If you are looking for MDC-003 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Media in Development Communication, you have come to the right place. MDC-003 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in PGDDC, MADJ courses of IGNOU.
MDC-003 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MDC-003/2021-22
Course Code: MDC-003
Assignment Name: Media in Development Communication
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Maximum Marks: 100
Note: Answer all the questions; they carry equal marks. (Answer in 500 Words)
Q1. Explain the basics of the Writing Methods.
Ans) The basics of the writing methods are:
The most common type of writing is expository writing. The goal of expository writing is to explain something. Grouping, classification, and definition are all important aspects of expository writing. While grouping entails making a choice, classifying entails breaking down a large issue into smaller components. Definition, on the other hand, establishes limits or boundaries, or highlights the traits that separate the object under consideration from others. Because their sole purpose is to explain, definitions are one of the purest kinds of exposition. They provide a solution to the fundamental question: “What is it?” or “What does it mean?”
Narration is mostly based on temporal order, or events occurring in a sequential order throughout time. The chronological order is the sequence in which events or activities are performed from beginning to conclusion. A skilful narrator can arrange the information in such a way that the reader's interest peaks at a certain moment in the storey. Narration can take many forms, from traditional narrative in novels and short stories to anecdotes intended to illustrate, explain, or support a point.
For special effects, an author may start his narration at the finish and then flashback to the beginning, giving the entire storey up to the end. The author can also start in the middle of a chronological sequence, narrate events leading up to the point of narration, and then finish the storey. The term "medias res" refers to the practise of starting a storey in the middle of a series of events. Both of the aforementioned methods of presenting events can be found in novels and films.
Narration is also used in description, although it is a different type of narration. It's a type of drawing that shows how someone, something, or a location, for example, seems. There are spatial dimensions in every description. Any description would follow one of two paths: either from the specific to the general, or from the general to the specific. A description of a painting, for example, could start with a core concentration on a certain aspect and then move on to other elements that are related to it, resulting in an overall image. Alternatively, one could describe the image in broad terms before focusing on specific elements within it. What is common to all types of descriptions, however, is the spatial arrangement, or how things seem and are ordered. It's similar to a film camera's long shot, where decreasing distance leads to close-ups from varied perspectives and vice versa. It's important to remember that a description can be of people, places, or processes.
In argumentative speech, the writer makes a case or conveys an opinion by considering both sides of a subject. Any structure that represents argumentation must account for the argument's pro-and-con character. There are three different types of argumentation. To begin, one can make one's own arguments by assuming a positive stance. Second, more evidence might be presented to contradict an opponent's assertions. Third, in order to undermine one's opponents' arguments, one can point out their fallacies. In order to offer one's own arguments or to undermine the opponent's arguments, strong argumentation necessitates insightful reasoning and rigorous examination of facts. When the writer has anything to say, though, this type of writing becomes engaging. Until you've given the matter some thought, your viewpoint isn't worth voicing.
Q2. Describe the basic principles and stages of television content production.
Ans) The basic principles of television content production are:
Whether it's about journalism or other genres, it's usually claimed that content is king. You cannot expect to prosper in the long run unless you produce high-quality television material for your consumers.
When it comes to television news material, there are many different varieties to choose from, depending on the nature of the news programmes.
A typical TV news channel, for example, produces news bulletins, debate-discussion shows, current-events documentaries, feature shows, interviews, and so on. While the essential principles of television content creation remain constant, different formats necessitate a different approach.
Every television and radio production, whether it's a newscast, a debate, or a documentary, must go through the three basic stages before it's finished.
The stages of television content production are:
Pre-production refers to all operations that take place prior to the start of the real production. This stage encompasses everything from conceptualization to final production preparations. Although some individuals regard Conceptualisation or Formulation to be a separate stage, it is usually just considered part of pre-production. Pre-production also include securing the necessary support personnel for the content creation process. Script writers, editors, studio directors, production assistants, camerapersons, audio operators, lighting directors, graphics designers, and other personnel may be included in this group.
The actual tangible effort on the ground is referred to as the production stage. It includes the majority of the team and may be both exhilarating and exhausting. This stage sees your notion or idea become a product. During this period, several creative tasks such as video recording, audio recording, performance, and so on are completed. In terms of writing, it may be part of pre-production or part of the production stage in some situations. To give a few instances, script writing is a part of pre-production in fiction (film production, serials, etc.). As a result, the final script writing stage is now included in the production stage. The same principle applies to news stories as well. Scripts for news stories are written after the film and bytes have been recorded, therefore writing may be regarded a component of the production step here as well.
