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MDC-002: Human Development and Communication

MDC-002: Human Development and Communication

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for MDC-002 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Human Development and Communication, you have come to the right place. MDC-002 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in PGDDC, MADJ courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MDC-002/2021-22

Course Code: MDC-002

Assignment Name: Human Development and Communication

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Maximum Marks: 100

Note: Answer all the questions; they carry equal marks. (Answer in 500 Words)

Q1. Enumerate the initiatives of Govt. of India in the field of Water Conservation and harvesting.

Ans) The initiatives of Govt. of India in the field of Water Conservation and harvesting are:

In 2019, the Indian government began Jal Shakti Abhiyan, a time-bound campaign with a mission mode approach aimed at improving water availability, including groundwater conditions, in 256 water-stressed districts across the country. In this context, teams of Central Government officers, as well as technical officers from the Ministry of Jal Shakti, were dispatched to tour water-stressed regions and work closely with district officials to implement appropriate interventions. In addition, on March 22, 2021, the Hon'ble Prime Minister of India announced the 'Jal Shakti Abhiyan - Catch the Rain' campaign.

The Department of Water Resources, RD & GR, has created a National Water Policy that, among other things, encourages rainwater collecting and water conservation, as well as the necessity to supplement water availability through direct use of rainfall. It also urges, among other things, that river, river bodies, and infrastructure conservation be done in a scientifically organised manner with community engagement. Encroachment and diversion of water bodies and drainage systems must also be prohibited, and where they have occurred, they must be restored to the extent possible and adequately maintained.

The Ministry has distributed a Model Bill to all States/UTs in order for them to implement appropriate ground water laws for regulation of its development, which includes provisions for rainwater collection. The ground water legislation has been adopted and implemented in 19 states/UTs so far.

CGWB has created a Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Groundwater-2020 in conjunction with States/UTs, which is a macro-level plan suggesting potential structures for the country's various topographical characteristics, as well as expected costs. The Master Plan calls for the development of 1.42 crore rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge facilities around the country in order to capture 185 billion cubic metres of monsoon rain.

During the XII Plan, the CGWB began the Aquifer Mapping and Management Program, which is part of the Ground Water Management and Regulation system. The purpose of the aquifer mapping is to demarcate aquifer disposition and characterization in order to prepare aquifer/area specific ground water management strategies with community participation. The management plans are communicated with the individual state governments in order for them to take appropriate action and implement them.

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme and the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana – Watershed Development Component of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana – Watershed Development Component of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana – Watershed Development Component of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana – Water

On April 24, 2020, the Department of Rural Development, the Department of Water Resources, RD & GR, the Department of Land Resources, and the Department of Drinking Water & Sanitation issued a joint advisory to all States/UTs to emphasise efforts in the area of water conservation and management in the country. Augmentation of existing water sources, groundwater recharge, rainwater collecting, and grey water management and recharge are among the operations.

Rainwater Harvesting is included in the Model Building Bye Laws 2016 circulated by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, and it has been shared with all States / UTs. So far, 32 States/UTs have implemented the MBBL-2016 rainwater collection provisions.

The Atal Bhujal Yojana, a Rs.6000 crore World Bank-funded project for long-term groundwater management with community engagement, is being implemented in over-exploited and water-stressed areas of Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. This initiative is projected to make a major contribution to the participating countries' water and food security.

Q2. Discuss the role of Government development agencies in development.

Ans) The role of Government development agencies in development:

Niti Aayog (formerly Planning Commission)

  1. Fostering cooperative federalism on a constant basis through organised support programmes and procedures with the States, acknowledging that strong states equal a strong nation.

  2. Develop procedures for establishing realistic plans at the village level and gradually aggregating them at higher levels of government.

  3. To ensure that the objectives of national security are incorporated into economic strategy and policy in areas that are particularly addressed to it.

  4. Pay special attention to those in our society who may be at risk of not benefiting sufficiently from economic advancement.

  5. Design and implement strategic and long-term policy and programme frameworks and initiatives, as well as track their development and effectiveness. Lessons learned through monitoring and feedback will be used to make inventive changes, including mid-course modifications if necessary.

  6. To provide guidance and stimulate collaboration between important stakeholders and like-minded think tanks, as well as educational and policy research institutions, on a national and worldwide level.

The Finance Commission of India

  1. According to the Code of Civil Procedure of 1908, the Commission will have all of the powers of a Civil Court.

  2. It has the authority to summon any witness or request the production of any public record or document from any court or government agency.

