Create work orders from planned orders as soon as possible. Automated backwash out, infinite and finite loading, and forward and backward scheduling will all help you increase manufacturing efficiency. Improved shop floor scheduling allows for better management of labour and equipment capacity.
"What if" scenarios are explored to quickly discover and fix schedule conflicts and load difficulties. You can accurately track product expenses thanks to the complete integration of manufacturing and accounting data. a collection of programmes used to schedule production, take orders, and deliver goods to customers. Examples: Production planning carries out capacity planning and establishes a daily production schedule for a business's manufacturing facilities.
(c) List the features of the following IT projects in India – AGMARKNET, COURTIS, Examination Result portal.
Ans) AGMARKNET: Agricultural Marketing Information System Network is known as AGMARKNET. It is a process for connecting significant agricultural produce marketplaces in the nation that is sponsored by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI), Ministry of Agriculture, and carried out by the Agricultural Informatics Division of NIC.
The NICNET-based AGMARKNET transmits and generates prices and arrival information from agricultural produce markets for use by individual producers, farmers organisations, consumers, traders, NGOs, communication agencies (radio, newspapers, TVs, web sites), food processing industries, Chambers of Commerce, and policymakers.
COURTIS: The Court Information System (COURTIS) is being established by the NIC to benefit all parties involved in the legal system, including judges, attorneys, litigants, law firms, legal institutions, the government, researchers, and the general public. The Supreme Court and all High Courts are connected through the NICNET-based COURTIS initiative, which is also integrating and computerising all Indian District Courts. Case Status, Judgment Information System (JUDIS), Cause Lists, and Daily Orders on the Internet are the four key parts of COURTIS.
Examination Result portal: The portal, which is a one-stop shop for getting online results of various academic, entrance, and recruitment examinations held by various government bodies, is the first source of examination results on the internet. This portal is used by the Staff Selection Commission (SSC), the CBSE, State Education Boards, Universities, Professional Institutes (engineering, medical, MBA, CA, etc.), Central and State level entrance examinations for Medical, Engineering, MBA, etc., and other recruiting agencies to deliver results.
Question 4: (Covers Block 4) (6 marks)
(a) What are the requirements and specifications of embedded system? Explain with the help of an example. Explain the two hardware languages for embedded systems.
Ans) A need is a prerequisite that a user must meet in order to solve an issue or accomplish a goal. A specification is a written description of the requirements, design, behaviour, or other features of a system. It also frequently includes instructions on how to check to see whether these requirements have been met.
For instance, a car's maximum speed could be required to reach at least 120 mph. Technical details about certain design elements would be included in the specification for this need.
Specifications and requirements are crucial elements in the creation of any embedded system. The initial stage of system design is requirements analysis, where user requirements must be specified and recorded in order to provide the matching specifications. For instance, mistakes made during the requirements and specification stage could result in mistakes throughout the design stage.
The engineers must review the requirements and specifications to address the issue once it is detected. Along with extra wasted time, this can also result in incorrect requirements and specifications. Numerous mishaps can be attributed to flawed requirements, inadequate implementation of specifications, or incorrect requirements assumptions.
It takes individuals with both technical and communication abilities to establish excellent requirements. Technical expertise is needed because the embedded system would be quite complicated and may call for knowledge from various engineering fields, including mechanical and electrical engineering. Since the consumer and the designer share a lot of information, good communication skills are essential. These two abilities are necessary; without them, the requirements will be confusing or incorrect.
An embedded system requirement example is as follows:
Specification and Design
Everyone involved in the process can understand the overall design and their part of it thanks to a specification. The following must be in the specification:
A diagram illustrating the device's placement in the system using external blocks
An interior block schematic highlighting each significant functional area.
I/O pin descriptions are given here.
Objective for power usage.
The type of device being addressed determines the Design Methodology's design phase.
Analog hardware is different from digital hardware.
It's critical that you employ dependable, acknowledged design principles during this step even if Design Methodology doesn't restrict or mandate design methods.