The editing, which is done by video editors, is the most important part of post-production. Video editors must adhere to the show's script, although they are free to increase the show's effect. As a result, they are frequently placed in charge of selecting the greatest pictures, adding filler sequences, or changing the sequence of specific shots. They may need to insert some graphic elements made by the channel's graphic artists on occasion. Animations, credits, and other computer-generated content are examples of graphic components. The programme is ready for telecast whenever all of the prerequisites have been met and the editing has been completed.
Q3. Describe the importance of Social Media.
Ans) The importance of social media:
To stay in touch with friends and family: The most important aspect of social media is that it allows us to stay in touch with those we care about. You learn what your friends and family are up to. Even if you don't see each other very often, social media can help you form and maintain an emotional bond.
To share your life experiences: Social media is an excellent platform for sharing life events. On the platform, you can post images, videos, and tales. Nowadays, your virtual avatar is thought to be the real you. Sharing your accomplishments, joys, and sorrows makes you feel as if you have people who are willing to listen to you. You will feel less lonely as a result of this.
To keep up with current events and news: The majority of us use social media to keep up with current events and news. We can also use social media to provide some insight into current events. Indeed, breaking news is often disseminated these days via Twitter and WhatsApp. This medium also informs you of any new developments in your areas of interest, such as science and technology, gastronomy, lifestyle, fashion, and so on.
To express an opinion or provide feedback: If you want to buy something these days, you usually seek for consumer reviews or feedback. To make informed selections, product or service reviews are readily available on social media. Social media is a terrific way to learn about other people's perspectives while also sharing your own. Your positive or negative feedback can be readily shared on social media. Many organisations now have a dedicated social media team. This group reacts to client complaints and questions submitted through a social media platform.
To meet new people or create new friends: As more people join social media, you can make new friends and meet new people from all over the world.
To locate enjoyable content: The internet is brimming with material from a variety of categories. The most common place to find these contents based on your interests is on social media sites. It assists you in locating entertaining stuff and provides a respite from your regular routine. It has also evolved into a source of entertainment.
To create a brand, follow these steps: Given that nearly half of the world's population now uses social media, it is unquestionably one of the finest locations to establish a brand for your company. The process of brand growth and strengthening is aided by continuous client involvement. Businesses can create their own brand identity based on their target market and give it a human voice.
To raise brand recognition and uniqueness, do the following: With so much rivalry in practically every industry, companies put a lot of effort into brand awareness and differentiation. By providing their brand a distinct voice, social media can assist them in achieving this goal.
To be remembered as a brand: Social media may help you raise awareness among your target audience, differentiate yourself from your competition, and increase brand memory, to name a few things.
To increase revenue by generating leads: to boost the number of visitors to your website Research and observations Advertising
Q4. Explain the Principles of Media Ethics.
Ans) In terms of human activities, ethics is a discipline that aims to utilise reasonable and systematic rules, values, and norms to determine what is good or bad, correct, or incorrect, right, or wrong. Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, ethics differs from morality in that the latter refers to the conventions and customs that decide or govern behaviour rather than whether the activity being judged is good or bad.
Jeremy Bentham, a British jurist, philosopher, social reformer, and political radical, was the first to advocate utilitarianism as an ethical concept. "Nature has placed mankind under the rule of two sovereign lords, pain and pleasure," he said. John Stuart Mill (1806–73), an English philosopher and political economist, claimed in his book Utilitarianism, published in 1863, that ethical behaviours are those that produce the "greatest good for the greatest number of people." In this sense, utilitarianism directly contradicted the views of Niccolo Machiavelli (1469–1527), an Italian political philosopher who claimed in his essay The Prince that "the objectives justify the methods."
Consequentialism and deontology are the two main ethical theories that are usually used to determine media behaviour.
According to the Consequentialism philosophy, an action's ethical value should be determined by its repercussions. Actions themselves have no interest value, but their results might be valued. Consequentialist theories concentrate solely on the result of an action, disregarding the process by which the consequences were produced. As a result, all activities should be carefully analysed in terms of their potential consequences before being carried out. Two views can be used to evaluate the results of an action: ethical egoism and ethical altruism.
According to ethical egoism, behaviours that benefit the agent of the action might be considered ethical. Because such activities may injure others, this approach does not present a cohesive social paradigm. On the other hand, ethical altruism maintains that behaviours that help others can be regarded good. One of the most widely accepted consequentialist hypotheses is that Utilitarianism is a direct inference of consequentialism, as it is founded on an ethical altruistic perspective that is designed to achieve the greatest good for the largest number of people. The utilitarian approach is appropriate for the media since it addresses the well-being of society as a whole and hence aligns with journalism's socio-centrism.
