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MCFT-004: Counselling and Family Therapy: Applied Aspects

MCFT-004: Counselling and Family Therapy: Applied Aspects

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: MCFT-004/TMA-4/ASST-4/2021-22

Course Code: MCFT-004

Assignment Name: Counselling and Family Therapy: Applied Aspects

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Maximum Marks: 100


(i) Answer all the questions in both sections.

(ii) Answers to questions of Section “A” should not exceed 300 words each.

Section A - Descriptive Questions

(10x6=60 marks)

Q1. Discuss the use of sociodrama in counselling. (10)

Ans) Sociodrama is a role-playing scenario or play in which people take on different parts in order to better understand and clarify the social, environmental, and cultural influences that influence individual and group behaviour. One of the sociometric strategies is sociodrama. Sociometric exams and gadgets are tools for revealing interpersonal preferences and group affiliation patterns. Because they are not tests, they are referred to as sociometric approaches. Sociodrama is a technique for examining the appeals and repellences of a group. Each participant assesses the other members of the group in private. Many studies of children's groups have employed sociometric methodologies, and they have developed a reputation as a beneficial tool for classroom teachers.

Because the test is an informal evaluation tool that must be tailored to a specific population, it is critical that the user understands and knows how to utilise it. Its adaptability to various situations and flexibility are advantages, but because it is unstructured, the role of the counsellor is critical. It aids in the evaluation of leaders, mutual liking, respect, isolation, dislike, and other aspects of group functioning. Among the various types of research that have used sociometric instruments are studies of small group functioning, group leadership, and the impact of group climate on individual learning and behaviour.

In sociodrama, rather than dealing with an individual, as in psychodrama, we deal with the group as a whole. Sociodrama is an unstructured method whose effectiveness is contingent on a thorough comprehension of the theory and the ability to use it effectively. It is used by school counsellors at all levels to assist pupils understand self and group problems. Sociodrama is always performed in front of a large group, with the participants participating in debate and analysis. Sociodrama is a problem-solving technique that focuses on contemporary issues in the classroom or in the community. When a student takes on the character of someone who holds opposing beliefs to her or his own, she or he frequently changes his or her attitude.

Q2. Analyse the role of life skills in post covid Indian society. (10)

Ans) Self-awareness, social awareness, goal planning, issue solving, and decision-making are all examples of thinking skills. Information should be presented to enable critical thinking so that informed decisions and choices can be made.

The role of life skills in post covid Indian society:

  1. Appreciating or validating others, working with others, and understanding their roles, developing strong connections with friends and family, listening, and communicating effectively, taking responsibility, and coping with stress are all examples of social skills.

  2. Negotiation Skills: Negotiation skills apply not just to negotiating with others, but also to negotiating with oneself. To negotiate well with others, you must know what you want out of life, be firm in your values and views, and be able to say "no" to damaging behaviour and risky temptations.

  3. Making Decisions: It enables us to make informed decisions about our lives. This can have health implications if young people actively make decisions about their behaviours based on a healthy assessment of the various possibilities and the potential consequences of various decisions.

  4. Problem solving, like decision making, allows us to address challenges in our life in a constructive manner. Significant problems that go unsolved can generate mental stress and physical hardship.

  5. Creative thinking helps us make better decisions and solve problems by allowing us to consider all of the options and the many ramifications of our actions or inaction.

  6. Critical thinking is the ability to objectively analyse information and experiences. Critical thinking can help us notice and examine the elements that influence our attitudes and behaviour, such as values, peer pressure, and the media, and so improve our health.

  7. Effective communication refers to our ability to express ourselves in ways that are appropriate to our cultures and situations, both verbally and nonverbally. This includes the ability to articulate not only one's thoughts and desires, but also one's needs and anxieties. It could also entail being able to seek guidance and assistance as needed.

  8. Interpersonal Relationship Skills: These abilities enable us to interact with others in a positive manner. This could imply the ability to form and maintain pleasant relationships, which can be quite beneficial to our mental and social well-being.

  9. Self-awareness refers to our understanding of ourselves, our personalities, our talents, and limitations, as well as our likes and dislikes.

Q3. List qualities or characteristics of efficient counsellor/ family therapist. (10)

Ans) The qualities or characteristics of efficient counsellor/ family therapist are:

  1. Empathy: Empathy has been identified as a critical component by a number of academics. Empathy has an impact on the client's content, emotional tone, language style, and material.