  3. It has the authority to request information or documents from anyone on any subject it deems beneficial or relevant.

  4. In carrying out its responsibilities, it can act as a civil court.

State Finance Commission

  1. The financial aspects of Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies will be examined. The State Finance Commission is expected to provide recommendations on:

  • The distribution of net revenues of state-levied taxes, charges, tolls, and fees that may be distributed between the state and the Panchayats, as well as how allocation would be made among the various levels of panchayats.

  • What taxes, levies, tolls, and fees can panchayats be charged?

  • Panchayats should be given aid.

  • The commission's report, as well as the action taken report, must be presented to the state legislature.

State Planning Board

  1. To examine the state's resources and devise plans for their efficient utilisation

  2. iTo help the District Planning Officers in the preparation of district plan proposals for inclusion in the overall Plan.

  3. Determine the state's economic growth barriers and provide solutions for resolving regional inequalities.

  4. To keep track of Plan schemes' progress and make recommendations for policy adjustments.

  5. To determine the plan's priorities.

District Planning Boards Committees

  1. Formulate a long-term district perspective plan, as well as a district-wide strategy for planned growth, based on community needs and local objectives.

  2. Prepare a priority-based list of schemes and programmes well before the start of each year, taking into consideration the plan fund's resources as well as community contributions.

  3. To take adequate measures to ensure that schemes, programmes, and projects are properly implemented.

  4. To keep track of project progress, the District Planning and Development Board may meet as often as necessary for this purpose. At regular intervals, the Board will deliver performance reports to the State Planning Board.

  5. People's cooperation will be used to produce additional resources for development projects. NGO's, NRI's, and other organisations.

Q3. Explain the role of Folk and Traditional Media in development sectors.

Ans) The role of Folk and Traditional Media in development sectors includes:

Communication is used for a variety of objectives in addition to delivering information from one person to another. It is commonly used as a tool to help people participate in a variety of developmental activities. Development communication is a common term for this type of communication. Development communication, according to Everett Rogers, an American communication theorist and sociologist, is when communication and its uses are combined for the purpose of continued development.

As a result, development communication is a strategy for providing important information to communities in order to improve their lives. Development communication has two basic functions: 1) assisting social change in accordance with the needs of current generations in a competitive market; and 2) assisting social change in accordance with the needs of current generations in a competitive market. 2) Socializing role – by attempting to uphold a few established principles in today's society.

90% of the world's population lives in developing countries, with 70% of them living in rural areas. This particular rural community is still distant from receiving effective services such as newspapers, the internet, and television. Furthermore, nearly 80% of India's rural population is illiterate, hampered by high levels of illiteracy. As a result, art is still a vital component of the process of living in traditional civilizations in many parts of rural India today. As a result, traditional and folk media, as well as diverse advances and modern messages, play an important role in connecting with the public.

They can be effective mass media in keeping tribal and illiterate people from being exploited indefinitely because they do not grasp modern communication. In India's rural villages, folk forms are extremely important. Natives in India's remote tribal and rural areas do not have access to modern media; therefore it does not successfully reach these target groups. Folk modes of communication can find their way into such settings and greatly aid and contribute to the transmission of messages that would otherwise be emitted through electronic media.

Local media is the only means of communication where print and electronic media are unavailable. Context and referentiality are always present in such media formats. Through dynamic art work and craft, previous knowledge is frequently updated and validated. All traditional media formats have wisdom, humour, and wit as core features, making it easier and more successful to communicate and interact with people. Due to active and direct communication, there is content clarity, which aids learning and understanding. As a result, conventional media formats become more impactful. Traditional media acts as a collective pressure platform by voicing people's hopes, dreams, concerns, collective desires, fears, pains, and sufferings.

As a result, it empowers people and encourages them to express themselves openly and courageously. It also tries to raise awareness about various concerns. To summarise, traditional media is a vehicle for social change, a clarion call to co-exist in civil societies, and aids in the acceleration of processes leading to betterment by imparting knowledge and information, providing entertainment alongside creating awareness, providing methodology to impart training and then validate, a vehicle for social change, a clarion call to co-exist in civil societies, and helping in the acceleration of processes leading to betterment.

Q4. How the mainstream media platforms are being utilised for the advocacy purpose of development issues.

Ans) "Sometimes dubbed the agenda-setting media since they are the ones with the big resources, they define the framework in which everyone else functions," Herman and Chomsky have contrasted mainstream media to elite media. They emphasised the propaganda model's five filters, which have entrapped media professionals to the point that no one can discern the bias in the stories. These are the filters:

  1. The ownership pattern: who owns media, how big it is, what kind of ownership it is, how much money is involved, and how much money is made.

