If you are looking for MAEE-001 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Sustainable Development, you have come to the right place. MAEE-001 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAAE courses of IGNOU.
MAEE-001 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MAEE-001/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: MAEE-001
Assignment Name: Sustainable Development
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.
Q1) What do you mean by sustainable development? Explain the key principles of sustainable development.
Ans) In essence, economics and environmental science are combined through theoretical and applied views in sustainable development. Other definitions of sustainable development see it as a method of growth that can simultaneously and concurrently maximise a variety of environmental, economic, and social benefits. These definitions imply that sustainable development is, in essence, a synthesis of economic, social, and ecological methods, each of which is necessary for and beneficial to the others. The goal of sustainable development is to provide human needs while protecting the environment so that they can be met not only for the current generation but also for generations to come.
In a socio-ecological process known as sustainable development, human demands are met while preserving the environment's quality indefinitely. When the International Union for the Conservation of Nature produced the World Conservation Strategy in 1980 and adopted the term "sustainable development," the relationship between the environment and development became widely acknowledged. This phrase has been used to highlight social and environmental concerns over alarming tendencies toward social polarisation and increased environmental degradation in the 1970s and 1980s. After the publication of the Brundtland Commission Report, officially known as the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, the idea gained widespread acceptance. The United Nations General Assembly established WCED.
By safeguarding natural resources and ecosystems that we and future generations depend on, sustainable development helps to maintain the delicate balance between human needs to improve lifestyles and well-being on the one hand and on the other. The concept of sustainable development is eclectic since it encompasses a wide range of factors and viewpoints. Concepts of weak sustainability, strong sustainability, and deep ecology have all been included. There is a significant conflict between anthropocentrism and ecocentrism, according to various interpretations.
Principles/Premises of Sustainable Development
The following are some of the guiding ideas or precepts behind the idea of sustainable development:
Sustainable development is a different approach to development that, by definition, should be eco-friendly and environmentally benign.
In order to ensure that the productive assets available to future generations are not unfairly diminished, it is important for the current generation to meet its demands without impairing their ability to meet their own.
That people who currently benefit from economic growth must not compromise the well-being of future generations by overusing the planet's finite resources and damaging its ecology and environment.
Producer natural systems and the consumerist human race coexist harmoniously.
A healthy environment is necessary for both sustainable growth and a strong economy, proving that these two things are not mutually exclusive.
Economic growth that depletes natural capital is frequently unsuccessful.
That past environmental mistakes need not be repeated, and that environmental destruction is not a given in the future.
Development should represent broader social and economic objectives, not just prosperity.
Long-term sustainable development involves ecology, resources, and people, as well as their service providers, institutions, and other facets of their social structure.
Internal and external sustainability are the two main facets of sustainable development; neither one is necessary for the existence of true sustainability.
Because the poor are mostly responsible for sustainable development, it should make sure that they have appropriate access to sustainable and secure livelihoods.
Q2) Explain the importance of rural development. How are people’s participation and transparency useful in promotion of rural development?
Ans) Rural development is crucial for the overall economic growth of the country as well as for the majority of the population who live in rural areas. In the country now, rural development is thought to be of noticeably greater importance than in earlier times in the process of the nation's growth. It is a strategy that seeks greater productivity, greater socioeconomic equality and ambition, and stability in the growth of society and the economy.
The main goal is to make enough nutritious food available and reduce the starvation that affects around 70% of the rural population. Providing for the availability of clothing and footwear, a clean home and surroundings, medical care, leisure activities, education, transportation, and communication is the secondary responsibility.
The goal of rural development is to raise rural residents' standard of living in a fair and environmentally and socially responsible way. through more control over productive capital, improved access to resources, and services. The primary goals of rural development programmes have been to reduce poverty and unemployment through the construction of fundamental social and economic infrastructure, the provision of training to youth who are unemployed in the Aral region, and the creation of jobs for marginal farmers and labourers in order to deter temporary and long-term migration to urban areas.