  2. Respect: Therapists should respect their clients and treat them with decency.

  3. Caring: The therapist should demonstrate to the client that she or he is appreciated and that whatever information is produced is valuable.

  4. Warmth and Acceptance: Counselors and therapists should demonstrate warmth toward their clients and accept them as they are, rather than imposing demands on them to change.

  5. Genuineness: When speaking with a client, the counsellor should state and express genuine feelings. Clients may be exposed to authentic ideas, sensations, or feelings.

  6. Influence: The counsellor must have the ability to leave an impression on the client. To persuade the client to change, he or she should use power or social influence.

  7. Good Regard: It assists in instilling in clients a basic sense of worthiness, which is exhibited by the therapist through real warmth, a positive attitude, and regard for the client.

  8. Self-Disclosure: Talking about pertinent concerns that are related to the client, your position in treatment, giving feedback to the client, and your reactions are all examples of self-disclosure.

  9. Curiosity: A counsellor or therapist must be curious in order to be able to help the client. They must investigate diverse relationship issues and family dynamics, which may seem insignificant to the client but are crucial from a therapeutic standpoint.

  10. Interpretation: You should be able to interpret the data you've been given with knowledge and comprehension of the problem, as well as the theoretical approach you believe is best for solving it.

  11. Reflections: The family therapist should ask each family member the same question. He or she should ask questions that mirror one family member's feelings to the other, and vice versa.

  12. Interactive Empathy: When asking questions to each family member and listening to their responses, the family therapist should use interactive empathy.

Q4. Delineate the principles to be followed when using leads. (10)

Ans) Leading can relate to the extent to which a therapist is ahead of or behind the client's thinking, as well as the extent to which the counsellor leads the client's thinking. It can also be interpreted as a collaborative or team-oriented method in which the counsellor's comments urge the client to elaborate or make a new point. Leading is an efficient approach for developing an effective counsellor-client relationship because it allows the therapist to maintain or assign varied levels of responsibility to the client, as well as elicit more replies from the client.

The following are the rules to follow when employing leads:

  1. The first principle states that only as much lead as the client can tolerate at their current level of comprehension and abilities should be used. It's critical for the counsellor to stay close to the client's thought processes and degrees of comprehension. A client who expects the counsellor to take the lead in moving the interview along may become anxious if there isn't enough lead. Too much of a lead, on the other side, may elicit resistance from the client, who may perceive the counsellor as "pushing" or "forcing" things. A "ladder" analogy might be used to make this point clearer, indicating that the counsellor is no more than one rung ahead of the client, keeping her or him close to the client's needs and interests.

  2. The second guideline highlights the need of shifting the lead, which means that the lead should change from topic to topic to meet the client's speed.

  3. The third principle states that the process of counselling should begin with as little lead as feasible. For example, one could begin with a low-lead technique, such as listening, and then proceed to approaches with high-lead levels, such as reflection and interpretation.

Q5. Discuss the steps for termination. (10)

Ans) The steps for termination are:

Step 1: Verbal Preparation: The client is reminded of the session termination agreement (pre-decided during interview sessions). It is possible to make statements about a client's progress as a lead. As an example, "You appear to have gained a significant level of self-awareness and have even devised some practical strategies. Do you believe you'll be able to carry yourself from here?"

Step 2: With the client's permission, the counsellor can create a "summary statement" that includes short- and long-term goals, a general overview of accomplishments, referral or follow-up arrangements, and the creation of a plan.

Step 3a - Follow-ups: Termination does not rule out the possibility of the counsellor seeing the client again. It basically means that the client will be visited during "follow-ups" at lengthier periods, rather than the customary, regular meetings. It might be a "free door" policy, in which clients are free to come and go whenever they choose. It might also be fixed; in which case the appointment could be set for 1 month and subsequently increased.

Step 3b: A "Possible Referral" is a version of step 3 in which the counsellor believes that she or he has gone as far as she or he can and that the client would benefit from another therapist/counsellor. It is critical that the counsellor handle the referral in such a way that the client may easily transition into the new relationship. Referral reasons should be thoroughly explored with the customer. For instance, the counsellor might suggest, "Our team psychiatrist would be a great person to consult about this issue. Do you want to schedule a meeting with her or him?" If the client needs to be referred elsewhere, the counsellor must be familiar with all of the technicalities and concerns involved.

Formal-taking, Step 4: This is the session in which the client is ready to say "goodbye" after all of the previous sessions.

