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CNCC-2: Organising Child Care Services

CNCC-2: Organising Child Care Services

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: CNCC-2/TMA-1/2021-22

Course Code: CNCC-2

Assignment Name: Organizing Child Care Services

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Marks: 100

Answer all questions of Section A.


Q1) (a) Outline the sequence of emergence of gross motor skills from birth to two years of age. (5)

Ans) Gross motor skills are abilities that are typically learned during childhood as part of a child's motor development. Almost all children are able to stand, walk and run, and walk upstairs by the time they reach the age of two. Throughout early childhood, these skills are built upon, improved, and better controlled, and they continue to be refined throughout the majority of an individual's development into adulthood. Large muscle groups and whole-body movement are responsible for these gross movements. These abilities develop in a sequential order from head to toe. Head control, trunk stability, and then standing and walking are the most common skills taught to children. It has been proven that children who participate in outdoor play activities develop better gross motor skills.

(b) Describe one activity each for fostering the development of the following abilities in four-year-old children.

(i) Pre-reading skills (3)

Ans) Narrative skills imply the ability to describe objects and retell stories, though for a young toddler, this may simply entail repeating major nouns from the pictures.

Steps to Encourage Narrative Skills

  1. Participate in pretend play with your child.

  2. Make up stories for your child to hear.

  3. Invite your child to share a storey with you (even if it is one from a familiar book).

  4. While reading a book, ask open-ended questions.

  5. Read books that are repetitive.

(ii) Creativity in four-year-old children (3)

Ans) Ask your child open-ended questions with no right or wrong answers to encourage creative problem solving. Encourage her to explain why she believes the way she does (fostering creativity, cognition, and language development). “What would happen if dogs could talk?” for example. or “Would you prefer to be without a nose or eyes, and why?” Accept any answer as "enough," but encourage your child to follow up with more questions or interests sparked by her answers. With this entertaining app, you can stimulate problem solving without using words: Figure out how to feed your blob-guy candy in Cut the Rope Lite.

Q2) (a) What is meant by “altruism” and “empathy”? (2)

Ans) Empathy is a term that has been used to describe a wide range of behaviours, including feeling what another person is feeling, understanding another person's perspective, and imagining oneself in another person's situation. The most widely studied phenomenon under this label, however, is an other-oriented emotional state that is congruent with the perceived well-being of another person.

Altruism has also been applied to a wide range of phenomena, including any type of helping behaviour, personality traits associated with helpful people, and biological influences that encourage the protection of genetically related others. However, altruism as a motivational state with the ultimate goal of protecting or promoting the welfare of a valued other has been the subject of a particularly fruitful research tradition.

(b) What aspects of the family environment would help in the development of altruism and empathy? (6)

Ans) The following are some aspects of the family environment that would aid in the development of altruism and empathy:

Be a Role Model: Your child learns from your example when you have strong, respectful relationships and interact with others in a kind and caring manner.

Help Your Child Understand His or Her Own Emotions First: Begin by assisting your child in managing his or her emotions. Consider the case of your ten-year-old son, who has a friend named Bryan. His father is a soldier who has just returned from an assignment in Afghanistan. Bryan would be understandably saddened by his father's absence. That might be a good time to speak with your child. “How do you think Bryan is feeling right now?” inquire. Encourage your eight-year-old to brainstorm a few ways he might be able to assist his friend during those long days of deployment.

Make Your Child a Compassion Hero in a Book You Read to Them: It's not easy to instil compassion and care for others in children. These characteristics are instilled in children through positive examples and the 'good feeling' they get when they treat others with compassion and care. Creating opportunities for kids to act compassionately, such as service-learning activities, is one very powerful way to foster compassion and caring.

Encourage Creativity in Helping Someone Else: Seeing other people doing something empathetic can help children develop empathy and altruism for others. Seeing other children caring for others can be especially beneficial. For a science project, Easton LaChappelle was fourteen years old when he built a prototype for a robotic hand out of Legos and fishing wire. It was so good that he won third place in the Colorado State Science Fair in 2011. He met a seven-year-old girl with a prosthetic arm at that fair. Her prosthetic arm was cutting-edge, but it cost more than $80,000! That's way out of reach for the average individual or family! That's when Easton's imagination took over. He decided to devise a way to build a robotic arm for a fraction of the price. Using 3D printing, he was able to reduce the cost of producing a similar prosthetic arm to just $350. There are numerous examples of children who have made a positive impact.

