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MCFT-006: Applied Social Psychology

MCFT-006: Applied Social Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for MCFT-006 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Applied Social Psychology, you have come to the right place. MCFT-006 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in MSCCFT courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MCFT-006/TMA-6/ASST-6/2021-22

Course Code: MCFT-006

Assignment Name: Applied Social Psychology

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Maximum Marks: 100


(i) Answer all the questions in both sections.

(ii) Answers to questions of Section “A” should not exceed 300 words each.

Section A - Descriptive Questions

(10 x 6= 60 marks)

Q1. “Socialization is a deliberate, conscious process”. Discuss this statement with examples. (10)

Ans) Socialization is a deliberate, conscious process: The deliberate process of co-constructing cultural knowledge about the world around us is known as socialisation. Parents and other adults in the child's environment intentionally monitor, advise, and teach the youngster acceptable cultural behaviours. This suggests that the key to cultural transfer is socialisation. Parents and adults must control their socialising behaviours so that their children can comfortably 'blend in' with society. This process is mediated by parental objectives, hopes, and dreams for their children. Many Asian parents are noted for using strict parenting approaches with their children because they want their children to succeed academically and in extracurricular activities, as is culturally expected. At the same time, worries about family honour and social standing are entwined with a child's behaviour and performance, not just in school but also in other areas of social contact.

Parenting styles, an important aspect of child socialisation, are formed by cultural standards for socialising children, family goals, and parental personality features. Parents are not the only socialising agents for children in many cultures. Other family members, relatives, instructors, and even neighbours serve as crucial socialising agents for the youngster. This is especially true for Indian children who grow up in extended or combined homes.

This leads us to the next section, which discusses theoretical frameworks for comprehending the impact of culture on development. Many theorists have provided extensive models and frameworks that can be used to comprehend varied child outcomes as a result of specific socialisation techniques in various cultural contexts. These models are useful for understanding how socialisation and child development occur 'within culture,' as well as for comparing the same across cultures. For example, you can learn how Indian parents socialise their children, with what goals, and utilising what child raising approaches by adopting any of the models shown in the following section. At the same time, if you have observed (and data from) both cultures, you can use the model to compare Indian and American parenting / socialisation techniques (or those of any other culture). These models or frameworks have arisen as a result of significant research, and they have also prompted additional research in the burgeoning field of cultural and cross-cultural psychology.

Q2. Explain basic factors which help in shaping personality. (10)

Ans) The basic factors which help in shaping personality:

Family Environment

It is very important to have a healthy and friendly family atmosphere to develop a good and a strong personality. A child considers his parent as a role model without analysing whether they are right or wrong. Parents should keep this in mind and guide their children in a positive way. Both father and mother have the role to make their child a good individual. Over discipline and over protection affects our children adversely. Over disciplining or over protected children tend to be dependent always. There should be peaceful and loving environment at home to develop a positive personality.

School Environment

The school atmosphere plays a vital role in the development of personality as the children spend most of their time in schools. They make friendship from school and the friends influence their behavior. Teachers also influence the student's personality as the teacher is the person who can change or modify the behavior of his students. The school should provide time for play and other group activities, thus the students will be able to act in a group. The school atmosphere should help students to attain good characteristics.

Position of the Child in the Family

This is an important factor which influences the personality of an individual. The only child in a family is always depends on others and they cannot make any decision independently. It will be very difficult for them to mingle in a group. They tend to be selfish in nature. All these occur due to over protection of the parents. We can avoid these adverse effects, if the parents treat them as normal child. The older child in a family may be more responsible and intelligent than others.

Mass Media and Social Media

People and crazy to imitate film stars or other famous personalities, they know through mass media such as television, films and books. It is nice to imitate the good qualities of an individual, but many of us, including children try to imitate the bad characters too. Social media also influence the person's behavior. It is very important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of such media.