Q6. With the help of examples, explain countertransference in therapy. (10)

Ans) A client's reaction to a counsellor/therapist is frequently that of an idealised other, a father figure, or a role model. The therapist may project or transfer her or his own conscious or unconscious attitudes or feelings associated to her or his significant others in the past onto the client in response to these reactions. Countertransference sentiments are seen as a character flaw on the therapist's behalf. As no therapist is completely free of their own immaturities, prejudices, worries, and so on, they are going to appear.

The following is an example of a countertransference reaction:

"Why can't my wife be as concerned about her home as she is about her job?" says the client.

"That's just the typical male response," the therapist says.

The therapist's reaction in the foregoing exchange could be a reflection of her general attitude about men, which stems from previous unfavourable encounters with males. Feelings of countertransference can be either positive or negative. Positive countertransference reactions can be harmful to the therapeutic process since they are difficult to detect by the therapist and can upset the client if they are removed. Negative countertransference reactions may increase the client's feelings of rage and resentment against the therapist, obstructing therapy.

The therapist's disciplined self-observation, as well as insight into one's interpersonal processes and unconscious dynamics, may aid in the therapist's ability to effectively control such emotions. In some cases, countertransference reactions can be addressed by the client verbalising his or her difficulties in a group treatment context. It aids in the depersonalization of the problem and the prevention of negative countertransference reactions. A female client who is really annoyed with her male therapist, for example, can discuss the issue in a group session so that any clinician hostility toward the client can be controlled.

Section B - Short Answer/Objective Type Questions

(40 marks)

1. Write short notes (in about 150 words each) on the following: (5x8=40 marks)

i) Effective homework tasks

Ans) Creating useful homework activities or assignments is a good method to move forward in treatment. Its use aids in the prevention of recurrence. Clients who are able to do homework efficiently will continue to follow therapy practises even after session has ended. Working on homework usually necessitates collaboration with others. Homework should be straightforward and uncomplicated. It should be supplied when the client appears to be opened to change. In order to give homework, the client and the therapist must first build a rapport. Then they should define assignment goals together and agree on the work at home. Homework assignments should be meaningful, attainable, little at first, have a clear rationale or goal to achieve, and the therapist should have a backup plan in place in case the task is not completed. In the follow-up session, a report on the home duties should be requested, and the amount of work performed should be determined before the start of the session. If the home job is not completed, the therapist should not form a bias against the client; instead, the therapist should find a rationale for not completing it and employ a backup plan to continue with the therapy.

ii) Telephone counselling

Ans) Telephone counselling is when you chat with your counsellor over the phone and receive your session rather than in person in the therapy room. Counseling over the phone is becoming more popular as technology advances. Only use telephone counselling after you've completed the initial intake and assessment in person. Before conducting telephone counselling, it is necessary to meet with the client. Only a few points should be discussed over the phone, and phone counselling sessions should be kept concise and to the point. Before such counselling can be done, these things to be discussed on the phone should be discussed, informed, and decided upon. It is critical that you feel heard and understood by your counsellor, as well as that you comprehend the process. The majority of counsellors who do phone sessions also provide an assessment over the phone. This is an excellent opportunity for you to learn more about that counsellor's approach and to acquire a feel for telephone counselling. Hopefully, by the end of the evaluation, you'll have a good idea whether you'd be comfortable working with the therapist.

iii) Client-centered therapy

Ans) Client-centered therapy, also known as person-centered therapy or Rogerian therapy, is a non-directive kind of talk therapy created in the 1940s and 1950s by humanist psychologist Carl Rogers. You take an equal role in the treatment process with this technique, and your therapist stays non-directive, meaning they don't pass judgement on your feelings or give suggestions or answers. Genuineness and congruence with their clients are displayed by client-centered therapists. This implies that they always act in accordance with their own thoughts and feelings, sharing openly and honestly. Self-awareness and a realistic comprehension of how internal experiences, such as thoughts and feelings, interact with exterior events are required for this. Your therapist can assist you in learning these key skills by displaying authenticity and consistency. Genuineness and consistency also aid in the development of a solid and trusting relationship between you and your therapist. This trust contributes to a sense of security, which may make it easier for you to engage in therapy.

iv) Mimesis

Ans) Mimesis is a family therapy strategy in which the therapist imitates the family's communication style or content for the aim of treatment. While maintenance focuses on the process, tracking is a technique in which the therapist adapts to the content of speech. The therapist follows the subjects suggested by family members like a needle follows a record groove in tracking. This not only allows him to integrate into the family culture, but it also allows him to learn distinctive idioms and metaphors that he would later use to give his directive words more weight by framing them in ways that have a special significance for the family or for certain family members.