Since India's independence, it has been a welfare state, and the welfare of its millions of citizens has been the main goal of all governmental endeavours. Since India gained its independence, planning has served as one of the pillars of its foreign policy, and it is the successes of planning that give the nation its power. As one of the main goals of planned development in India, the policies and programmes have been created with the intention of reducing rural poverty. It was discovered that increasing the number of chances for gainful employment during the growing phase itself is the foundation of any long-term plan for reducing poverty.
Different techniques have been used to conceptualise and define rural development. In general, rural development is a complex phenomenon that encompasses a wide range of initiatives intended to improve the lot of those who live in rural areas. More participation in rural development programmes, decentralisation of planning, stronger implementation of land reforms, and increased access to financing are all planned in order to give rural residents better chances for economic development. The World Bank compared rural development to the social and economic elevation of rural impoverished people.
The productivity of agriculture and industry increased significantly as the nation's economy grew throughout time. The rural poor's quality of life, however, was not materially improved by the growth. The development's "trickle-down" impact failed to materialise in India. So, despite population growth, a sizably high proportion of rural residents remained to live below the poverty line. Rural poor people were particularly marginalised during the development process. The characteristics of the poor in India have remained poor economic situation, subsistence living and low bargaining power, unstable and non-durable employment prospects, distress migration to urban areas, etc.
Q3) Discuss the challenges facing management of urban support services. Suggest possible solutions to address the same.
Ans) Slum developments have given rise to entire townships that operate on the basis of an informal economy. All of this has significant effects on slum dwellers' productivity as well as on environmental deterioration. These and other issues turn into permanent difficulties for urban growth.
Safe Drinking Water, Sanitation and Health Care
Insufficient coverage, erratic supplies, low pressure, and poor water quality are just a few of the problems with water delivery that exist in Indian cities and many other developing nations throughout the world. The difficulty of providing water to the urban population is increasing quickly due to the rapid growth of the urban population and the ongoing extension of municipal limits. In several states, there is still a long way to go before everyone has access to potable water and a home toilet. Many unserved homes rely on improvised water sources offered by private vendors, the quality of which varies. These families typically pay ten to twenty times as much for piped water as locals do. Due to limited access to clean water, inadequate drainage, and a lack of suitable infrastructure for waste-water collection and treatment, impoverished urban people not only have very high costs, but they are also substantially more at risk for health issues.
The safe confinement, treatment, and disposal of human excreta, as well as any accompanying hygiene-related measures, are all considered to be components of sanitation. Other aspects of environmental sanitation such as solid waste management, degradation of industrial and other specialized/hazardous wastes, drainage infrastructure, as well as the management of drinking water supply, require an integrated strategy. It emphasises the necessity of educating them about the advantages of a sanitary and orderly environment.
Waste and Garbage Management
Garbage from dumpsites is only occasionally collected, infrequently processed, and rarely disposed of according to the rules. Although the Municipal Solid Waste Rules have been in place since 2000, they have not been well enforced. Besides. Urban Local Bodies, non-governmental organisations, community-based organisations, and private businesses all participate in the collection of solid trash these days, but waste disposal has received little attention. Urban Local Bodies typically load solid garbage manually onto open vehicles and transport it from roadside dustbins to transfer stations. After that, they are taken to open dumping sites.
Old dumps, which were formerly located in very isolated areas, have now been included within the city as a result of the extension of its boundaries. Scavengers and ragpickers, who work in vast numbers collecting and sorting rubbish, are suffering as a result of modern solid-waste collection and management procedures. Bottles, syringes, and needles are being sold back on the market due to informal recycling activities, which is dangerous for people's health.
Vehicles and Traffic Management
Our city's structure and daily life are inextricably linked to traffic. Urban centres attract people from all directions, which frequently results in high levels of traffic inside the cities and congestion on urban streets. It is largely the case because the amount of traffic exceeds the road's allowable number of vehicles. Therefore, knowing the origin and destination of the traffic moving on the streets can help with perfect traffic management by ensuring that peak hour traffic is taken care of. To reduce idling, it is also essential to have strict parking regulations and a road use fee. The implementation of a systematic public transportation system that is properly networked, frequent, and equitably accessible to everyone is another essential method of reducing traffic congestion.
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