If you are looking for MAE-005 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Population and Development Education, you have come to the right place. MAE-005 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAAE courses of IGNOU.
MAE-005 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MAE-005/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: MAE-005
Assignment Name: Population and Development Education
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.
Q1) What is Population Education? Describe the growth and development of Population Education in Higher Education in India.
Ans) Population education is an innovative educational approach that requires thorough comprehension. It may be challenging to provide a single definition of population education that can be widely recognised given the cultural diversity and many target groups to be taught on population issues. Definitions can also be non-directive or directive. Additionally, the definitions based on a directive approach vary in terms of the precise behavioural targets they support, such as the promotion of the modest family norm or the use of contraceptives, etc.
Population education is an educational programme that offers a study of the population situation in the family, community, nation, and the world with the aim of developing in the students a rational and responsible attitude and behaviour toward that situation, according to UNESCO's attempt at defining it in a way that is accepted internationally. Two key characteristics of population education are clear from this definition. First of all, it is a programme for education that allows for a study of population situation at various levels. Second, it aims to foster a sensible and responsible attitude and behaviour toward that circumstance.
Growth and Development of Population Education in India
India is the first nation in the world to promote family planning as part of its official population policy to reduce the number of children per family. Initiated in 1952 during the First Five Year Plan, the National Family Planning Programme used a "clinical" approach to family planning and opened a number of clinics with the hope that the public would utilise the resources. After receiving a poor reaction, this strategy was changed. During the Third Five Year Plan, the "community extension" and "cafeteria" approaches were used, with a focus on inspiring people to respond to the family planning message and use the services provided by shifting prevalent attitudes and values toward family planning.
With the goal of improving people's quality of life, enhancing their well-being, and giving them chances and choices to become valuable contributors to society, the National Population Policy offered a framework for population development in several areas for the following ten years. By 2045, it hopes to attain population stability at a level that satisfies the demands of social progress, environmentally sound development, and sustained economic growth.
Family welfare programmes over the past 50 years with a holistic approach to population control, followed by other social factors like female literacy, age at marriage, status of women, spacing of children, immunisation, health care, infant mortality, etc. have undoubtedly made significant contributions in the direction, but the requirement for the intervention of educational efforts to bring about appropriate social transformations so as to promote population stabilisation By imparting the appropriate knowledge and essential awareness in pertinent areas, universities and other institutions can play a significant role.
The "observance of small family norm" gains a place of prominence as a key component in the national education strategy for the first time in the country's history. This value is intended to be attained not in isolation, but rather by encouraging suitable attitudes, particularly in women, towards the elimination of illiteracy, interrelationships among the population, environment, development, and quality of life, as well as prevailing values and beliefs. Recognizing the all-encompassing character of child development, the policy gives early childhood care and education high priority and, if possible, integrates it with the Integrated Child Development Services programme.
All of the aforementioned provisions gave education initiatives that were being carried out with the intention of institutionalising population education in the educational system credibility and support. Numerous educational activities are carried out as part of institutionalising population education to make it a crucial component of the entire educational system.
Q2) Describe the main features of National Population Policy-2000.
Ans) In 2000, the New Population Policy was introduced. It envisions the goal of a stable population by 2045 and places a strong emphasis on health and education. The National Population Policy of 2000 reaffirms the government's commitment to allowing residents to make voluntary, informed decisions and give their consent when using reproductive health care services. It also continues to use a target-free approach when providing family planning services.
Additionally, it keeps the target-free method of offering family planning services.
The National Population Policy 2000 offers a national plan for pursuing goals and stressing solutions over the following ten years in order to fulfil the population's needs in terms of reproductive and child health and to achieve net replacement levels by 2010.
It is founded on the fact that the public, private, and non-profit sectors work together to raise awareness of and involvement with a broad array of reproductive and paediatric health services while also advancing concerns related to child survival, maternal health, and contraception.
The NPP 2000 offers a framework for developing objectives and prioritising tactics over the following ten years in order to meet the demands of India's population in terms of reproductive and child health and to reach net replacement levels by the year 2010. It is based on the requirement that government, business, and the voluntary non-government sectors collaborate in order to increase outreach and coverage of a comprehensive package of reproductive and child health services while simultaneously addressing issues of child survival, maternal health, and contraception.
The following are significant elements of national population policy in 2000:
Addressing the unmet demand for essential facilities, resources, and services for reproductive and newborn care.
Reduce the percentage of boys and girls who drop out of primary and secondary school to under 20% by making education up to the age of 14 both free and mandatory.
Reduce infant mortality to below 30 per 1000 live births.
Reduce maternal mortality to less than 100 per 100,000 live births.
Ensure that every child receives immunizations for all diseases that have vaccines available to prevent them.