Q3. Give examples to explain the influence of culture on our understanding of self. (10)

Ans) Culture has an impact on our happiness because it influences how we see ourselves and how others see us. When someone is accepted into a group that they hold in high respect, for example, they may experience feelings of happiness because they feel validated within their culture. On the other side, being rejected or discriminated against because of one's cultural influences can cause severe distress and can even lead to mental health problems such as depression. Diversity has become increasingly widespread in today's society, and people have began mixing with people from other backgrounds, resulting in the formation of new expectations outside of existing societal standards. These new expectations allow for more flexible perspectives of what it means to be successful, while also highlighting divergent value perceptions in locations where diversity was previously underrepresented.

This transition in society to include a more diversified perspective has begun to influence people's perceptions of themselves and others, which can lead to individuals feeling happy because they are no longer bound by rigid standards that may have existed previously. As a result, societies as a whole would be happier since everyone would feel like they belonged and could live a happy life. People can change their personalities to fit different cultures by altering the ideals they embrace. This allows people to adhere to how others in their society expect them to behave, which decreases the likelihood of conflict with others who have similar viewpoints.

However, people must not lose sight of who they are as individuals, because while certain aspects of one's personality may change, there will be components of one's personality that remain true to their notion of self. The goal is to find a way to accommodate new value judgments while maintaining essential principles that have guided one's life. Furthermore, if what they previously understood did not seem right due to a determined examination of their knowledge base, rather than merely accepting it because it is the standard within their society, these can potentially lead individuals to challenge norms.

Q4. With examples, describe different forms of conflict. (10)

Ans) The following are some fundamental types of conflict that can be classified based on a person's predisposition to approach or resist a goal:

Approach-Approach Conflict

When people are presented with two equally appealing but mutually exclusive goals, conflict can occur since selecting one means sacrificing the other. For example, a husband might ask his wife to choose one of two suitable spots for an outing. After choosing on one, the wife had questions about her decision; this tension would not be present if only one option was provided.

Conflict Between Approach and Avoidance

This is the type of tension that people feel when they desire to do something but are aware that some of the consequences of doing so will be unpleasant. As a result, it refers to a single goal with both good and bad outcomes. For example, a couple wants to start a family but is afraid of the increased obligations and loss of freedom that comes with it.

Conflict Between Avoidance and Avoidance

This is a stressful circumstance in which you are forced to choose between two equally unappealing goals or results. For example, if a husband or wife is having frequent arguments with each other and wants to divorce but is aware of the problems that would arise as a result of the divorce. When faced with a situation like this, it's common to avoid making any decisions at all.

Double Approach-Avoidance Conflict

Contrary to popular belief, there is a conflict between two approaches. This is a circumstance in which there are two viable courses of action, each of which creates a conflict between approach and avoidance. It's a difficult scenario.

Q5. Discuss common misconceptions and stereotypes about sexual identities. (10)

Ans) The common misconceptions and stereotypes about sexual identities:

Bigger is better: Many boys are unaware of their penis size. They have no idea what size is considered normal and are certain that theirs is too little. This anxiety is fueled by huge differences in growth time and rate from one boy to the next. The popular belief that penis size is associated to sexual appropriateness, which is simply wrong, gives size considerable prominence.

Breast Size: One of the most common concerns among adolescent females is the size of their breasts. Many people notice that one of their breasts is a little bigger than the other. Girls may question if having one breast smaller than the other is normal, and if so, what they can do about it. The size of one's breasts has no bearing on one's sexual performance.

Sexual Pleasure Capacity: One of the most common cultural myths among adolescents is that males have more sexual pleasure than females. This notion may be fuelled by the fact that females take longer to reach orgasm. However, once girls experience orgasm, their capacity for further orgasm exceeds that of males.

Intact Hymen and Virginity: Another prevalent misunderstanding is that the presence of a hymen implies virginity. In most girls, the hymen is more likely to tear throughout childhood due to active play or exploratory investigation. Some girls are born without a hymen, while in others, intercourse just strains rather than ruptures the hymen. Unfortunately, many Indian men regard their women as unchaste if there is no vaginal blood during the first sexual encounter. In reality, virginity has nothing to do with hymen breaking.

Masturbation is the artificial stimulation of the genitals with the purpose of obtaining sexual pleasure. Masturbation has not been linked to childhood or adolescence, nor has it been linked to single people. It isn't always a replacement for sex with a spouse. It can be just as physically pleasurable as shared sex.