As previously stated, utilitarianism considers ethical behaviour that is aimed to provide the greatest good for the largest number of people. Mill, who formalised Bentham's theories, maintained that an action should have as many good consequences as feasible. The utilitarian idea is similar to Mahatma Gandhi's concept of Sarvodaya, or universal wellbeing. Gandhi, on the other hand, was quick to point out that Sarvodaya was not utilitarian, because he believed that the utilitarian goal of satisfying as many people as possible was not ethical, because why should the well-being of the minority be any less valuable than that of the majority? Why should the well-being of some people be jeopardised? As a result, there are numerous arguments against consequentialism and utilitarian ethics.
Deontology emphasises a person's responsibility in determining proper action. The most prominent deontologist, Immanuel Kant, believed that the motive behind an action determined whether it was ethical or unethical. He claimed that the only right intention was to perform in a duty-like manner. This is the responsibility that can be claimed to be good in all circumstances. He believed that the one virtue that was good without qualification was 'goodwill.' Acts of benevolence are motivated by a sense of moral obligation and respect for the law. This is an important notion for the media to understand because it is the media's responsibility to serve the public by giving objective information that advances knowledge and reason.
Journalists have a lot of responsibilities, but there's no assurance that they'll all be in sync. The duty to serve the public, the need to safeguard sources, and the duty of loyalty to the employer can often be in moral and ethical conflict for an honest and sincere journalist. There are no simple solutions to such problems. To select the most suitable course of action, it is necessary to be knowledgeable with all facets of these ethical theories. As a result, knowing the ramifications of a report before publishing or broadcasting it is critical for a journalist.
Q5. Describe the conceptual and legal frameworks of Human Rights.
Ans) The conceptual frameworks of Human Rights:
Individual and ‘Society’ Rights Theories
With a single example of a new-born baby, you can grasp all three elements. A 'baby' enters the world with the right to life; because 'baby' is a caste, class, and/or gender-neutral term, s/he has the right to equality at birth; a baby moves, cries, smiles, and expresses herself at will, thus 'life' and 'liberty' are given to her by 'nature'; natural resources provide her with air, shelter, and food, which constitute 'property.' However, as a result of community/caste/class/gender ties, power begins to play a part in his/her later life, which is usually associated with a monopoly on economic resources.
Rights theorists from the 17th and 18th centuries have a good explanation for this scenario. Natural rights were viewed by Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau as liberties that individuals faced when their interests collided. Liberal economists and thinkers such as John Stuart Mill, Adam Smith, and David Ricardo eventually advocated for decentralisation of power in individuals (citizens), groups, organisations, the market, and the media, rather than the state.
Negative and Positive Rights Theory
A detailed examination of human rights yields a new set of theories known as the "positive and negative rights" theory. Negative rights are individual liberty obtained by 'non-interference' by others, according to rights legislation and practise. "Every man has the freedom to do whatever he wants, as long as he does not infringe on the equal freedom of every other man," says Herbert Spencer. The right to vote, for example, is a prime example of first-generation rights, sometimes known as "political rights." Positive rights are "social safeguards against actual and threatened deprivations of at least some basic necessities," according to Henry Shue.
Duties and Rights
Giuseppe Mazzini (Duties of Man) is an Italian philosopher who focuses on individual duties rather than rights. The right of one person affects the obligation of another, and vice versa. They are in relation to one another. "Rights are a means of regulating human behaviour," argues David Boersema. With the example of a clean environment, you can grasp the concept. Because the right to life is contingent on good health, it is everyone's responsibility to employ clean energy mechanisms to contribute to a pollution-free environment.
The legal frameworks of Human Rights:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, included in the United Nations Charter, encapsulates the entire ideology of human rights. Individual inherent negative rights, social-state-responsibility-based positive rights, and individual duties are all included in the articles. As a result, they are entirely focused on the right to life, dignity, and protection. These can be categorised as follows:
Natural/Birth Rights (Articles 1–5): Right to equality, life, liberty, security, and dignity; right to be free from slavery and cruelty.
Positive rights granted by the state (Article 6- 12) include the right to equal protection under the law, as well as other legislation relating to justice.
Personal liberty-based rights (Articles 13-20): right to privacy and honour; freedom of travel and residence; nationality; right to marry, have a family, and own property; freedom of thought, expression, and religion
Political Rights (Articles 21-22): Right to peaceful assembly/association and participation in government.
Right to social security, work, economic stability, education, cultural life, and social order (Articles 23-28).
Individual and state obligations (Articles 29-30): Individual and state obligations to maintain an environment conducive to the enjoyment of human rights by all members of society.
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