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MANE-002: Human Growth & Development

MANE-002: Human Growth & Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MANE 002/AST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MANE-002

Assignment Name: Human Growth and Development

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


There are two sections ‘A’ and ‘B’. Attempt any five questions in total and at least two questions, from each section. 20x5


Section A


Q1) Explain basic principles of growth.

Ans) Planned processes govern biological development. Sequential events mark the course of biological development. Normal biological development also happens in an organised and predictable manner. The majority of kids will grow up at roughly the same pace as other kids. These patterns of growth and development make it possible to anticipate how and when the majority of youngsters will acquire particular traits.


There are some overarching growth and development principles that explain how the growth process works. The proximodistal principle, the orthogenetic principle, and the cephalocaudal principle are these. Although growth and development are inextricably linked, they are not the same thing. Growth is a representation of a person's bodily changes, while development is a representation of a person's overall development, structure, and shape. The teacher must have a thorough understanding of growth and development at various stages. The teacher's job is to encourage a student's growth and development.


Only if he is well informed about the stages of growth and development will he be able to achieve it. Growth phrases describe a person just in their physical sense. Growth is measurable. It begins with conception and ends when a certain age is reached. Development entails both the function of the organ and a general change in the organ's shape, form, or structure. Development is quantitative and qualitative at the same time. It is a never-ending process that begins in the womb and ends in the tomb.

  1. Development is Continuous: From the moment of conception until the person reaches adulthood, the process of growth and development continues. Both physical and mental features continue to develop gradually until they achieve their full potential. It continues throughout one's entire life. Development continues even after reaching adulthood.

  2. Development is Gradual: It does not appear out of nowhere. It also has a cumulative quality.

  3. Development is Sequential: The majority of psychologists concur that growth is sequential or organised. Every species, whether it be human or animal, has its own unique pattern of development. All people generally follow the same pattern. The young child babbles before speaking and crawls before creeping or walking.

  4. Development Proceeds from General to Specific: Development moves from the general to the particular. General activity always comes before specialised activity in all fields of development. The foetus, for instance, can move its entire body but cannot respond in a specific way. Infants regard new and unexpected objects with a general dread response when it comes to emotional behaviour.

  5. Most Traits are Correlated in Development: In general, it is seen that children with above-average mental development also excel in a wide range of other areas, including health, sociability, and unique aptitudes.

  6. Growth and Development is a Product of Both Heredity and Environment: Both heredity and environment have an impact on development. Human development and growth are the result of both.

  7. Development is Predictable: Observation and psychological testing can't determine the distinction between physiological and psychological potentialities.

  8. Development: Changes in development affect both structural and functional aspects.

  9. There is a Constant Interaction Between All Factors of Development: Development in one location has a strong impact on other places' development. For instance, a healthy youngster can participate socially and cognitively.


Q2) Discuss the role of Hawthrone effect in longitudinal studies.

Ans) The longitudinal technique refers to the process of conducting research on the same child across time. Every kid engaged in the study is periodically measured for one or more body measurements at set intervals of time throughout the study period as part of this strategy for examining human growth.


Henry A. Landsberger first used the term "Hawthorne effect" in 1958 while researching the Hawthorne investigations carried out at the Hawthorne Works between 1924 and 1932. To find out whether or not its employees would be more productive in greater or lower light levels, The Hawthorne Works has commissioned a research. When adjustments were implemented, the workers' productivity appeared to increase; but, after the study was over, it declined. It was proposed that the increase in productivity was the result of the employees' increased motivation caused by the employer's interest in them.


For slight illumination increases, this impact was seen. In these lighting tests, the intensity of the light was changed to look at how it affected worker output. When describing the Hawthorne effect, the majority of industrial or occupational psychology and organisational behaviour textbooks make reference to the lighting experiments. The other studies are very infrequently mentioned.


In the context of human growth, this phenomena is distinct but uncommon. The main limitations of longitudinal studies are the length of time required to conduct them and the relatively small number of people who can often be tracked. Having a large number of children and their parents participate in the study is one technique to maintain an adequate sample size in such investigations. Unfortunately, the more involved, the more probable it is to have an impact on the growth of the research participants' children.


The Hawthorne Effect, which happens when respondents are aware that they are a "part of study," is what causes the phenomena of increased parental involvement in a longitudinal series. Johnston says that parents who get ongoing and consistent health counselling may realise the connection between development and the requirement for a healthy environment. As a result, they might alter their kids' eating habits and other lifestyle choices, which might enhance the kids' overall growth status for the duration of the longitudinal study.