Encourage girls to put off getting married until they are at least 18 years old, ideally until they are 20.
80 percent of deliveries in institutions and 100 percent of deliveries by trained personnel.
Ensure that everyone has access to information counselling, services for controlling fertility, and contraception, along with a variety of other options.
Complete birth, death, marriage, and pregnancy registration is a key component of the national population policy.
Stop AIDS from spreading and promote improved communication between the National AIDS Control Organization and those in charge of managing STIs and reproductive tract infections.
Manage and prevent infectious diseases.
Include Indian systems of medicine in the provision of outreach programmes and services for children's and reproductive health.
The small family rule must be vigorously promoted if TSR levels are to reach replacement levels.
India's population strategy places a strong emphasis on making sure social services are either relevant to family welfare or are carried out in a way that prioritises the needs of the individual.
Q3) Discuss different methods and techniques of family planning. Give suitable examples.
Ans) Individuals should adopt accessible, pleasant, choice-based activities after marriage to reduce family size through birth spacing and sterilisation.
Male Methods and Techniques of Family Planning
When it comes to birth-spacing or permanent family planning methods and tactics, males have few options. These are mainly covered below with a focus on preventing the deposition of semen/spenns in the vagina.
Natural Methods: Physical or Behavioural Methods
The following are some natural family planning strategies that males can use:
Coitus Interruptus or Withdrawal method: It's the oldest birth control method. A male must remove his penis from the vagina before ejaculating to avoid depositing semen.
Coitus Reservatus: Contrary to coitus interruptions, the male maintains penis-vagina contact while delaying or avoiding ejaculation.
Mechanical Method: Sheath or Condom
A thin, soft condom is placed over the penis before sexual activity. The condom keeps ejected semen from entering the vagina. Polyurethane condoms are more expensive yet thinner, more sensitive, and odour-free than latex condoms. The Indian government subsidises "Nirodh" condoms.
Male Sterilization (Permanent Methods)
Sterilization is birth control. Sterilization is permanent. Male sterilisation permanently sterilises men. Operating on or X-raying a man's genital glands can permanently prevent pregnancy.
Male sterilisation methods include:
Exposure of Sex Glands to Heat or X-Rays: Heating an animal's scrotum can limit sperm production for weeks. Heat or X-rays affect sperm. Heat reduces testicular sperm production.
Sterilization through Surgical Operation: Vasectomy is surgical male sterilisation. Blocking the vas deference artificially obstructs sperm from leaving the testes.
Female Methods and Techniques of Contraception Family Planning
Natural Family Planning Methods: Biological Contraceptive Methods
Biological techniques of contraception are currently in the experimental stage. Biological contraception or natural family planning are economical options for married couples.
Chemical Contraceptives: Spermicides
Chemical contraceptives are used before or after sex.
1) Chemical Contraceptives used after Sexual Intercourse: Douche is the oldest procedure that was utilised after intercourse.
a) Douche: This chemical technique is extensively utilised. After sexual activity, it is intended to drain the vagina of seminal fluid. If the douche can remove or kill every sperm before it has a chance to enter the uterus, conception won't take place.
2) Chemical Contraceptives used prior to Sexual Intercourse: The following types of chemical contraceptives are inserted into the vagina before sex:
a) Suppositories: These are produced by combining one or more chemical compounds in a solid chocolate, gelatine, or other foundation that dissolves at body temperature.
b) Tablets and Powders: Dissolving the pills releases gas that creates a frothy mass in the vagina, acting as a chemical and mechanical contraceptive. Tablet dissolution requires moisture, which is occasionally lacking in the vagina.
c) Jellies and Creams: Semisolid jellies and lotions distribute more easily along the vaginal canal and uterine entrance.
d) Foam Powder: This uses foam-producing powder and a sponge. The powder contains a non-soapy lathering ingredient that foams in water and friction.
Mechanical Contraceptives (Vaginal and Intra-Uterine Devices)
The most reliable treatments available today are mechanical devices that cover the entrance to the uterus and prevent sperm from entering the cervix. Shapes and sizes vary.
1) Diaphragms: Thin, soft rubber or silicone forms diaphragms. They constitute a physical 'barrier' to sperms; however, spermicide is also utilised. 20th-century family planning popularised diaphragms and caps. New contraceptives have reduced their use in recent years.
2) Cervical Caps: A cervical cap is occasionally used when a diaphragm can't. The cap fits tightly over the uterine cervix. Cervical caps are rubber and come in different sizes. After the doctor chooses the right size, the woman learns how to insert and remove the cap.
3) Female Condom: A thin sheath or pouch is a female condom. It lines the vagina and prevents pregnancy and HIV. Sizes vary. Size should be carefully chosen to prevent user pain and sperm bypass. The inner ring at the sheath's closed end is used to insert and hold the condom during use.
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