Help Your Kids Realize Their Own Hurts Can Become a Platform for Encouraging Others: Your child will not make the team, will misplace something valuable to them, or will become ill and miss an important event. Be there for them when they're disappointed. After some time has passed, look for ways for you and your child to discuss what they've gone through. Talk about the scars they've acquired but worked hard to overcome. Let's say your family relocated across the country just before junior high. During the first year of your family's transition, there would have been numerous challenges. But then someone arrives in high school who has recently relocated and is having difficulties. Your child can reach out to the new kid at school and help based on their own experiences.

Having the Courage to be Compassionate: There are a plethora of other ways we could discuss how to promote empathy and altruism. Clinical studies have demonstrated how beneficial they can be to children of all ages. Giving your child a pet to care for, going on a missions trip, volunteering at a food pantry, or visiting a nursing home can all help our children learn empathy. Here's a great example: Pearl and Samuel Oliner conducted a ground-breaking study on how children raised by compassionate parents were more empathetic and altruistic. The Oliners chose to research Germans who assisted in the rescue of Jews during the Nazi Holocaust. These individuals chose to help others despite the significant risk to their own lives.

Even in today's world, we can teach our children how to show empathy and altruism. We want our children to have compassion for others and to have the courage and willingness to help them. Our children will notice and learn from our example if we are intentional in demonstrating empathy and altruism as parents.

Q3) Suppose you are an educator in a preschool centre.

(a) Describe two methods that you would use for evaluating children’s progress. (4)

Ans) Two methods to use for evaluating children’s progress in a preschool centre are:

  1. Observations can be made with little or no interference in the activities of children. Educators can monitor all aspects of development on a regular basis, including intellectual, linguistic, social-emotional, and physical development.

  2. Standardized Tests are tests that are designed to adhere to a set of testing guidelines. These tests are commonly used to evaluate the performance of children in a programme because they are administered and scored in a consistent manner.

(b) The points you will keep in mind while evaluating indoor space of the centre. (4)


  • Environments for young children stimulate learning

i)  Locations where children can engage in developmentally appropriate physical activities

ii)  Possibilities for practical, hands-on activities

iii) Variation and change

iv)  Colours and embellishments

  • Materials and equipment contribute to the overall environment and program philosophy

i)  Environments that are soft and responsive

ii) Materials and equipment that are adaptable

iii)  Units can be classified as simple, complex, or super complex.

  • Strategies for small spaces

  • Private places

  • Early childhood environments should be functional for both children and teachers

  • Obstacles to consider when planning your learning environment

i)  Storage

ii) Activity Area Access

iii)  Noise

iv) Dividers

Q4) What are the aspects that you would keep in mind while selecting play activities for young children? (5)

Ans) Aspects to keep in mind while selecting play activities for young children:

  1. Lack of exercise is a major contributor to the rise in childhood obesity rates. Children today are less active, and childhood obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate.

  2. Jumping, running, dancing, and hiking are all exercises that can help children's bones grow stronger now and later in life. These activities can aid in the strengthening of children's bones.

  3. Children who are active as children are more likely to grow up to be active adults. Children who are encouraged to be active as children are more likely to remain active as adults.

  4. Regular physical activity has been shown in studies to help reduce the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and colon cancer. Encouragement of physical activity in children now may help to prevent chronic diseases later.

  5. Allowing a child to be active naturally from birth to age two is the best form of physical education. Children under the age of two should have plenty of opportunities to move around, but they do not require a formal physical education programme.

  6. reschoolers are not too young to understand the importance of exercise. Children should engage in physical activity and learn why moving their bodies is beneficial to their health.

  7. For children aged 3 to 5, organised team sports are not the best way to develop motor skills.

  8. To provide high-quality physical activities, you don't need a lot of equipment or space.

  9. Children are prone to mishaps by nature. It's best not to warn them about the dangers of self-harm. Keep children safe by redirecting them away from dangerous activities, but don't always say "be careful."

  10. For young children, good physical activity time is playful and enjoyable, with a balance of free play and guided discovery.