The Hawthorne effect is a form of reaction in which people alter a behaviour pattern in response to being aware of being watched. The impact was identified during study at the Hawthorne Western Electric facility, however other academics believe the accounts are fictitious. At the Hawthorne Works, a Western Electric facility in Cicero, Illinois, employees who produced electrical relays were a part of the original study. The illumination investigation was carried out between 1924 and 1927. Workers went through a series of lighting modifications, and it was claimed that productivity rose with practically every change in lighting.


This proved to be untrue. A group of five women participated in the Elton Mayo study, which took place between 1928 and 1932, and involved a number of organisational adjustments. However, the methodological flaws and lack of a control in this study prevented any conclusive findings from being reached. One of Landsberger's later interpretations was that the novelty of becoming research subjects and the attention that comes with it can temporarily boost workers' productivity. The "Hawthorne effect" was given to this view.


Q3) Briefly discuss the levels of body composition.

Ans) Depending on the clinical issues, there are different levels at which the human body can be quantified. The basic elements of carbon, calcium, potassium, and hydrogen can be used to determine body composition at the atomic level. Water, protein, and fat amounts can be determined at the molecular level. Extracellular fluid and body cell mass can be determined at the cellular level. Adipose, skeletal, and muscle tissue distributions can be determined at the tissue level.


Direct body composition procedures such as neutron activation, isotope dilution, and total body counts are used for analysis at the atomic through cellular levels. By using X-ray or magnetic imaging techniques, criterion approaches can quantify the body's density or define the amounts and distributions of skeletal, muscular, and adipose tissues.


The biological complexity of the body's composition can be assessed at several levels, from the simplest atoms and molecules to the entire tissue compartment of the human body. These levels each offer a unique framework for understanding the physical changes brought on by growth and development. The five-level model, which considers body mass as the total of all components at each of the five levels of atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue-organ, and entire body, is the foundation of understanding body composition.

  1. Atomic Level: The bodily mass at this point consists of 11 primary components. The four elements oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen make up more than 96 percent of the body's mass. Calcium, phosphorous, sulphur, chlorine, and magnesium are further important components.

  2. Molecular Level: Six main elements make up the molecular level: water, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, bone mass, and soft tissue minerals. Despite being used interchangeably, the terms fat and lipid have different meanings in the context of body composition. All biological material extracted using lipid solvents is referred to as lipid. Triglycerides, phospholipids, and structural lipids are included in this. Contrarily, the term "fat" refers to a particular family of lipids made up of triglycerides. Triglycerides make up about 90% of the body's total lipid in healthy adults.

  3. Cellular Level: Three bodily constituents are present at the cellular level: cells, extracellular fluids, and extracellular solids. Body cell mass and fat, of which the former is the metabolically active component, can be further divided into two parts by the cells.

  4. Tissue-Organ Level: This level focuses on how particular tissues affect body weight. Adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, visceral organs, and bone make up the majority of it.

  5. Whole-Body Level: It can be broken down into sections like appendages, trunk, and head, which are typically represented by anthropometric measurements like circumference, skinfold, and length. The statistical prediction equations using anthropometry allow for the evaluation of body composition.


Section B


Q1) Describe some ways to slow down ageing process.

Ans) The potential of leading a healthy existence in the final third of life is being investigated by research on ageing.


Restriction of Caloric intake

Calorie restriction is frequently suggested by scientists as a method to extend life and reduce signs of ageing. Studies show that low-calorie meals made rats and mice live longer and prevented age-related disorders. According to molecular biologist George Roth of the US National Institute on Aging, calorie restriction causes a one-degree Celsius drop in body temperature.


Lower body heat is indicative of a slower metabolism and less processed food. People need to transition from a growing phase to a survival stage. Limiting calories can lengthen life. Early food restriction can protect the diurnal day-night cycles of melatonin from deteriorating as people age. These drugs postpone degenerative diseases, delay premature ageing, and lengthen life.