  2. The mainstream media's reliance on advertising revenue.

  3. Relying on government, industry, and expert information provided by mainstream media (at times funded and approved by them).

  4. Enforcers and flak.

  5. As a control device, anti-communism is used.

The ownership pattern of mainstream media is critical in determining its content, which serves the interests of the system's dominant ideology. The mainstream media is big media, and it requires a lot of money, which corporate houses are best suited to provide. In general, mainstream media is controlled by corporations, but there are certain outliers in our country, where mainstream media is also controlled by families, politicians, and political parties. The mainstream media operates on a business paradigm, and recent developments show an increasing desire to maximise profit.

With the help of corporate culture, news has been transformed into an alternative media commodity that, like any other product on the market, must be marketed, packaged, and presented to the public in a captivating manner. The personal views of prime-time television news anchors are at the heart of this monetization of news. This trend has weakened the function of the mainstream media in expressing alternate viewpoints and dissenting voices.

P. Sainath, a senior journalist, thinks that "it relies on what the media perceives its social duty to be." For example, today's media sees itself as a representative of the corporate world, as it adheres to its philosophy. Indian journalism was a child of the freedom struggle in a different time, in a different epoch." He also points out that "the media is increasingly serving as stenographers to the powerful." He claims that the Indian media is politically free, but that it is nevertheless bound in by profit motives and governed by elite ideology.

Scholars in the field emphasise not just the substance of alternative media, but also the alternative corporate structure or business model that supports the goal of alternative media while not diluting the content and information. They claim that the company strategy should be centred on social change and development rather than profit.

As a result, it may be said that mainstream media promotes the status quo, whilst alternative media promotes change. When the mainstream media fails to fulfil its responsibilities, a void is formed in society, and people yearn for accurate information free of the media's biases. The goal of alternative media is to meet the information needs of audiences by providing material that reflects other points of view and opinions.

Q5. Enumerate the prominent SBCC strategies experimental in the areas of environmental campaigns. Give suitable examples.

Ans) The prominent SBCC strategies experimental in the areas of environmental campaigns are:

Creates a supportive environment in which people can begin and maintain positive behaviours.

BCC is based on the IEC method, but it focuses on individual behaviour modification rather than the combination of biology and social variables (social norms and cultural practises) that affect human interaction. Practitioners developed a deliberate, methodical, and targeted communication approach to influence social dimensions of health and wellbeing, coining the term Social and Behaviour Change Communication.

SBCC comprises the whole variety of ways in which people individually and collectively express meaning, in addition to message delivery. It's the systematic use of interactive, theory-based, and research-based communication processes and techniques to address change tipping points at the individual, community, and social levels. SBCC programmes use a variety of powerful tools, including mass media, community-level activities, IPC, information and communication technologies, and new media.

SBCC is defined as "the use of communication to positively influence knowledge, attitude, and social norms in order to change behaviour, especially service utilisation." Its goal is to alter social conditions as well as individual behaviour. It examines individual knowledge, motivation, and other behaviour change communication concepts using a complete socio-ecological model to discover tipping moments for change. It also depicts the social, cultural, and gender norms, as well as skills, physical and economic access, and regulation, all of which contribute to a favourable environment.

SBCC combines all of the previously stated development communication methodologies. It primarily employs essential social mobilisation tactics, such as community mobilisation, which fosters broader engagement, coalition building, and ownership; and behaviour change communication, which affects changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among targeted audiences.

As a result, SBCC works to maintain demand and access to services by engaging community leaders and influencers and pushing for the shift of underlying norms that impact service-seeking behaviour. Individuals and their direct social ties are dependent on wider structural and environmental systems, as shown by the addition of "S" to "BCC." Gender norms, power hierarchies (class and caste), cultural traditions, societal, organisational, political, and economic factors all have an impact on an individual's willingness to follow healthy behaviours. As a result, SBCC consists of three main components:

Communication makes efforts to simplify specific health actions, make them feasible in order to protect or improve health outcomes; Behaviour change makes efforts to simplify specific health actions, make them feasible in order to protect or improve health outcomes; and Social change brings about shifts in operationalisation of an issue, community mobilisation, public policies, and gender norms and relations based on their needs and preferences. SBCC is a social engagement, reflection, and practise approach that works on multiple levels: an individual's behaviour and practises, collective action by networks, social and cultural institutions, and a supportive environment.

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