  11. Due to their lack of muscular endurance, young children tyre easily and quickly, but they also recover quickly. Plan short bursts of activity with rest periods in between for the kids.

Q5) In the context of preschool education it is said that

—Children should be given the freedom to explore and find out things for themselves.

—The educator needs to guide and structure children’s play activities in the preschool.

In your opinion, are the two statements contradictory to each other or do they complement each other? Discuss your answer giving rationale for your views and examples in support of your answer. (8)

Ans) When children have complete freedom to play in any way they want, they are said to be engaged in free play. “They have complete control over everything – they can choose their play materials, interest area, and even the plot,” Zaman explains. Children can express themselves in whatever way they want during free play time, depending on the day, time, and situation they are in. “These kinds of opportunities are extremely valuable to children.” Every child is different and has their own unique way of expressing themselves. “You might have one child who wants to draw, while another prefers to play alone with a puzzle. Every child expresses their creativity in a unique way.”

“Sometimes it is beneficial for children to play alone or independently because it allows them to be more creative.” When a child plays alone, they are engaging themselves, using their imagination, and "being independent from very early childhood." It is beneficial to develop independence at a young age because it will benefit you later in life. Problem-solving skills can also be learned through free play. “While playing, they can try to solve a problem or come up with a solution on their own. They must be able to express their own thoughts. When a child is playing independently, those skills develop.” Free play allows children to explore their surroundings in their own way, fostering creativity and the use of their imagination. It is generally recommended that children begin playing at a young age. Parents should encourage their toddlers and preschoolers to engage in free play on a regular basis, but it can also be introduced to babies as young as six months with continued supervision.

Children are naturally playful. Their early explorations with their senses lead them to play, first by themselves and then with others. Children's play becomes more sophisticated as they grow older. A child plays alone until the age of two and has little interaction with others. Soon after, he begins to observe other children playing, but he is unable to join in. This is especially true for children in multi-age settings, where younger children can observe and learn from older preschoolers who are playing nearby. The role of the preschool teacher in the development of play is crucial. “Parents should check to see if the teacher has organised the environment and is using her curriculum in a way that allows her to plan how the children will engage in play,” says the author. It is, in fact, a method of learning that is structured. It simply appears to be a different structure than what you'd see in fourth grade.”

Preschoolers require opportunities to play, well-prepared spaces in which to explore, and teachers who are responsive to their needs. Such an environment not only prepares children to become cooperative students who enjoy learning, but also to become happier people who will not lose their love of play.

Q6) Write in about 500 words on the following:

(a) Critical periods in development. (5)

Ans) A critical period is a time when the connections between brain cells are more plastic and receptive to the influence of a specific type of life experience. During this time, synapses, or nerve connections, can form or strengthen more easily. After this period of time, synaptic connections usually mature and changes stabilise, and wirings become more difficult to change. According to the Critical Period Hypothesis, given sufficient life experience, a new skill or trait can be formed during the critical period. If the necessary experience is not available during this time, acquiring the skill or trait becomes much more difficult, less successful, or even impossible after the window of opportunity closes.

This has been demonstrated in human and animal sensory systems, such as vision and hearing. Even if the covered period is brief postnatally, if one eye (but not both) is covered right after birth, the deprived eye will lose visual acuity permanently. This is because closing one eye during the critical period can permanently alter the brain's physical pathways. Many vital functions of our bodies are established during critical periods, and some are established only during those periods.

  1. The ability to monitor and modulate emotions is known as emotional self-regulation. Self-regulation is an important milestone in a child's development. It can have a big impact on a child's relationships, academic performance, mental health, and overall well-being.

  2. In visual development, susceptibility to damage has its own critical period. For example, between the ages of several months and seven or eight years, amblyopia, a condition in which one of the eyes has reduced vision due to a failure of the eye and brain to work together properly, can occur.

  3. Absolute pitch is the ability to recognise and reproduce the pitch of a musical sound without using external sounds as a guide. The absolute pitch is most likely to be reached by children who began musical training between the ages of 4 and 6. However, training after the age of nine rarely leads to that level of adult proficiency.

  4. The absence of auditory input from birth can affect the normal growth of a functional auditory system in children born with congenital deafness, severely limiting their ability to learn to speak.