Intercourse During Menstruation: Intercourse during menstruation is fraught with cultural taboos. Fears of impotence to a loss of virility are among the common misconceptions. None of these anxieties have any basis in reality.

Q6. How will you describe an effective communicator? (10)

Ans) An excellent communicator is one who effectively expresses their message while also being receptive to and responsive to the input of others. Strong communicators speak in a clear, straightforward manner, using language that is easily understood. They are usually forthright in expressing their views and opinions, but they are also receptive to recommendations from others.

Communicators who are effective:

Actively participate in their workplace: good communicators are critical to a company's success. These experts are well-versed in the company's goals and are skilled communicators. They can also listen to others and take direction as necessary.

Others trust you: because effective communicators speak honestly and listen carefully, they are often the first people others seek guidance from. When you know your opinion matters, it's simpler to communicate frankly with someone.

Individuals with strong communication skills recognise the necessity of being direct when expressing their opinions or ideas. An competent communicator may indicate when they believe their team has a strong strategy or if something has to be altered during critical initiatives at work, for example. If they disagree with others, they make sure to remain assertive and respectful.

Have their own communication style: being able to remember your input is an important component of being a great communicator. When your messages are distinctive, for example, others are more likely to remember your ideas when they require a different viewpoint. Your communication style can include inflections in your speech, body posture, humour, personal anecdotes, and other elements.

Effective communicators know how to break down material in a way that the majority of people can understand while presenting complicated ideas. For example, a literature professor may be asked to explain a poem to a class of pupils who have never read poetry before. A marketing manager could explain search engine optimization to stakeholders who aren't familiar with boosting site traffic via effective communication.

Section B - Short Answer/Objective Type Questions

(40 Marks)

Q1. Write short notes (in 150 words each) on the following: (58= 40 marks)

i) Sublimation

Ans) Sublimation is a technique for redirecting sexual energy away from sexual aims and toward societal objectives. It is the transformation of sexual energy/dangerous urges into socially acceptable motivations. Freud's emphasis on sexuality as a primary element of personality revolutionised psychology, which was a fundamental contribution to the study of personality. He went on to say how early childhood experiences shape adult personality, the value of free associations and the unconscious mind, and the knowledge of human inner urges and conflicts. The psychoanalytic method appears to be pessimistic in character, with a greater emphasis on pathology. The importance of a psychoanalytic approach in researching and comprehending personality cannot be overstated, even if its acceptance and emphasis on sexuality and id has waned in recent years.

ii) Interpersonal relationships

Ans) A social connection or association between two or more persons is known as an interpersonal relationship. Your partner, loved ones, close friends, acquaintances, coworkers, and many more who make up the social ties in your life are all examples of interpersonal interactions. All of the important dyad interactions that a person encounters from birth, such as parent-child, sibling, and adult-child, are examples of interpersonal relationships. Such relationships cause a person to develop social expectations, which lead to a specific role behaviour. If such expectations are met in a reciprocal manner, the group or family will be more accepting. Interpersonal interactions are living, breathing systems that change all the time. Relationships, like biological organisms, have a beginning, a lifespan, and an end. They develop and improve through time as people get to know each other and get emotionally closer, or they disintegrate with time as people drift apart, move on with their lives, and build other relationships.

iii) Social intelligence

Ans) The ability to understand and manage interpersonal connections is referred to as social intelligence. It is not to be confused with a person's IQ or "book smarts." It refers to a person's ability to comprehend and act on other people's feelings, thoughts, and behaviours. This form of intelligence can arise "in the moment" during face-to-face talks, as well as during periods of conscious thought. Emotional intelligence and self-awareness are required. Knowing when to speak or listen, what to say, and what to do are all examples of social intelligence. Social intelligence includes a lot of timing. Someone who is imperceptive, for example, can utter a hilarious joke at the wrong time or fail to show enough attention when meeting someone new. Social intelligence is crucial in many parts of a person's life since it aids in the development of connections. It enables people to develop friendships and alliances. It also protects a person from being taken advantage of. Socially intelligent people can "read" other people's faces and figure out what motivates them. As a person grows older, so does their social intelligence. In this way, it's comparable to the character trait of perspective.