To make sure that every component of the system functions properly together, system integration and system testing are essential. You are in charge of ensuring that the entire system, including the devise you built, functions properly at the system integration and test stage of the design. To ensure that any manufacturing flaws are found before the product is delivered, you should carry out a burn-in test. Your system will likely operate properly if you've followed the steps up to this point. It is frequently possible to solve minor hardware issues by making minor system or software adjustments.
(b) Explain the following in the context of HCI:
(i) Virtual Machine
Ans) Virtualization, the process of building a virtual environment, uses a particular kind of computer programme called a virtual machine. Through aggregation, virtualization enables the user to see a network's infrastructure. One of the most recent advancements in the area of human computer interaction is this. The simultaneous usage of numerous operating systems is also possible with virtualization. The user can run software that is present on the computer platform with the aid of a virtual machine. The user has a supposedly private machine with fully functional hardware that is isolated from other users thanks to the use of the hardware virtual machine software. Since chores like hardware initialization are not required, hardware virtual machine software enables users to quickly boot and restart their devices.
(ii) Graphical User Interfaces
Ans) By separating the logical threads of computation from the user's presentation of those threads through visual material on the display device, graphical user interfaces simplify computing. This is frequently accomplished using a window system that is managed by the window manager of an operating system. The most widely used graphical user interface in use today is the WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, and Pointers) interface. Graphical user interfaces are appealing because they allow direct interaction and quick feedback. The following characteristics are provided by direct manipulation interfaces. There are numerous setups for modems.
The fact that the user may see documents and folders as icons, which stand in for the underlying files and directories, shows how robust the direct manipulation interface for the desktop metaphor is. It is impossible to do a syntactically erroneous operation with a drag-and-drop command. For instance, if a user wants to transfer a file to a different folder, the move command is guaranteed to be syntactically valid. Even if the user places the file in the incorrect location, it is typically simple to identify and fix those mistakes. The user is continuously given visual feedback while dragging the page, giving the impression that they are genuinely working on the desktop environment.
(iii) Hypertext and Hypermedia
Ans) Hypertext: Hypertext is text that is not required to follow a linear format. Text that has links to other writings is known as hypertext. Many other forms of content can be accessed through hypertext links, including educational content like course syllabi and resources, explanatory notes for a Web-based publication, and sources for references.
Hypertext: Systems are especially helpful for categorising and scrolling through sizable databases made up of many kinds of information. Hypermedia is a term used to describe an extension of hypertext that allows for the linking of audio, visual, and graphic content in addition to text. Given that it enables graphical hyperlinks as well as links to sound and video files, the World Wide Web is a partly hypermedia system. The ability to hyperlink objects in computer films will be made possible by new hypermedia systems in development.
(c) Explain the goals of computer vision. Also explain the applications of computer vision:
Ans) Goals of Computer Vision: By conducting specific operations on the signals that are received from the video cameras, the technology known as "computer vision" is utilised to create intelligent and practical scenes and visual sequences. The purpose of computer vision is to create an image of an object by processing pictures taken by cameras.
These technologies' primary objectives are:
To base decisions on perceived images that are practical and wise.
Creating a 3d structure out of 2d photos.
Video or image compression for content delivery
The following are computer vision's subdomains:
Reconstructing the scene.
(i) Video Surveillance
Ans) Video surveillance is arguably the most advanced computer vision application today. The era of analogue closed circuit television with poor quality, black-and-white video surveillance has long since passed. Today, computer vision makes it possible to combine several camera images into a single, dependable "super image." Such an image automatically recognises scenes containing people, cars, bicycles, or other targets of interest, classifies them as people, cars, bicycles, or buses, extracts their trajectories, and recognises limb and arm positions in addition to performing some sort of behaviour analysis.
(ii) Biometric-based identification and face detection
Ans) Biometric based visual identification of persons: Numerous tools are available for person identification and permission. As we discussed computer vision, there are numerous tools available, including those for fingerprinting, face recognition, visual biometric speakers, signature tracking, etc.
Human Face Identification: It is used to identify facial expressions in people. A person's identity is also verified in order to allow them entry into a high-security area.
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