  5. The Critical Period Hypothesis, when applied to language learning, states that there is a critical period during which people are more capable of learning new languages with native-like proficiency.

This period begins in early childhood and ends shortly before puberty begins. Even in a linguistically rich environment, after this window, acquiring new language competency becomes much more difficult, and full mastery is unlikely. Between learning during the critical period and learning outside of it, there is a clear difference in outcomes. The occurrence of that discontinuity corresponds to the end of the critical period. It is preferable for parents to ensure that their children are not deprived of critical experiences, particularly during critical periods. That doesn't mean we should go out and buy the latest "Mozart for babies" DVD or enrol our toddlers in a slew of enrichment classes. A nurturing environment and exposure to common life experiences, such as talking, playing, and reading to them, are what our children require.

(b) Capacities and capabilities of the new-born. (5)

Ans) Below listed are the capacities and capabilities of a new-born:

Vision: The womb is a dark, devoid of visual stimulation environment. As a result, vision is the least developed sense at birth, and it takes time to develop the neural pathways connecting the eye and the brain. New-borns’ vision acuity is about 20/400, which means that an infant can see something at 20 feet that an adult with normal vision can see at 400 feet. As a result, young infants' perceptions of the world are likely to be hazy. New-borns do not look at the eyes the way adults do when viewing a person's face; instead, they look at the chin, which is a less detailed part of the face. The infant can also perceive depth perception in pictures by the age of six months. Infants who have crawled and explored will be more aware of visual cues of depth and will adjust their actions accordingly.

Hearing: The ability to hear is demonstrated as early as the seventh month of prenatal development, and the infant's sense of hearing is acute at birth. Furthermore, infants are born with the ability to respond to sounds from any language, but some of this ability will be lost by 7 or 8 months as the infant becomes more familiar with the sounds of one language and less sensitive to sounds from another. When speaking the same material, new-borns prefer their mother's voice to that of another female.

Touch and Pain: A new-born is highly sensitive to touch and temperature, as well as pain, and responds with crying and cardiovascular responses shortly after birth. Circumcision, or the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis, causes pain in new-borns, as evidenced by increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased oxygen in the blood, and a surge of stress hormones.

Taste and Smell: Different facial expressions are used by babies, implying that certain preferences are innate. Sour, bitter, sweet, and salty flavours can be distinguished by new-borns, who prefer sweet flavours. New-borns also prefer their mothers' scent. An infant as young as 6 days old is significantly more likely to turn toward its own mother's breast pad than the breast pad of another baby's mother, and an infant's preference for its own mother's face is evident within hours of birth.

(c) Ways of involving the parents in the activities of the child care centre. (5)

Ans) Few ways of involving the parents in the activities of the child care centre are as follows:

  1. Educate parents: Dedicate a space in your newsletter for a child development tidbit that links to an article with more information. ‘Reading improves your child's behavior- learn more!' for example.

  2. Develop a community: Encourage discussion and the exchange of ideas. Many parents do not have the opportunity to speak with one another, but a parent-only group would help to foster those relationships. Getting together outside of school sparks discussions about school, which boosts participation.

  3. Hose events and fundraisers: Social gatherings are ideal for engaging parents in more in-depth discussions. Bring the kids in their pyjamas and sleeping bags so they're ready for bed when they get home.

  4. Ask for volunteers: Plan activities with small commitments that will allow everyone to participate.

  5. Leverage parent talents: Ask your parents about their jobs, hobbies, and interests and ask them to do something related to them.

  6. Communicate often: It is critical to communicate with parents on a regular basis. You can send a daily parenting tip that ties in with what you're learning at school. Assure parents that you are partners in their children's education.

Section B

In this Section you have to do any one of the Practical Exercises related to observing children. Choose any exercise out of Exercises 4, 6 and 7 described in the Practical Manual of this Course i.e., CNCC-2 and submit it to the counselor for evaluation.

(i) Observing the child and the parents and recording the observations (10)

Ans) The goal is to examine a child between the ages of 3 and 5 years old and determine their cognitive development.

Nina Chaudhary is the subject of this observation.

Subject's age is 3 ½ years.

The subject's (Nina's) homes were the site of the observation. Park/garden

The date of the observation is September 14, 2021.