iv) Anger management tips

Ans) Anger is a primary emotion with useful features, such as the ability to resist injustice. It is not a negative emotion in and of itself, but the way it regulates our reactions might lead to a negative emotional state. Whether we should be furious or not depends on how we assess the circumstance. Beyond that, there are certain basic actions we can take to avoid viewing situations and people through a negative, angry lens, and instead be able to detach ourselves from the situation and deal with it in a balanced manner. The following are some suggestions for dealing with anger:

  1. Recognize the frequency of your rage outbursts and the signals that they are occurring in your life.

  2. Keep a notebook in which you write down incidents or persons who make you upset.

  3. Take a few deep breaths and relax.

  4. Divert your attention to something pleasurable and calming.

  5. From ten to zero, count backwards.

  6. Instead of worrying about how dare something happen, consider what got you furious.

  7. Express your feelings to the individual who is the target of your rage in a clear and honest manner.

  8. Clearly state your point of contention without infringing on others' right to differing viewpoints.

  9. Empty chair technique: express furious sentiments in a constructive, non-self-defeating manner in front of an empty chair.

v) Cohesiveness

Ans) Family remains the strongest social institution in India, helping individuals to blend into society regardless of social class, caste, community, or religion. For Indians, family becomes the most powerful "in group," commanding devotion, priority, and respect. In the Indian setting, family harmony and togetherness are so highly valued. Since ancient times, the Indian united family has been an idealised norm. When the joint family is projected as the prototypical Indian family, however, sociologists disagree. This is because there is now enough data to prove that only the urban, corporate classes in India had mixed families. The majority of the other categories desired to be part of nuclear or small, extended families. Cohesion is an important family process regardless of the family's kind or structure.

vi) Bisexual

Ans) A bisexual individual is drawn to both men and women. This does not imply that they are equally attracted to them. Many bisexuals are more attracted to people of one gender than to people of the other. Their preferences may shift over time; for example, during youth, a person may be mostly attracted to women, but as they get older, they may grow to prefer men. When a person finds both men and women physically, sexually, or emotionally attractive, they are said to be sexual.

Because there are so many distinctions between people, bisexuality is merely a broad phrase. People who are attracted to both men and women, for example, may not consider themselves to be bisexual; instead, they may believe themselves to be primarily straight or gay, or they may choose not to use any term to describe their sexuality. In other circumstances, a person may have sexual feelings for both men and women but only have sex with partners of one gender, or they may avoid sex entirely. Because a bisexual person may have greater feelings for one gender than the other, attraction isn't necessarily evenly distributed. Because sexual chemistry between individuals is varied and unpredictable, this can vary based on the people they meet.

vii) Readiness for marriage

Ans) Marriage readiness refers to a person's mental, emotional, and physical readiness for marriage. There is a minimum age requirement for marriage, which ensures biological and physical suitability for the union. Gender roles and obligations are also linked to mental and emotional preparation. Gender role learning, education, and professional skills are all linked to skill acquisition. Psychological preparation is linked to the ability to rely on others, to be dependable, to have a cheerful mood, to be honest, and to be considerate of others' rights. One of the cornerstones to marital satisfaction is marriage preparedness. The bassist Reviews their evaluation criterion of marriage preparedness, and emerging adulthood has some ideas on it. It is critical to characterise emerging adulthood's approach to marital preparedness and to comprehend emerging adulthood's evaluation of their marriage readiness. However, from a gender viewpoint, it is vital to determine the inequalities in marriage preparedness.

viii) Empathic listening

Ans) Empathic listening is the act of paying close attention to and responding to the input of others during a conversation. Making an emotional connection with the other person and discovering similarities between their experience and your own to deliver a more heartfelt response is what empathetic listening includes. Empathic listening, also known as active listening or reflective listening, demands you to be aware of the other person's viewpoint. Giving support and encouragement rather than advise or criticism is one of the most important characteristics of empathic listening.

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