Physical Activity

After age 60, physical activity also declines directly proportionate to each subsequent decade. Bone mass is likewise steadily declining. Consequently, a diet of 1500–1800 kcal per day is adequate to continue daily activities in old age. The WHO recommends reducing energy needs after the age of 40 by 5% every ten years until the age of 60, by 10% until the age of 70, and by an additional 10% after the age of 70. Each gramme of carbohydrates, protein, and fat produces four, four, and nine kcal, respectively. To maintain a healthy body composition, the whole amount of energy needed in a balanced diet must come from carbs, proteins, and fats in the suggested proportions of 50:35:15.


It is now widely acknowledged that women's roles and activity patterns are evolving over time. Urban educated women are joining outside-the-home employment in greater numbers, some for financial reasons and others for the fulfilment of an independent career. In the Indian system, a working woman must hold down a full- or part-time job in addition to fulfilling the conventional duty of a housewife. As opposed to housewives who may be involved in the household duties but have a flexible schedule, working women now lead different lives due to the time constraints and competing demands of their jobs both within and outside the home. The health of working women may suffer from their double burden.



Cells create waste as they metabolise energy in all living things. An ordinary oxygen atom with an additional electron, known as a free radical, is one of the process's most problematic by-products. The oxygen radical attempts to form bonds with other molecules in an effort to balance out this electrical imbalance. As a result, it can cause cell damage that results in a variety of degenerative diseases, such as those that affect the heart, brain, and blood vessels, as well as many other problems, ranging from cancer to more general signs of ageing, such as wrinkles and arthritis.


Some dietitians advise eating lots of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables. Free radicals may interact with these substances and be expelled from the body. Antioxidants include beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, selenium, manganese, zinc, copper, and iron. A high intake of beta-carotene, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E may lower the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, according to numerous studies. Since vitamin E isn't found in many foods, getting enough through diet is challenging. Vitamin E is needed in the diet.


Q2) What do you understand by undernutrition and overnutrition? Explain.

Ans) One of the newest fields in epidemiology is nutritional epidemiology. Diet and physical activity are the two pillars of this area, and both are highly challenging to study and evaluate. There is a lot of room for measuring error with the current diet and exercise measurement techniques. The methods for measuring these, however, would be improved over time and with focused efforts in order to lower measurement errors.

Under Nutrition

Undernutrition and overnutrition are two extremes that can be present in nutritional diseases. In cases of undernutrition, the amount of food ingested is either less than what is necessary, or it is difficult for the body to digest or absorb the food. The body is unable to carry out a variety of duties to its full potential under either situation. In other words, malnutrition has an impact on the body's physical efficiency. Inadequate intake of vital nutrients leads to undernutrition. Below are some of the disorders caused by undernutrition:

  1. Kwashiorkor: Kwashiorkor, also known as protein-calorie malnutrition, is a kind of undernutrition that results from a lack of protein in the diet. In cases of this kind of undernutrition, the calorie intake may be sufficient. The lack of food availability, starvation, and illiteracy are the three main causes of kwashiorkor around the world. A huge and bulging belly, muscular loss, changes in hair and skin colour, failure to gain weight, swelling and oedema of the body parts, a slow and listless body, and a lowered immunity are all signs of kwashiorkor in youngsters.

  2. Marasmus: Marasmus is a condition of undernutrition where there are not enough calories or protein in the diet. Extreme muscular wasting is a kind of protein-calorie malnutrition that occurs in this situation. The child becomes dehydrated and develops wrinkles and flaky skin. This sickness is also brought on by very young children not receiving enough milk. Intestinal absorption is not as significantly affected as it is in kwashiorkor, and the kids react to environmental cues better.



Overeating is the cause of overnutrition. In general, the brain has a powerful regulatory system that ensures that energy intake and expenditure are balanced. When there is a long period of time between meals, we get hungry, and when we eat regularly, we get content. Based on the amount of nourishment we are consuming; the brain determines how we feel. However, when a person's calorie intake exceeds their energy expenditure, the surplus energy is stored as fat. Obesity is the term used to describe the bodily manifestation of having too much body fat.

  1. Obesity: The definition of obesity is having too much bodily fat. Obesity may have a negative impact on health, resulting in a shorter life expectancy and more health issues. In the abdomen and surrounding the visceral organs, the fat is typically retained as subcutaneous fat. Adipocytes, which are specialised connective tissue cells, store fat as triglycerides in them.

  2. Heart Disease: People who are overweight or obese generally have a higher risk of developing heart illness than those who fall within the normal range of body weight and body mass index, which includes heart attack, angina, congestive heart failure, irregular cardiac rhythm, sudden cardiac death, etc.

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