Observation time: 6 p.m.

To begin, I met the subject's (Nina's) mother the day before and informed her of my work. ‘How much time will you spend on your observation?' she inquired. ‘I will only take 10 to 15 minutes,' I respond. She agreed wholeheartedly. ‘Nina goes for playing outside, (the park near/outside the home) around 6 p.m. because her friend Sunita comes there every day,' she explained. 'Thank you, madam, I'll be there tomorrow,' I told her. The next day, I arrived on time. Nina was not present at the time. It was already 6:00 p.m. She arrived around 6.10 p.m. She had noticed me and had approached me directly.

(ii) Analysis of observations and conclusions (10)

Ans) The analysis of observations and conclusion are as follows:

Observations Analysis

Nina approached me and asked, “Hello, how are you?”

I was pleasantly surprised to discover that she had a good memory. I was remembered.

“Hello Nina,” I said. I'm in good shape. “How are you doing?”

Nina responds, "Fine."

She then left with her friends for the play. Sunita had come to have a good time.

“Come play with the doll,” Nina invited her. “Let's just get her married,” she said.

She began to make dolls beautiful in their own way by bringing clothes, jewellery, and other items from inside. Nina came up with unique ways to make the doll look beautiful. Ritu became bored quickly and began to move around Imagination. She went inside with an English alphabet boot and a dupatta.

“Hello, you and Sunita are students,” she said as she asked me to become a student Intimation.

“All right,” I said.

I was curious as to what kind of cognitive abilities you had. She has matured as a person. She went inside, carrying a ball and several other toys.

“Ritu, please come inside first and put toys in your basket,” her mother said.

And he gives me a friendly smile. Ritu began by filling the basket with dolls, balls, and other toys.

She approached me and said, "Bye, now I'm going because Mummy won't let me play."

“Bye,” I said.


After observing and analysing the subject (Nina), who is three and a half years old, it was discovered that she has developed very good cognitive activities and skills. As a teacher at her school, she has successfully imitated the things. Ritu is a fantastic storyteller. She can dress up the doll in a variety of ways because she has the ability to learn new things. She remembers the events. The vocabulary has expanded dramatically, and the student is now able to communicate effectively. Finally, I can say that Ritu has demonstrated tremendous cognitive abilities at such a young age.

Section C

In this Section you have to do any one of the Practical Exercises related to planning play activities for children and conducting them. These are Practical Exercise numbers 5, 8 and 9, described in the Practical Manual of this course i.e., CNCC-2. Choose any one of the exercises and submit it to the counselor for evaluation.

(i) Playing with the infant with the toy that has been made, and recording the observations (10)

Ans) The toy is a round circle shaped toy that surrounds the baby.

Toy made of metal, fabric, and other waste that we can make the best out of.


Infant is interested in what is going on around him. Different coloured fabrics and other materials that are used to make toys attract infants. When no one is looking after him, the infant will keep himself occupied with that toy if he is not hungry. Babies are curious about the world around them, and there is a lot for them to learn. For them, every new shape, colour, texture, taste, and sound is a new experience. Giving your baby safe and stimulating toys will assist him in discovering his senses. Infants enjoy rattles and toys that make music. Toys with contrasting colours captivate babies and help them develop their vision. Toys can help infants learn about object permanence and cause-and-effect relationships as they grow older. They also require objects like blocks to aid in the development of motor skills and hand-eye coordination.

(ii) Evaluating the play activity and writing the conclusions (10)

Ans) The evaluation and conclusion are as follows:


  1. Effective learning toys that stimulate a baby's five sensory areas will aid in the development of the infant brain. The five senses are the most important tools for an infant's development.

  2. The fists on the hands are still closed.

  3. Have a lot of jerky movements.

  4. Enjoy being gently rocked and held close.

  5. Coughing, rooting, sucking, grasping, and other basic reflexes should be developed.


The child's senses of observation, attraction, and colour develop. The child begins to turn toward sounds that are familiar to them (for example, their mother's voice). These are excellent for improving their cognitive abilities. Squeaky toys, toys that make noise when kicked or batted, and toys that encourage crawling, such as action toys that move slowly enough for an infant to catch, aid in their hearing and visionary movements.

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