At times, the therapist will feel compelled to form a stronger bond with a particular family member, usually one who places himself or is placed by the family on the fringe of the system. This can be accomplished by verbal interventions or mimesis, a nonverbal response in which the therapist assumes the other person's attitude, tone of voice, or posture, or imitates his or her conduct - crossing his legs, taking off his jacket, lighting a cigarette, for example. Most of the time, the therapist is just conscious of his desire to get closer to the copied member, not the mimetic gesture itself. In some circumstances, however, mimesis is employed as a strategy consciously: for example, the therapist wishes to join the system through the children, so he sits on the floor with them and sucks his thumb.

v) Inappropriate Professional Practice

Ans) In their report on ethical violations by professional psychologists in the United States, the American Psychological Association (APA) (1993) found that in 1991, 53 percent of cases involved inappropriate professional practise, ranging from testing abuses to inadequate case handling, while in 1992, such violations fell to 32 percent. Authorship controversies, inadequacies in supervision, improper and unsafe use of research techniques, and plagiarism, on the other hand, were only 8% and 6%, respectively, in 1992, and included authorship controversies, inadequacies in supervision, improper and unsafe use of research techniques, and plagiarism. Sexual misbehaviour with adult customers, sexual activity with adolescents, sexual harassment, and nonsexual dual partnerships are just a few of the unethical practises that have become increasingly visible in recent years. According to the report, the number of ethics infractions has nearly doubled since 1991.

vi) Motivating the family for therapy

Ans) The intake session isn't just about deciding how long to screen the family for evaluation; it's also about determining whether or not other family members are willing to participate in family therapy. The family therapist or counsellor must urge all members of the family to participate in family therapy, particularly to work on their relationship or current issues. In every type of therapy, the early stage is quite important. It's at this point that a working relationship with the family is formed. It also entails persuading the family to accept treatment and dispelling any misunderstandings they may have about therapy. From the first visit, the therapist strives to change the individual's or family's perspective on the situation. The assumption that the index patient's presenting problem is contained within that person is challenged; instead, the problem is seen as a by-product of the situation in which that person finds himself. To put it another way, therapy entails determining what the individual or family wants, how they perceive the situation, and how well the therapist can assist each family member in taking responsibility for it. The beginning phase also includes identifying tentative therapy goals, which can be amended or more explicitly defined as therapy progresses.

vii) Family Hypothesis

Ans) B learned the conflict resolution technique from his family of origin that the best way to cope with conflict is to avoid it. He became passive aggressive in order to avoid conflict with dominant people (such as his father). He noticed mother agreeing with everything father said and admired her selflessness. P was always the responsible one in her family of origin, yet she felt underappreciated for her abilities. She realised that while her mother could protest the father, it was pointless because he did what he wanted. She discovered the importance of asserting herself. B's expectations of having a companion and no family problems after marriage were not met. P discovered that she was once again the one in charge of the relationships, and that she was not being supported or acknowledged by B. P became domineering to B, and he reacted to her in the same way he did to his father. P got increasingly adamant about establishing herself as B refused to do what she asked and would not take responsibility for his actions on his own.

Both of them were dissatisfied with one other and with their relationship. The more P exerted herself or forced B to sit and listen to her, the more he tuned out and did his own thing, losing confidence in himself. P seemed to be continuously undermining him. B couldn't find a sense of connection, and P felt uncared for. Over time, the disappointments and arguments grew. The pair began to grow apart. Furthermore, their dispute resolution approach (B retreating, P getting aggressive) feeds relationship anxiety. As a result, a mutually unsatisfying interaction cycle is perpetuated. M's aggressive, clinging, or demanding behaviour was a reaction to domestic confrontations. M was through a period of emotional insecurity. Her wailing and hostility often caused the parents to cease fighting, reinforcing her behaviour. Furthermore, conflicts between P and B's parents about how to discipline M were exacerbating the discipline issues they were having with M.

viii) Projection

Ans) The transference reaction can be interpreted as a sort of projection, with the client being asked to reverse the projection and repeat it until she or he experiences it.

Consider the following scenario:

"I guess my mum despises me," says the client.

"Can you undo this?" says the therapist.

"That, I despise my mother," says the client.

"Yes, can you repeat that again?" says the therapist.

"I despise my mother," says the client.

Therapist: "Is this right or not?"

"Yes, that's correct," says the client.

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